Military Review

Tu-16: aircraft era. Part II. From birth to the series

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In the Tupolev design bureau, during the preliminary design of the 88 project (this internal designation was received by the future famous Tu-16), dozens of variants of various layouts were worked out. As a result, we chose a variant with two turbofan engines by A. Lyulki AL-5, located in nacelles pressed to the sides of the fuselage, for further development.

The search for the Tupolev design bureau of the optimal variant of the new jet machine with tactical and technical characteristics exceeding those stated in the IL-46 project was quite positively received by the Air Force Command and the government of the country. The OKB issued an official task to develop a new OKB AN bomber. Tupolev. In the summer of 1950, the relevant Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers and the MAP order were issued, on the basis of which Tupolev was assigned to create a long-range jet bomber equipped with two TRDs of the TR-ZF type (previously called TR-ZA) in the AL-5 series, having take-off thrust in 5000 kg. In these documents was also provided for the development of the aircraft under the two engines A. Mikulin AMRD-03 with a maximum thrust to 8000 kg.

The difficult task of determining the dimension of the machine and the subsequent aerodynamic as well as constructive layout was finally solved as a result of the large number of parametric studies conducted, extensive model experiments and field tests. In the course of these works, it quickly became clear that the total thrust of the two ALD-5 TRDs to ensure the specified characteristics was clearly insufficient, and the designers decided to switch to the two AMRD-03 TRDs (in the series received the name AM-3); four engines AL-5. In February 1951, A.N. Tupolev chose for further design on a version that has two AM-3 engines. But it is worth noting that the issue with the power plant for the Tu-16 was finally resolved several months later, after this powerful engine became a reality.

Active work on the 88 aircraft project began in mid-June 1950, and in September, after the transition to the power plant based on the AM-3 engines, the tactical and technical requirements for the new machine were supplemented by relevant instructions from the Air Force. The overall design was officially completed at the end of April 1951, when the prepared draft design was transferred to the Air Force Technical Committee. Draft design of a bomber with AM-03 jet engines. The customer finally approved 5 of July of the same year.

A great influence on the aerodynamic perfection of the airship was exerted by the unusual for those times layout of the central part of the machine, where the fuselage-wing-air intake-engine-chassis mated, which fully complied with the aerodynamic "area rule" actively started to be introduced into the aircraft-building world practice only from 1954 year, with the advent of an experienced fighter YF-102А, on which the Americans managed to make a steady supersonic flight. Only after changing the basic design with this rule. It was then that the Americans to the whole world declared themselves the pioneers of this law of aerodynamics, it happened three years after its use in the project of the 88 aircraft. It should be noted that the “space rule” in various forms was used in the design of Tupolev machines before, it is enough to pay attention to the somewhat inflated front part of the fuselage of the Tu-2 bomber, or the expanded nacelles of the first Tupolev jet machines - “77”, “73-81” . On the “88 plane”, the use of the “space rule” was manifested in the form of compression of the side gondolas of the turbojet engines in the wing area and in the use of chassis gondolas located on the wing in the form of “displacement bodies”. In combination with other aerodynamic techniques, this allowed, after the installation of the RD-3M turbofan engine, to obtain during testing the maximum speed equal to 1040 km / h (0,92М).

