Currently, at various stages of construction, there are several dozen orders for the naval fleet. Over the next few years, the fleet will receive a large number of new and repaired ships and submarines. In addition, deliveries of completely new equipment are planned for a more distant future. Already now some details of promising projects are known, with the help of which the power of the Navy will be created in the distant future. In recent years, several new projects of ships and submarines have been presented or announced, which will have to begin service, at least in the middle of the next decade.
Perhaps one of the main topics of discussion in the context of the development of Navy ships in recent years is a promising project for a domestic aircraft carrier. At present, our country has only one ship of this class, which leads to the corresponding expectations. The general public, and with it some representatives of the military and political leadership of the country, show great interest in ships with the possibility of carrying aviation groups. Nevertheless, while this interest does not leave the stage of preliminary study of the problem.
Model of a promising aircraft carrier, presented a few years ago. Photo Sandrermakoff.livejournal.com
Over the past few years, the topic of building new aircraft carriers has been raised repeatedly at different levels, but so far the matter does not go further than discussions and elaboration of some issues. According to various statements by representatives of the armed forces and the leadership of the country, a new aircraft carrier can be built no earlier than the end of this decade. In addition, it is possible to further shift the time to the right with the delivery of the first ship of the new type no earlier than the middle or the end of the twenties. Thus, the possibility of building an aircraft carrier is not excluded, but the timing of these works does not inspire optimism at all.
Despite the absence of any clear plans, shipbuilding already offers its options for promising ships. Earlier it was reported, Krylov State Research Center is developing several versions of the aircraft carrier project. These ships must differ in size, displacement and other characteristics. Back in 2013, a model was shown at one of the Russian exhibitions, showing the main ideas of one of the new projects. For obvious reasons, it is only a visualization of one of the proposals, because of which it can (or even should) seriously differ from the ship that will be built in the future.
According to available data, the possibility of building ships with a displacement of up to 80-90 thousand tons with a nuclear reactor or non-nuclear power plant capable of carrying about fifty aircraft is being considered. Take-off is proposed to carry out with the help of catapults or a springboard, and the landing is carried out using an aero-finisher. Which of these proposals will reach practical implementation, and which will be changed - time will tell.
The timing of the start of work on the creation and construction of a promising aircraft carrier is still the subject of controversy and therefore is unknown. Moreover, the absence of significant News Recently, it suggests that the construction program is shifting again. As a result, even the mid-twenties seems too optimistic for the deadlines for the delivery of the ship. Thus, at least over the next 10-12 years, the “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov” will retain the title of the only aircraft carrier of the Russian Navy.
Amphibious assault ships
Most recently, there was an active discussion of the contract for the construction of two French-developed Mistral-type amphibious assault ships. At first, the contract itself was discussed, its necessity and consequences for the fleet, and then the theme of the disputes was the refusal of official Paris to transfer the constructed ships and the events that followed. The result of all the events around the two ships was the return of money paid to Russia and the search for a new buyer. However, safe resolution stories with the Mistrals, the issue of creating new amphibious ships did not drop from the agenda.
Currently, the main hope of the amphibious fleet are the ships of the 11711 project. The first large landing ship of this type ("Ivan Gren") has already been built, and the second ("Peter Morgunov") was laid last year. According to the 11711 project, as announced, only two ships will be built. In the future, new types of ships will go into the series.
In the summer of last year, information appeared about plans to build larger amphibious assault ships, as described in the class-specific universal ones. According to press reports, the first such ship will begin to build in 2016 year. It must differ from existing ships in large sizes and in the possibility of a landing party at a considerable distance from the coast. He will be able to transport not only armored vehicles of various types, but also helicopters. It was alleged that the fleet will receive at least four such ships.
Apparently, unnamed media sources, speaking of the new UDC, meant the “Avalanche” project developed by the Nevsky Design Bureau. At the beginning of last summer, a model of such a ship was presented at the Army-2015 forum. The project was created as a possible replacement for already built ships, which France refused to transmit. According to its characteristics, the ship "Avalanche" should not yield to "Mistrals". In addition, it is planned to provide some advantages over the existing equipment, both domestic and foreign.
UDC "Avalanche" should have a displacement of 24 thousand tons with a length of about 180 m. The ship should receive artillery and rocket weapon for self defense. Most of the volume of the hold and the deck will be allocated for the transport of armored vehicles and aircraft. Declared the possibility of transporting 50 armored vehicles, up to 16 helicopters and up to 500 people. At its own expense and with the assistance of amphibious assault boats, the Avalanche will be able to land assault forces both at a distance from the coast, and directly on the coast, equipped or not equipped.
Last year it was reported that the construction of new amphibious ships could begin as early as 2016. However, there were other dates, not earlier than 2018 of the year. In this case, there is reason to assume that the command of the Navy has already determined the need for the construction of such ships, which is why only the deadlines for the execution of these works and the contractor remain in question. What enterprise and at what time will begin the construction of ships such as the "Avalanche" (or other similar project) - will be known in the foreseeable future.
At least since the end of the last decade, a new destroyer has been developed, which in the future should replace the existing ships of several projects. From time to time the shipbuilding industry published some details of current works, and also revealed certain features of the project. Finally, in 2015, for the first time, a model of a promising ship was shown.
