We write more about criminals than about normal life. A poplar, planted by Marshal Eremenko, grows on the land of Donetsk. Only very few people know about this. Few people know about the doctor who saved more than one thousand lives.
During the Great Patriotic War, Natalya Semenovna Gaydaeva lived in Rostov-on-Don, where she completed her studies at the Rostov Medical Institute and at the same time worked in hospitals. In 1947, as a young doctor, she arrived in the small mining village of Gundorovka, worked at the health center of the Yugo-Vostochnaya mine. In 1951, Natalia Semyonovna was appointed the head doctor of the maternity hospital.
In maternity hospitals per month, then 100-120 children were born. Not surprisingly, by the time the city was renamed, by 30 June 1955, its population was already more than 33 thousand people. At the very peak of the birth rate in the city of Donetsk - in the beginning and in the middle of the 50-s, the remarkable doctor Natalya Semenovna Gaydayeva became the chief doctor of the Donetsk maternity hospital. All the peers of the city, those who are already over fifty, were born thanks to the caring hands of the medical staff of the first maternity hospital in the city, located in the village of the Vostochnaya mine.
A large birth rate in the city led to a shortage of places in nurseries and kindergartens. Accordingly, after a few years, there was a shortage of places for classes in schools. At the beginning of 1958, the city had 11 schools, 20 kindergartens, five nurseries. 224 teachers were engaged in teaching children in schools, and 3 780 students sat down at the desks of the new school year. There was 30 food and department stores. In houses, apartments and hostels there were 2 900 radios and a total of fifteen televisions.
For most citizens, televisions were a big and, alas, useless luxury. It was possible to receive television programs only two or three hours a day. The city has already worked seven club institutions and 12 libraries. According to the Komsomol trips to work in the mines, entire crews of submarines and ships came. But, unfortunately, not all volunteers had a life in the mining region, and even at the newly opened mine.
Salaries and prices of those years
In September 1956, the earnings of miners working in the combine lavas No. 2 and No. 3 of the Southwestern Mine No. 1-bis reached 5000 — 6000 rubles.
Let's "move forward" at that time and go to the grocery store "Cosmos" (at the opening it was called store number 50), then located on Stalin Avenue. So, according to the newspaper press, black bread cost 1 ruble 60 kopecks, white - 2 ruble, butter - 24 ruble 50 kopecks, meat (pork, beef) - from 16 to 22 rubles, depending on the variety, Dutch cheese - 18 rubles 70 kopeks, sweets “Swallow” - 60 kopeks, champagne “Tsimlyanskoe” - 22 rubles 50 kopeks, vodka “Moskovskaya” - 26 rubles 62 kopeks, cognac “Armenian” (three asterisks) - 50 rubles 40 kopecks
"I know the city will be"
In addition to industrial enterprises, the city was actively building shops and canteens, cafes and restaurants. Before the International Women's Day in 1967, the central city department store, so necessary for the city, opened. This was a report on its discovery, published in the newspaper Donetsk Worker 7 March 1967: “At 10 hours 30 minutes the department store opens the door. The first visitors are met by the director Yakov Savelyevich Prosyanik and invites them to the goods. The first buyer in the new department store was a housewife Comrade. Melnikova, she bought women's slippers for herself and her sister. Then the model shoes are bought by the miner of the Yugo-Zapadnaya mine. No. 1 comrade. Datchenko. Elderly woman comrade. Popova bought Start TV for 234 rubles and an autotransformer for it. Buyers willingly purchased men's and teenage suits, Rosinka woolen fabrics, black and blue Boston, tights, men's shirts, various shoes, ladies' and shopping bags and other goods. ”
Now it would never occur to anyone to list in the report on the opening of the store goods purchased by customers!
In order to comply with the rules of trade, and scarce goods are not hidden under the counter and in the back room, vigilantly watched the people's control bodies. About such a raid of national controllers in one of the newspaper reports in April 1970, the following was written: “Particularly rich hiding places were found in the village of Gundorovka. Then you and viscose blouses, and sandals imported, and leather gloves, and mittens, and handbags. It’s very difficult to list everything. ”
But they scrupulously listed, made up acts and sent them to the department for combating the embezzlement of socialist property. So it turned out that while some were multiplying socialist property, others were shamelessly using the same common property.
The eighth and ninth five-year plans (years from 1966 to 1975) became the period of the most rapid economic and industrial development of the city of Donetsk. New industrial enterprises were built, the work of the operating mines was improved, the city itself developed rapidly, receiving a large number of visiting specialists from other regions of the country as its inhabitants.
The city launched an operating complex of an excavator plant, built knitting and cotton spinning factories, soft drinks factory, vocational school number 59 for 500 students, laundry, dry cleaning, 18 900 square meters of housing and four canteens for 600 seats.
At such a pace of development, the city urgently needed a master plan for development. You can read about how he was born in the article “This will be the city of Donetsk” in the newspaper Donetsk Worker from 24 of September 1968.
“A meeting was held in the CPSU city committee to discuss the master plan for the development and development of the city. It was attended by the chief architect of the Rostov region V. I. Grigor and the author of the project Z. D. Tikhonov (design institute Rostovgipproshaht).
Tikhonova said: “It was not easy to develop a master plan for your city. Coal tracts, on which, in essence, there is the whole of Donetsk, spent spaces, uneven terrain, various communications crossing the city - all this made the work on the project difficult. There were two main goals. To develop the city in the direction of the Seversky Donets River, in order to reach residential areas to its shores, and secondly, to make the city more compact. It was decided to make an industrial zone a kind of triangle from the Tsentralnaya mine to the Vostochnaya mine. A new recreation center for workers with a swimming pool and other sports facilities will grow on the bank of the Seversky Donets. The town planning council approved the master plan for the development of the city. ”
This wonderful plan was to be implemented by the leaders of the city and the main, as they say, city-forming enterprises: Ivan Ivanovich Gavritskov - the first secretary of the CPSU CC, Vladimir Fedorovich Minyaylo - chairman of the executive committee of the city council, Vasily Ivanovich Syrovatsky - chief architect of the city, Peter Filippovich Romanovsky - director excavator plant under construction Nikolai V. Matveev - director of a knitting factory, Peter Ivanovich Marenkov - director of a brick factory, Boris Nikolayevich Kolesnikov - head troyupravleniya number 34 and others.
One of the coordinators of the work on the accelerated development of the city was the head of the department of industry and construction of the Civil Code of the CPSU, Vladimir Ivanovich Stadnikov.
What happened to the Komsomol leaders
The absolute majority of the people at the head of the governing structures at that time were participants in the Great Patriotic War, front-line soldiers.
Today, even people in high positions are forced, on the one hand, to recognize the enormous role that the Komsomol played in raising the younger generation, and on the other hand to regret, to look today for ways to create something similar to the Komsomol.
The first constituent Komsomol conference was held only on September 11. Today, many delegates to this conference are more than 70 years old. At that time, the 2-th Secretary of the Kamensk Regional Committee of the Komsomol Nikolai Kruchin made a report on the tasks of the Donetsk city Komsomol organization. At the regional Komsomol conference that took place soon, he was elected first secretary of the regional committee, then he worked for the Central Committee of the Komsomol and tragically died during the troubled Yeltsin time (according to unofficial approval, he was thrown out of the window of his apartment), fulfilling the duties of the CPSU Central Committee.
By the way, he became the prototype of one of the heroes of the famous movie “Two Fates”.
The honorable miner Alexander Ivanovich Burmistrov received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor in 27 years in 1957.
I can’t but give another name - the Komsomol secretary of the Donetsk mine of Vladimir Dmitriyevich Kholodenko, and later the well-known section chief, also an honorary miner. In Donetsk, there is no other person who would be awarded the Orders of Lenin, the October Revolution, the Red Banner of Labor, two medals of the Exhibition of Economic Achievements (All-Union Exhibition of Economic Achievements), all three degrees of Miner's Glory and countless different letters and souvenirs.
Were able to celebrate
Especially old-timers remember the holiday dedicated to the Day of Soviet Youth, held on the shores of S. Donets in the Popovka area in Ukraine, with the participation of two sister cities - Donetsk and Krasnodon.
Delegations were provided and gathered on dozens of trucks re-equipped for passengers. Among the many sports and cultural events held at this festival race for motorcycles for the prize of the Young Guard Radik Yurkin, who personally participated in this meeting.
By the way, then people read a lot and, what is extremely important to emphasize, many families wrote out (sometimes for a lot of pull) three or five newspapers and two or three magazines. In addition, in recent years, a subscription to many essays of the most popular writers has been popular. People subscribed to subscriptions for hours, and often many days, stood in queues, kept lists, strictly controlled them.
So, speaking of the work of clubs and libraries, it is worth noting that most of them were under the direct authority of the trade unions, therefore, all cultural work, especially costly activities, were carried out by the Komsomol in close cooperation with the trade unions. Various sports competitions, reviews and contests, hiking and trips - all required funds and often considerable ones. These funds were drawn from trade union organizations. Then the trade unions were very solid organizations. In addition to membership dues, considerable social insurance funds passed through their hands. In addition, they were endowed with such powers, when, if necessary (especially in case of violation of labor laws, violation of safety regulations), they could raise the issue of non-compliance of the production manager. Moreover, in the hands of the trade union were practically all the systems of the sanatorium and health-improving institutions. Every ordinary worker could afford a ticket to these institutions then. In Soviet times, sanatoriums, rest homes, boarding houses and dispensaries were numerous. In Donetsk, there was a rest house and several preventoriums, and all of them were always crowded.
Often, a ticket, even at full price, was not easy to get. It will be clear if I say that even to our Donetsk holiday home, a two-week ticket cost only 14 rubles. Any cleaning lady who received 50-60 rubles in wages could afford this pleasure.
One of the very first guests of the city was the famous pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union Vodopyanov.
Many people remember for a long time the meeting with the famous Soviet composer Dmitry Pokras. The author of the song about budenovtsy and budyonovets himself, already an elderly person, amazed the audience with his optimism. Small, slow, with shaking hands and a big head, the little man, shuffling his feet, went on stage, sat down at the piano, pulled the microphone to himself, hit the keys and sang: “We are red cavalrymen, and about us the tale-minded people tell a story .. . " For a few seconds the hall of the DC Shakhtar froze, and on the stage a completely different, lively, energetic person was “raging”. It was something incredible.
Poplar from Marshal Eremenko
At that time, it was customary to assume socialist obligations not only on the scale of enterprises and mines, but also of the whole city. At the 1968 summing up meeting, the townspeople made commitments for the next 1969 year. They indicated a commitment to plant 7 thousands of trees and equip a city beach on the shore of the Seversky Donets. Forty years have passed, and this task is very relevant to this day. The fact that the city has become so green is undoubtedly the merit of the citizens who worked on the improvement of the city in the fifties and sixties, especially the Komsomol and youth.
The famous city alley of Friendship, planted along the road from Gundorovka to the city center for six kilometers, began with the famous Marshal of the Soviet Union, Andrei Ivanovich Eremenko. He came here in 60's.
On the Lenin Square, in front of the DC Shakhtar, residents of the city gathered. The distinguished guest was greeted by the city authorities, and, according to Russian custom, they presented him bread and salt. In memory, Andrei Ivanovich planted a young topolok in the city park. He settled down and became powerful. Other trees appeared beside it.
The ending should ...