The technical features of the new Tupolev Design Bureau should also mention the design solutions for the wing. For the bomber, the designers chose a wing with a large extension (of the order of 7). By design, it was a two-spar scheme, while the walls of the side members, together with the outer (upper and lower) wing skin panels, formed a caisson, which is the main force element. The presence of a powerful hard caisson was the principal difference in the design of the Tu-16 bomber wing from the design of the well-known overseas jet bombers of the Boeing B-47 and B-52 company. On American machines, the wing was made flexible, due to which the counter-vertical vertical gusts were extinguished, due to a significant bend (the cantilever was deflected by several meters) and deformations of the wing. The scheme chosen by Soviet designers with a tougher wing of the Tu-16 aircraft proved to be better, being more promising than the American scheme widely advertised by Americans as an outstanding design solution. The wing of the Soviet aircraft in flight was not greatly deformed due to the reduced stress level. In the following years, the long-term operating experience of one and a half thousand Tu-16 and two hundred Tu-104 in the USSR and the experience of flying B-47, B-52 bombers in the USA, as well as Boeing 707, Douglas DS-8 and Convertible 880 passenger aircraft showed that The domestic design of the less flexible wing has a significantly greater survivability, especially in terms of fatigue strength. In the US, there were a lot of problems with the wing planes B-47 and B-52, on which fatigue cracks developed, which caused accidents and flight stoppages for the entire fleet with additional costs for reworking and reinforcing the wing structure. Now it is not a secret that the relatively rapid decommissioning of the B-47, which had generally good characteristics, was largely due to the “weak” wing.

Tu-16: aircraft era. Part II. From birth to the series

Considering that Tu-16 was considered as the first distant mass domestic carrier of atomic weapons (several dozen carriers of the first Soviet nuclear bombs Tu-4A, which were at one time in operation, could hardly be called a reliable atomic "shield of deterrence"), the designers of the OKB, TsAGI and other related organizations related to the atomic problem were assigned the task of ensuring the safety of the Tu-16 in explosions of nuclear and, subsequently, thermonuclear ammunition.

It should be noted that the design of the bomber, the choice of structural materials, target equipment and systems, as well as production technologies were selected and worked out on the basis of the real capabilities of the Soviet aviation industry of that time and the conditions for the possibility of rapid deployment of mass production and mass operation. This approach made it possible to create a modern aviation shock system, which became one of our main deterrents in the fifties.

All the work on the Tu-16, from the very first prototype machine to the most extreme production and development options, and their order was 50 (together with the experimental machines there were almost 100), the main designer was headed by D.S. Markov.

At the end of April 1952, an experienced 88 / 1 made a flight that lasted 12 minutes. Factory tests ended on October 29 1952 of the year; in total, 46 flights of the total duration of 72 hours 12 minutes of mines were made during them.

Along with encouraging indicators, it is impossible not to note the "fly in the ointment" in the form of unsatisfactory range indicators and take-off and landing data. According to these characteristics, the "eighty-eighth" did not reach the values ​​specified in the TTZ, which was especially critical given the purpose of the aircraft. This trouble was discovered by the summer of 1952, after several weeks of factory testing. The reasons were not a secret - the machine was rather heavy in the course of design and manufacturing. As a result of the control weighing, it turned out that the weight of the empty aircraft reached 41050 kg versus the calculated 35750 kg, and this even without taking into account equipment and armament not mounted on an experimental machine. Take-off weight increased to 77350 kg, and in the original project it was planned no more than 64000 kg. Excess weight on 20% affected the flight data, threatening the natural dissatisfaction of the military customers and leadership of the country. According to the characteristics of the technical range, the aircraft did not reach 400 km to the target, and the flight altitude above the target instead of the agreed 13000 m did not exceed 12200 m. The length of the plane’s takeoff exceeded the one set by 520 m.
13 November 1952, the car was passed to state tests, which took place from mid-November 1952 year to 1 April 1953, for a relatively short period of time on an experienced "88 / 1" conducted 79 flights, total duration 167 h 28 minutes. Even during the factory tests, before obtaining the results of state tests, it was decided to master the "88 aircraft" in mass production.

The reason for overweight during the design was the reinsurance of strength engineers, designers. Indeed, in the event of the loss of an experienced car, the Ilyushins could have been able to get so far ahead that the correction of the error and further work on the aircraft already lost its meaning. Everyone tried to hedge: in the course of the calculations, an ordinary designer sketched “just in case” the order of 5%, his manager, driven by the same motives, a little more, etc. As a result, the take-off weight increased by almost 10 tons. In this case, of course, it is worth considering the influence of the initial installation - to design an airship for two engine variants, 2-4 TRD AL-5 or 2-X AM-3, which also led to the introduction of excess mass in the project. As you can see, the reserves to deal with the weight of the aircraft was enough.

These reserves were effectively implemented during the construction of the second prototype flight, the “88 / 2 aircraft”, which was manufactured according to the same government and air force assignments as the first one, but without exact dates. Initially, the car was supposed to be just the “understudy” of the first flight copy, but by August 1951, when the 88 / 1 was almost ready, and it became clear to all that the plane was overweight, the designers were given the task of maximally reducing the weight of the empty machine. Now work has begun on the creation of many structural elements of an almost new aircraft. As a result of the work carried out by designers and technologists, the mass of the empty machine was reduced by 12,5% to 36490 kg - for aviation, where the struggle is over every kilogram, this is a very impressive result.

Design work on the “Doubler” began in August 1951 of the year, in parallel, the manufacture of the aircraft began at the pilot plant No. XXUMX. And the design of the new lightweight aircraft was completed in November 156 of the year. The revised working drawings of the lightened aircraft were fully prepared by the OKB for December 1952. The second prototype, the 1952 / 88 aircraft, was made at the start of the new 2 of the year. By March, all the necessary development work on the backup aircraft was completed, and 1953 in March 14 sent the car to factory flight tests, which ended in early September. The car, after all the improvements, was presented on September 1953 for control state tests, and on September 16 the plane was accepted by the military.

The control state tests of 10 on April 1954 of the year ended, almost a year after the first take-off of the “understudy”. During state tests, the car made 65 flights, flying in general 154 hours. 33 minutes. "The 88 / 2 aircraft" with good performance passed state tests and 28 in May 1954 was adopted by our Air Force.

Serial production of Tu-16 bomber, as originally planned, was launched in 1953 year. Successively, aircrafts of various modifications produced three serial aircraft plants: Kazan No. XXUMX, Kuibyshev No. XXUMX and Voronezh No. XXUMX. In addition, other serial aircraft factories participated in the production of parts of the airframe elements. Hundreds of specialized plants of the Ministry of Aviation Industry and other ministries, which supplied systems, equipment and various components, for mass production of Tu-22б were included in the production process of this machine, advanced for its time. The serial production of the Tupolev machine continued until the end of the 1. In total for 64 years 1 machines were manufactured, moreover, another 1963 prototype aircraft was built at plant No. 10.

The first mass production of the Tu-16 was mastered by the Kazan Plant No. 22, which produced the Tu-1947 bombers from 4. This aircraft plant became the head of the series Tu-16 for aircraft factories No. XXUMX and No. XXUMX.

The first production car was manufactured in Kazan on October 29 1953 of the year, and by the end of the year it was transferred to the customer of the 2 aircraft. In 1954, the factory already produced 70 machines. In 1955, Kazan gave the country 200 machines, in 1956 - 133, in 1957 - 170 and in 1958 - 75. From 1953-th to 1959-th year, the plant produced the following aircraft variants: Tu-16 bomber, Tu-16А nuclear bomber carrier, Tu-16X launch vehicle, Tu-16 Jolka aircraft carrier. In 1958, Kazan began mass production of the passenger liner Tu-104B. In the next 1959, this plant began to switch to serial production of the Tu-22, and the production of the Tu-16 at aircraft plant No. XXUMX temporarily stopped.

From 1957 to 1959 years, a number of experienced and pre-production missile carriers for the Navy Aviation of the Tu-16K-10 type were produced at the Kazan plant, which were obtained by re-equipment of the serial Tu-16. Starting from 1959, the Tu-16K-10 missile-carrier series was deployed at aircraft plant No. XXUMX, and in 1, due to the conversion of the Kuybyshevsky plant to the production of rocket technology, the missile-carrier series was restored at factory No. 1961. The latest copies of the Tu-22K-16 were manufactured on the eve of 10.

From May 1961, the USSR began to release a new engine modification - RD-ЗМ-500 with an increased resource. An emergency mode of operation of the engine with the 10600 kgf engine was introduced, which was intended in case a failure of one of the aircraft's engines took off. The operating time of the turbofan engines in this mode was limited to two minutes, which allowed to overcome the critical situation, but the RD-ZM-500 then required major repairs. The warranty life of the RD-ZM-500 engines was initially 500 hours, and then it was reduced to 2000 hours.

September 19 issued a Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, and September 25 1953 - the corresponding order of the Ministry of aviation industry to expand serial production of the "sixteenth", which indicated the beginning of serial production at the aircraft plant number XXUMX in Kuybyshev (now Samara). In July, 1, this plant manufactured the first Tu-1954. In total, 16 aircraft were launched in 1955 in Kuibyshev, 130 in 1956, 131 in 1957, 150 in 1958, 50 in 1959 and in 30. From 1960-th to 42-th plant No.1961 led the mass production of missile-carrying Tu-1962K-1. The latest copies of the "Sixteenth" aircraft plant №16 were handed over in June 10 of the year. In just 1 years, 1959 Tu-5 series of various modifications were released.

As for the cost of the Tu-16, it depended on the performance, and the configuration of the machines differed from the manufacturing plants. Therefore, it is easier to focus on the cost of export machines. In 1967, the Tu-16Р aircraft from among those supplied to Egypt was valued at 800.508 in foreign currency rubles, which was comparable to the cost of the MiG-21 fighter.

In addition to the main production of the Tu-16 aircraft, all of the specified serial plants actively participated in ongoing programs for the modification and modernization of the Tu-16 aircraft, re-equipping production machines into new versions for various purposes, or producing component parts and assemblies for reworking in operating and repair parts Air Force It is worth noting that, in addition to 11 produced serial versions, there were about 50 modifications of the "sixteenth", which were obtained by modifications in the system.

In winter, 1954, the first copies of the Tu-16 began to arrive in the long-range aviation, and naval aviation. At that time, in its main characteristics, the aircraft corresponded to the level of the world's best bombers. He had modern equipment, and besides, he stood out among the machines of the same type with exceptionally powerful and rationally placed defensive armament. Similar American and British machines had, at best, a single feed installation. The “sixteenth” had defensive armament with three cannon installations: the upper DT-B7, the lower DT-H7 and the stern DK-7. Each of the installations was armed with a pair of TKB-495A guns (AM-23) developed in TsKB-14. The authorship of the guns belonged to the gunsmiths of the Tula TsKB-14 N.M. Afanasyev and N.F. Makarov (the famous creator of the pistol PM). Replacing the guns was dictated by their significant advantages over those previously provided for by the HP-23; the rate of fire of the new guns and the second salvo were one and a half times higher. The turnaround speed of the units was at least 45 degrees per second, which allowed firing at high-speed, highly manoeuvrable targets. The guns had a shortened barrel to ensure the required mobility in conditions of high-speed air flow. At the same time, the gun, in a fixed bow installation PU-88, had an elongated one and a half meter trunk. The upper set of ammunition was 500 cartridges, the bottom one was 700, and the stern was 1000 cartridges. For shooting used a radar sight "Argon".

A public presentation of the Tu-16 took place on 1 on May 1954 of the year, during the aviation component of the parade over Red Square. The 9 bombers of the 203 heavy bombing regiment passed over Moscow in dense formation. The show was also watched by military attaches from many countries of the world who were present at the parade. It is interesting to give an estimate of the “sixteenth” by foreign experts: the bomb load was called equal to 9000 kg and was estimated quite accurately, as was the take-off weight of the bomber, from 70000 to 80000 kg. The range was determined to be equal to the entire 4800 km, and the engines, in their opinion, developed a maximum thrust of 6800 kg each. Even so, the Soviet TRD was called the most powerful in the world at that time. Western experts could not even imagine how far we were able to step forward on the planet in creating powerful TRDs, underestimating the correct figures, almost one and a half times. Even more entertaining was the statement by Western aviation experts that "a certain number of aircraft of this type are used as air defense fighters to protect the most important objects."

The operational implementation of the "sixteenth" in the series went along with the fine-tuning of its design, ensuring reliable operation of the machine and bringing its resource indicators to the required values. All this was the result of constant hard work of the OKB staff, who headed the chief designer of the Tu-16 DS Markov.

Half a century of successful operation of a huge family of Tu-16 in a variety of difficult conditions has become an excellent test of the quality of various domestic aviation materials; from lightweight high-strength alloys to plastics and electrical insulating materials used in the electrical system. "Tu-sixteenth" became for the Soviet aviation science a pioneer in the class of heavy jets. In the course of its testing and further operation, a number of theoretical problems were uncovered, which were promptly and successfully resolved, opening the way for the further development of domestic aviation. The successful mass operation of the Tu-16 made it possible to firmly enter the Soviet aircraft construction of the swept wing scheme for heavy-duty machines of various classes and provided invaluable practical information for the creation of subsequent heavy machines that were designed and built in the OKB design bureau. Tupolev.

For our Air Force, the Tu-16 became the first machine of the Long-Range Aviation, where domestic combatant pilots were able to reach subsonic speeds. The pilots of long-range aviation and naval aviation, in the fifties, could honestly claim to serve on one of the most advanced combat aircraft in the world. In the Soviet Air Force, the Tu-16 became the first, truly mass, long-distance carrier of atomic weapons, and in addition, the first long-range high-speed rocket-carrying aircraft. On these machines, for the first time in large numbers, Soviet pilots mastered and used the in-flight refueling system. Operation of the "sixteenth" in the air force units provided an opportunity to train highly qualified personnel of the flight and ground personnel, ensuring a smooth transition to high-speed heavy combat vehicles of the next generation, such as the Tu-22, Tu-22M and Tu-160. Also, it was the Tu-16 crews who easily transferred to the first passenger jet Tu-104, having largely solved the problems with personnel in the domestic civil air fleet, during the introduction of the new jet technology.

The Tu-16 actively flew until the end of the eighties, standing up in one row in terms of operating time with such famous cars as the overseas B-52 and our Tu-95, but unlike other long-livers, the “sixteenths” were treated with a minimum of large design modifications.

In the course of production, more than 50 versions of various types of Tu-16 were mastered. Below are only the main part of the modifications.

Tu-1А (1954 year) The carrier of nuclear weapons. The aircraft bomb bay was equipped with a heating system. Produced by 453 aircraft.

The Tu-16X (1954) missile carrier armed with two anti-ship missiles KS-1, which were developed in the OKB-155 A.I. Mikoyan. KS-1 had a starting weight in 2766 kg. The launch range was 80 km. First of all, the system was designed to fight the enemy aircraft carriers.

Tu-16 (1955) A refueling aircraft for aerial refueling of Tu-16 bombers of other modifications. In total, more than 100 serial machines were converted.

Tu-16PS (1955) Jammer.

Tu-16P (1956) Photo Intelligence. The aircraft was equipped with seven aerial cameras, an active jamming station and equipment for conducting electronic reconnaissance of the CPC-3, located in the underwing suspension containers.

Tu-16B (1957) It was an experienced aircraft, which was tested TRD RD-16 with a maximum thrust 11 000 kgf. The characteristics of the aircraft has increased markedly. The project envisaged the achievement of a flight range in 7200 km and speeds up to 1050 km / h. Serially the car was not made.

Tu-16P (1957) Jammer. In the bomb bay of the machine, four stations were mounted for active jamming.

Tu-16 "Yolka" (1957) The director of passive interference, the plane housed machines for cutting and emitting dipole reflectors.

Tu-16T (1957) Torpedo aircraft. The car had the ability to carry torpedoes, depth bombs, aircraft mines. In the late sixties, almost all Tu-16T were converted into anti-submarine Tu-16PL.

Tu-16K-10 (1961) A missile carrier armed with one anti-ship missile K-10С capable of carrying a nuclear warhead.

Tu-16K-16 (1962 g.) A missile carrier with two KSR-2 anti-ship missiles.

(On the whole, the family of rocket-carrying aircraft and specialized vehicles created on the basis of the Tu-16 deserves a separate large article, which will be prepared some time later.)

The appearance of a bomber in the Soviet Union, a new long-range bomber, very soon aroused interest among foreign customers. Almost all of them belonged to countries that were undergoing revolutionary changes, which were so rich in the political life of the fifties. It was also common that all these countries urgently needed to replenish and update their arsenals - both for the realization of their own ambitions and the existence of conflicts with neighboring states, and for “protecting the revolution” from the “bearers of democracy”. Therefore, an uncommon bomber in its characteristics and combat capabilities turned out to be very attractive for a number of states focused on our country. And it was precisely abroad that the Tu-16 had a chance to “smell gunpowder”, but this is in the next part.

To be continued ...

Rigmant V. How was created Tu-16. About the predecessors of the great aircraft // Wings of the Motherland. 2002. No.5. C. 18-25.
Markovskiy V., Prikhodchenko I. The missile carrier Tu-16. The triumph of the Soviet aviation industry. M .: Yauza, 2015. C.174-191.
Rigmant V. Tu-16. Birth of a long-liver // Aviation and cosmonautics. 2002. No.5. C. 20-28.
Gordon E., Kudryavtsev V., Rigmant V. Legendary Tu-16 // Aviation and Time. 2001. No.1. C.4-24.
Gordon E., Kudryavtsev V., Rigmant V. Legendary Tu-16 // Aviation and Time. 2001. No.2. C.4-22.
Yakubovich N., Artemyev A. Tupolev Tu-16. Long-range bomber and missile carrier. M .: AST, 2001. C.12-34, 48-97, 111-122.
Articles from this series:
Reactive masterpiece SV Ilyushin.
The difficult fate of the Tu-14.
TU-95. From the history of "Russian bear".
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  1. Bayonet
    Bayonet 30 March 2016 06: 36
    Airplane era! His reincarnation, successfully flies in China.
    1. self-propelled
      self-propelled 30 March 2016 10: 01
      It called long-range strategic bomber H-6
      machine carrying 12000kg. payload (mainly 6 long-range cruise missiles CJ-10 or (in the version of anti-ship defense) anti-ship missiles C201)

    2. qwert
      qwert 30 March 2016 10: 03
      Remember the phrase in the movie "Case Squared 36-80", when the shooter turned the upper installation to the type "American Neptune" ... "That's it, we're dumping. Otherwise, we will be blown to hell ..."
      Here they are, it would seem outdated, seven trunks of caliber 23mm. B-47 could not boast of such, British aircraft even more so. And having on board the weight of these towers, the carcass was not inferior to the American car
      1. wanderer_
        wanderer_ 30 March 2016 10: 45
        I watched a good film again (I don’t remember which dozens) .... Since childhood I remember the Tu-16, my father flew. The most vivid impressions remained in my memory, especially when you sit in the cockpit of such a legend of our aircraft. Now I admire the Tu- 95th. Remarkable aircraft.
  2. Good cat
    Good cat 30 March 2016 06: 56
    Pretty boy. One copy is in the technical museum VAZ.
  3. qwert
    qwert 30 March 2016 07: 03
    With this 88th, the situation is like with the Su-27. The military was ready to accept a worse car, but the designers did not go for it and made a better one. So much for "do not care Tupolev, who just to push the car."

    "And it was abroad that the Tu-16 had a chance to" smell gunpowder, "but more on that in the next part."
    I look forward to it. Must be interesting
    1. FID
      FID 30 March 2016 08: 54
      Quote: qwert
      ... So much for "do not care Tupolev, who just to push the car."

      You "+" for Tupolev, but the rest of the Civil Code did not lag behind !!!
  4. sa-ag
    sa-ag 30 March 2016 07: 39
    I wonder if anyone flew on the Tu-104, what was it like to be in the engine area in terms of vibration noise?
    1. doework
      doework 30 March 2016 09: 46
      He flew in the early 70s, as a child ... At that time, the 104th was an ultra-modern device, and we took the noise level and other inconveniences for granted. In the IL-18, the noise in the area of ​​the engines was also "Mama Don't Cry". in Tu-124 - smaller.
      The Tu-104 in civilian livery looked just super. When we, as passengers, approached him for a landing - I got goosebumps from the sight of this beautiful giant!
      But, of course, the real "embodiment of power" was the Tu-114!

      I always admired the appearance of TUSHeks, just handsome! May God grant the glorious design bureau to remain a leader in their business for many years!
      1. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr April 5 2016 15: 07
        Quote: doework
        I wonder if anyone flew on the Tu-104, what was it like to be in the engine area in terms of vibration noise?

        In childhood, flew on the Tu-104. He sat in the wing area. For some reason I remember that the engine bulged into the passenger compartment. And the noise was not remembered, because then it was perceived as a matter of course, that the engines of the aircraft should make noise.

        I read somewhere that pilots who migrated from Tu-104 to Tu-134 kindly recalled the 104th locator.
  5. Viktor fm
    Viktor fm 30 March 2016 07: 43
    This plane in my understanding is the pinnacle of the quality of our technology. I encountered this at one time at the airport, where for a couple of years 15 had been a pair of these aircraft, they still could not be disposed of. And for some reason, the technicians had to cut the air hose there. What was their surprise that this hose was under pressure!
    1. self-propelled
      self-propelled 30 March 2016 10: 27
      Quote: Viktor fm
      This plane in my understanding is the pinnacle of the quality of our technology. I encountered this at one time at the airport, where for a couple of years 15 had been a pair of these aircraft, they still could not be disposed of. And for some reason, the technicians had to cut the air hose there. What was their surprise that this hose was under pressure!

      already were komenty regarding military equipment, acceptance and requirements for such units. as an example, a set (for the army from the NZ warehouses, and this was 1996,) pistons (of 8 units) for the Kamaz-740 engine had a spread in weight of no more than 1 gram !!! (at least based on the "piece of paper in the box with pistons").
      where I am leading - design and production for the ARMY has always been the priority, the most technological and important. accordingly, the quality and reliability of the "products" manufactured for the army were of the highest level (as well as the groundwork for further modernization). by the way, at the moment there are a huge number of options for modernizing weapons and weapons produced (developed) in the USSR ...
  6. dvg1959
    dvg1959 30 March 2016 09: 14
    Airplane legend. Amazes with its appearance.
  7. Ruby
    Ruby 30 March 2016 09: 16
    Quote: sa-ag
    I wonder if anyone flew on the Tu-104, what was it like to be in the engine area in terms of vibration noise?

    The last line in Aeroflot on which they worked was Vnukovo-Odessa. I still found them petty. They flew to relatives in Odessa. After him, Tu154 was introduced. The noise was much lower. I somehow do not remember my feelings very much, but I remembered my parents' conversations about this. And I remember that the planes were very well-worn. In the cabin, in some places, even where the lining was removed. They were removed in my opinion in 1978.
  8. Dimon19661
    Dimon19661 30 March 2016 09: 24
    I live in a military city, in my childhood I watched flights every day, a beautiful airplane.
  9. qwert
    qwert 30 March 2016 09: 58
    Quote: Yakut
    And I remember that the planes were very well-worn.

    exploited in the "tail and mane", and from such airfields from which no other jet has flown. Therefore, the chassis was powerful.
    In my memory, the noise disturbed no more than on the Il-Xnumx. Tu-18 and Tu-134 were much quieter of course. But even in the Tu-154 far from stalled. Not at all like in An-104 or Mi-24.
    Quote: SSI
    You "+" for Tupolev, but the rest of the Civil Code did not lag behind !!!

    Of course. Such a time was - the great achievements of the Great Country.
    By the way, I consider 3M a more promising machine than the Tu-95. Here, of course, Myasishchev turned out to be cooler, but alas .... And after all, Myasishchev designed the car so that it was possible to change engines without any problems, even on ready-made machines, and to completely different motors. Now they could fly on the same D30 and have a flight range of at least 14-16 thousand km.
    1. 0255
      0255 30 March 2016 10: 49
      Quote: qwert
      By the way, I consider 3M a more promising machine than the Tu-95. Here, of course, Myasishchev turned out to be cooler, but alas .... And after all, Myasishchev designed the car so that it was possible to change engines without any problems, even on ready-made machines, and to completely different motors. Now they could fly on the same D30 and have a flight range of at least 14-16 thousand km.

      So Tupolev persuaded Khrushchev to abandon the 3M and M-50, to take his OKB-23 at Filya from Myasishchev
  10. Taoist
    Taoist 30 March 2016 15: 09
    It is a pity, of course, that the author did not tell in more detail about Tushka's defensive armament - and the system was unique at that time. Three fully remote controlled movable towers. Even in the crew of the post appeared "commander of firing installations", he could fire from any of the towers or fully automatic mode under the control of the Argon radar sight. My father said that there was one incident associated with this that caused an emergency.
    "The fact is that Argon captured targets within its radius of action, and if the target did not respond to the respondent's request, it pointed a gun mount at it, and in a fully automatic mode, when approaching the affected area, it gave the command to open fire.
    Accordingly, for ground-based inspection and maintenance of the sighting station, it was always necessary to turn off the turret control tower; once, the REO officers, while driving in the parking lot, forgot to disconnect the tower (more precisely, they did not check for the gunsmiths) and the aft tower turret remained connected. As a result, when the feed tower was fed, the feed tower captured the target (tail of the neighboring carcass) and, naturally, being de-energized, couldn’t answer the request ... Well, it landed the whole BC sawing off the tail nafig ... Fortunately, there were no casualties. Fools are lucky. But since then, Argon was treated with great reverence ...
  11. 2005 Aleksey
    2005 Aleksey 30 March 2016 17: 17
    Outstanding aircraft of its time. Even the look is amazing.
  12. Kostya Andreev
    Kostya Andreev 30 March 2016 18: 20
    may be somewhat off topic, but the question is why the TU-95 index is not even like that of bombers, for example, IL-4, TU-2, TU-4. TU-16?
    and SU 25 too?
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  14. klop1
    klop1 30 March 2016 20: 00
  15. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 1 2016 11: 05
    TU-16 is the most vivid example of the fidelity of the expression of Tupolev and Antonov (not literally :) - "A beautiful plane and flies well" And this car was not only an excellent bomber, but also had an elegant exterior and a glider love
  16. Dekabrev
    Dekabrev April 1 2016 23: 08
    I also liked the case in the square 36-80. Very beautiful aircraft: Tu-16 and IL-38 in the role of R-3. Just now I’m thinking. But it is interesting, in what modes did the planes fly at parallel courses, if the R-3 has a maximum speed of 760 km / h, and the Tu-16 has 850 km / h cruising? That is, the Tu-16 specially slowed down so that the Americans did not lag behind? Maybe Tu-16 played in the film of another trucker - Tu-95?
    1. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr April 5 2016 15: 21
      Quote: Dekabrev
      Just now I’m thinking. But it is interesting, in what modes did the planes fly at parallel courses, if the R-3 has a maximum speed of 760 km / h, and the Tu-16 has 850 km / h cruising?

      Refueling aircraft Tu-163.
      Refueling a bomber according to the “wing to wing” scheme was carried out at a speed of 480-510 km / h
  17. Dekabrev
    Dekabrev April 1 2016 23: 19
    But did the Tu-16 really need so many guns? It seems that earlier it was found that at speeds close to the speed of sound, a successful attack of a fighter using guns could be carried out in a narrow range of angles of the rear hemisphere. Therefore, they put defensive weapons only in the tail, that is, for firing in the direction of a possible attack.