According to previously announced data, the destroyer of the new project "Leader" will have a displacement of 18 thousand tons, which will equip it with all necessary equipment and armament. It is planned to entrust this ship with the implementation of anti-submarine and anti-aircraft defense, as well as strikes against ground and surface targets. It was argued that the "Leader" will be able to replace the existing destroyers of the 956 project and large anti-submarine ships of the 1155 project. In terms of its strike capabilities, this destroyer will be inferior only to 1144 missile cruisers.
The use of a nuclear power plant was mentioned. In addition, it was supposed to equip the "Leader" with universal launchers for missiles of various purposes. Total ammunition is estimated at 150-200 missiles. The full composition of the ship’s armament has not yet been disclosed, which leads to the appearance of various assumptions. For example, there is a version about equipping a destroyer with a long-range anti-aircraft missile system developed on the basis of the promising ground-based C-500 system.
The next few years it is planned to spend on completing the development of a new project. The construction of the head "Leader" starts in 2019 year. On such plans last year, said the commander in chief of the Navy, Admiral Viktor Chirkov. The number of destroyers has not yet been clarified, but some sources mention the possibility of building a series of 10-12 ships in the interests of several fleets. Probably most of the new destroyers will leave to serve in the Northern and Pacific fleets.
In recent years, special attention has been paid to the development of the submarine forces of the navy. The consequence of this is the serial construction of nuclear submarines of the 955 “Borey” and 885 “Ash” projects, as well as the diesel-electric 636.3 “Varshavyanka”. Thus, in the case of the latter, the program is already nearing the end of construction of the first batch of six submarines, after which it is planned to order the second such series. Also in June, it is planned to lay the next submarine of the Borey project, and the construction of the sixth Ash-tree will start at the end of the year.
Recently, there have been some news about the further development of the submarine fleet. It is reported that at present the Malachite Design Bureau is engaged in shaping the look of a new multi-purpose nuclear submarine, which will belong to the fifth generation. The project received the cipher "Huskies" and is in its early stages. At the moment, very little is known about this project. Boats of the Husky type will have to solve the same tasks as the submarines of the 885 project, and their main armament will be Zircon missiles. It’s too early to talk about any characteristics, if only because of the current stage of the project. So far, experts are only engaged in shaping the appearance of new technology and determine its main features.
It is planned to include the construction of new non-nuclear submarines with an air-independent power plant in the next State Armaments Program, which will be implemented by the year before 2025. Thus, in the foreseeable future, the navy will receive the submarines of the new project "Kalina", created in the CDB MT "Rubin". The number of submarines required has not yet been determined, but this issue will be resolved over the next few months. A new state program is planned to be approved by the end of 2016.
It is reported that the new project "Kalina" implies equipping the submarine with an air-independent power plant and the Caliber missile system. Other technical details have not yet been disclosed. According to the domestic press, the new project already exists, but has not yet been approved by the Ministry of Defense and has not received its approval. Thus, in the near future, several important stages of the project must pass, which will open the way for serial construction.
Construction of new aircraft carriers, destroyers "Leader", amphibious assault ships "Avalanche" and submarines "Huskies" is a matter of a rather distant future. The laying of these ships and submarines will take place at least at the end of the current decade, which will lead to the corresponding deadlines for the delivery of finished equipment. Nevertheless, the construction of ships and submarines of various types is already underway, which allows for fleet modernization and increasing its combat capability without waiting for the creation of new promising projects.
According to reports, before the end of the current 2016 year, the navy should receive about a dozen new warships and submarines of several types. By the end of the year, the main frigate of the 22350 project “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Gorshki” is scheduled to be handed over to the fleet. March 10 was signed acceptance certificate on the lead patrol ship project 11356 "Admiral Grigorovich." Until the end of the year, another two such ships, the Admiral Essen and the Admiral Makarov, will give the fleet. It should be noted that the construction of the following ships of the project 11356 should be seriously delayed due to problems with the supply of components. Due to the temporary lack of suitable engines, they will be able to be completed and transferred to the fleet only by the end of the decade. Not earlier than the middle of 2016, the fleet combat squadron will be replenished by the large landing ship Ivan Gren of the 11711 project. Also in the plans for this year, the delivery of the corvettes "Perfect" and "Loud" of the 20380 project. Thus, this year the fleet will receive seven large surface ships: the first of them (the frigate Admiral Grigorovich) has already been handed over, six more are waiting for their time.
Plans to complete the construction of submarines for the current year are much more modest. At the end of the year, two submarines of the 636.3 Varshavyanka project will be handed over to the Black Sea Fleet: B-268 Velikiy Novgorod and B-271 Kolpino. The following atomic submarine transmissions, which are currently under construction, are planned only for 2017 of the year.
At present, a program to build new ships and submarines is being implemented in our country. Several new units should be part of the Navy by the end of this year. In the following years, the delivery of a large number of new ships is also planned. This will increase the share of new technology to the desired level and thereby increase the combat capability of the Navy.
Simultaneously with the implementation of current orders for existing projects, the domestic industry is developing new ships and submarines. In some cases, as with an aircraft carrier, the future of current projects has not yet been determined and is the subject of controversy. Other projects already have some plans that will be implemented in the future. Construction of the destroyer “Leader”, submarines “Husky” and other new equipment will start no earlier than 2018-20, and they will be in service only by the middle of the next decade. Thus, now, for many years before the proposed start of the service of new ships, experts create a groundwork to protect the country in the future.
On the materials of the sites: