Analyzing the results of scientific research in the field of education and training of flight crews, the causes of accidents and violations of flight laws, as well as studying the causes of loss of flight motivation, it must be stated that the psychological cause of these negative phenomena is often weak professionalism. This refers not to the actual facts of mistakes in management, but to higher levels: the spiritual poverty of the student’s personality, the stereotyped pedagogical forms of preparation, the underdeveloped moral and moral principles of behavior when planning the risk level for subordinates.
SPECIFIC FEATURES OF HAZARDOUS PROFESSION
Professionalism in aviation - This is a guarantee of flight safety; it, like everything in aviation, has its own specific features. This is the basic fundamental property of an aviator as a person and the basis of not only flying longevity, but also life.
In each profession there are three categories of its development - employees, specialists and professionals.
Professionalism is the highest category of quality that cannot be revealed only by the service marks of a profession. Why? If we understand professional as a professional who has reached the pinnacle of excellence, then its quality will be determined primarily by executive performance in accordance with the standardized task and only secondarily by the activity of the subject of labor.
A professional specialist is a person who has achieved a high level of skill, allowing him to complete a task with the required quality, to reliably and effectively achieve a stable result. The basis for the training of such a specialist is based on the knowledge, skills and abilities in accordance with the profession of his actions. The mechanism for achieving high results are training according to a given program. Thus, if the introduced concept of "professionalism" is reduced to the concept of "specialist", then the leading (system-forming) quality is predestination, that is, normalization, of actions. Pedagogical support of the mechanism of training will then be diligence, and the methodological content of training will be stereotype, pattern, training. The practice of many professions has shown that following this setup provides an opportunity to prepare a specialist of a sufficiently high level.
However, for the formation of professionalism, ensuring guaranteed success and safety of life and work in dangerous professions, this approach is only conditional. The fact is that the psychological addition to the professionally important qualities of a specialist in a dangerous profession is the realization that professional knowledge, skills, and abilities are not the central link of the personality, but only a means of developing their capabilities and essential forces. That is why for dangerous professions professionalism is a system of personal, ideological, business, professional, moral and moral qualities of a person. The core of the moral imperative here is the morality of asceticism, for which self-preservation is not in the foreground.
A dangerous profession requires from a person, firstly, constant socio-psychological readiness to work in extreme conditions, secondly, the presence of pronounced innate psycho-physiological inclinations, thirdly, an extremely plastic nervous system that allows you to permanently form flexible neuropsychiatric connections, new functional properties , providing processes such as imaging, intuition and anticipation. In the dangerous profession there is a constantly acting factor - the process of actualization of those deep reserves of the soul and body that measured life on earth practically does not claim. In other words, we are talking only about the acquisition of a certain redundancy of degrees of freedom - both in space and in time. The principal feature of the dangerous profession is that a person in front of danger cannot cover the face of a “biological chador”. He must not only be able to avoid danger, but also overcome it, if it is inevitable, not adapt, but transform the situation (task) into a state of controllability, that is, transfer his life activity to another space.
Professionalism is confirmed by the human need for a voluntary, free choice of one’s destiny: to overcome oneself, to take risks in the interests of others. Developed conscience, discipline and self-discipline, vitality and will - these are the first moral steps in the pilot’s personality (especially military) to the heights of moral value: to protect someone else’s life. Thus, the personality of a professional matures within himself, and only then her sensible and sensual content acquires socially significant and professional motivation. It follows from this that the main component of professionalism is in human genes. For a professional pilot, in my understanding, “spiritual space” is not a metaphor, but the social reality of his relationship with his conscience. This is the system property that distinguishes a professional from a specialist.
RISK IS NOT A BREAKDOWN
The psychological content of the flyer's inner world is that it is shaped by the love of flight, the need for spiritual freedom. Such spiritual freedom is opposed to spiritual deafness. The concept of "professionalism" is multidimensional, multi-layered. This is a measure of maturity, consciousness, integrity of nature, the message of good. Maturity begins with the formation of the pilot's personality, the essence of which is in the central interest, the vital attitude - to fly. Profession - fate!
Professionalism as a state of mind creates a desire to expand its capabilities. And what does this mean in a dangerous profession? This achievement of mastery by expanding the boundaries of risk, that is, increasing the likelihood of encountering a situation that requires going beyond its psycho-physiological capabilities. In this case, the danger itself forms the character of a person in conditions of increased risk, being a feature of his maturity and reliability.
Risk is not frivolity, but will, which sets before the mind the task of getting out of a dangerous non-standard situation. The motivation for self-improvement with the risk to your life in this case is moral, because the master professional sees his ultimate goal in ensuring the safety of other people’s life.
Even at the very beginning of the development of a specialist, cognitive interest in the unknown nourishes professionalism. Cognitive interest in non-standard, unusual easily suppresses the feeling of fear, develops the ability to stay ahead of events, forms a vital setting not only for execution, but also for a creative decision. This is the essence of psychological protection from the constant stressful impact of flight work, this is the source of professional and human reliability of the pilot.
The right to conscious risk is one of the ethical components of flight professionalism. In the flight profession, the risk is not only the actions themselves, but also the condition for improving their skills. Risk is also a tool for overcoming natural human weakness in the face of danger. The risk in this case is a psychological, conscious in its psychological essence, protective action in suppressing subconscious fear and unpleasant sensations. The risk in a dangerous profession acts as a test for the professional maturity of a professional. In the risk of a professional, there is much more intelligence and determination than of sacrifice; in risk there is a supra-individual risk: to become a “non-terrestrial” being for a time. And this is the cosmogonic essence of flight professionalism.
The state of mind - the lifting power of professional reliability. It is achieved primarily through self-improvement, self-regulation and self-development.
Actually, spiritual independence forms another quality of flight professionalism - psycho-physiological readiness for vital activity in an unusual environment. To ensure professionalism, special functional organs are needed, mechanisms that ensure flexible adaptability of the organism to the change of the sign of gravity, to a new assessment of space and time, to an instant restoration of the distorted perception of its spatial position, the ability of the psyche to work in conditions of interference, close to the useful signal, in terms of decision equally motivated tasks.
In other words, a person must not only learn a profession, but also constantly retrain. The nervous system, analyzers, metabolic processes bring to a new specific level of functioning that exceeds earth standards. This means that in order to achieve a high level of professionalism, it is necessary to have professional health, that is, the ability to maintain performance under the conditions of exposure to both normal stimuli and those that are not encountered in the practice of mortal life. At the same time, we note that 12 – 18% of flight crews flying in clouds experience an unbearably obsessive illusion of an “inverted flight”, more than 40% are familiar with the phenomenon of the perception of stars as aeronautical lights of a flying aircraft, no less than 25% experience the illusion of stopping the flow of time, “freezing” "Space," swelling "horizon, etc. Or, say, the ability not to lose consciousness while performing aerobatics, when, with an increase in gravity, the blood moves to the lower part of the body and the person rises systolic pressure to 250 mm Hg. Art. In flight on a maneuverable plane, a person physically sees the earth from above, and the sky below and at the same time, being in a firm mind, feels that his pelvis is at the usual place. And all this falls on his poor consciousness, which should translate this quasimir, as a translator, into the true world.
And one more feature of the professionalism of the flight profession: the preservation of flight longevity. A specific feature of the flight profession is the constant retraining of new aircraft in the conditions when it is necessary to form at least 30 – 40% skills for working with consoles and advanced systems.
The new technology makes its own demands on the person, the most important of which is to implement the ideas laid by the designers in the aircraft. It is here that the highest quality of a professional, creative potency, dynamic characteristics of the psyche, different strength, controlled natural talent manifest themselves.
Thus, the core of professionalism is the individual, and its leading professionally important quality is the intellect. But the generating support of flight professionalism is still the spirituality of a person as a living connection between time and space: where we were, where we are now and where we will be.
Consider not the substantive content of professionalism, but moral.
The pilot profession is dangerous and risky, and only secondarily romantic. It requires from man in addition to the fact that nature has given him, constant improvement of her psyche, her body, her spirit and will. The education of flight professionalism begins with the formation of the student’s personality. However, in aviation schools, the psychology of educating the personality of a future pilot remains on the periphery of teachers' attention. But from the position of the psychology of professionalism, the assimilation of applied subjects should precede or go in parallel with it the formation of a central interest, a life orientation on the flight profession. Even at the initial pilot training stage, the pedagogical support of the process of acquiring professionalism lies in the spiritual foundation of the moral imperative in the form of a life alternative.
What or who is up against a dangerous factor in flight? Most say: "The crew that executes the rules, instructions." But the psychological essence of this truth is that, first, the crew, outside of any “must”, subjectively assesses the inconsistency of the flight regime with the limits of the accepted norm. This means that the danger itself, its depth and magnitude depend on the sensual and volitional principle laid down in the pilot, on its moral core. By this I affirm that anyone, both rationed and non-rationalized, threatens with no living machine filled with instructions, but the inner world of the pilot and the ethical standards of the aviation community, that is, the proportions of good and evil, which constitute the moral climate.
Above it was said enough that not only flight abilities, but also professionalism (any) begins with a person. The personality, in turn, develops when it begins to think in moral categories of good and evil. These scientifically based assumptions, facts, observations of life should be deeply absorbed. It is the awareness of the above that will help to assimilate another, no less important, statement that the principle of responsibility, which obliges the pilot strictly and strictly to follow the rules, reliably works only when the pilot’s individuality is given a spiritual vector of responsibility. Behind these common assumptions are solid experimental data concerning the training and development of the pilot’s personality.
In the context of the commercialization of social relations, if the targets are achieved, the pilot’s personality can be preserved only if the spiritual flying climate is maintained. Only then will a more or less harmonious transformation of the goal of commerce into a socially useful activity become possible. The experience of scientists of the Scientific Research Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine for studying the formation of professionally important qualities in pilots has shown that it is the educational orientation to virtuous activity that allows for the most profound discovery of creative abilities in their individual refraction. At the same time, the sober assessment of today's life makes us admit that the market economy has raised the role of a person’s independence factor and his creative activity. It is competition that pushes self-actualization, self-assertion of the individual.
A professional, as has already been said, begins with spiritual abilities - with assessing, self-assessing and predicting one's own capabilities, ethical, that is, moral, approach to choosing alternatives to risky decisions. Famous researcher in the field of abilities academician Vladimir Shadrikov came to the conclusion that without the ability of the spirit it is difficult to manifest other abilities! Each creative principle contains spiritual, and not vice versa. My personal experience with outstanding test test pilots on the ground and in flight confirms these thoughts. Professionals, by the grace of God “condemned” to heaven, are characterized by vitality, the passion of creativity, conscientiousness and the freedom to make decisions while protecting someone else’s life. An indicator of the culture of a professional is the desire to enrich with knowledge, his social maturity - “freedom as a recognized need”.
But most importantly, whatever the flight abilities and natural inclinations, a pilot without a corresponding spiritual culture cannot become a professional in the broad sense of the word. In the entire aviation infrastructure, among the many components of professionalism, culture is the Achilles' heel. The commercialization of flight work has particularly aggravated lack of culture, manifested primarily in the neglect of knowledge about a person, his personality, his physiological norms and psychophysical abilities. But everybody is trying to teach a pilot, to some degree or other they are controlled by using mainly administrative tools.
How to grow cultural pilots?
One of the options. In the licensing system to introduce a minimum of aviation medicine and psychology. It is extremely necessary to create a “departmental” institute for the psychophysical training of flight crews in order to increase knowledge about oneself. Scientists today can offer flight personnel the latest technology for assessing their professionally important qualities, professional health assessment, as well as technical tools for building spatial orientation, decision making under time pressure and uncertain information, computer diagnostics of the level of psychophysical reserves, a system of psychophysical training, restoring nutrition. , methods of psychological preparation and self-management, etc. Today we need a request for all this. Airline executives must learn - a healthy, cultured professional pilot on an unreliable technique will fly to the airfield; unhealthy, uncultured pilot and reliable technology can not fly.