Military Review

Sea drama in the Spanish manner. Fight at Cape Palos 5 – 6 March 1938

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Sea drama in the Spanish manner. Fight at Cape Palos 5 – 6 March 1938

Heavy cruiser "Baleares"



The Spanish Civil War is the largest and bloodiest military clash in Europe in the last prewar decade. Subsequent tremendous events overshadowed by their scale this dramatic conflict, symbolized for many by the famous photo of Robert Capa, The Death of a Militiaman.

The war for Spain did not become out of the blue - the country went to this for a long time, persistently and consistently. It has long passed the time of the greatness of Spain: the wind storieswalking in pockets as well, dispelled once mighty armies, numerous colonies fell one after another - having lost their former strength and power, the country of the old countess looked out of her Pyrenean wing to the European courtyard.

Viva Espana vs. Viva Republika

The economic situation of the state, still remembering the shock of defeat in the war with the United States, was disastrous. In 1931, Spain produced another reboot, this time getting rid of the monarchy. But the aspirations of those who considered the source, if not all, of many troubles and misfortunes, being on the throne of His Majesty Alfonso XVIII, did not materialize. The newly baked republic was feverish. She was contorted from a whole host of chronic domestic problems, and economic stagnation continued steadily. But, as happens in such conditions, the number of “doctors” who declare that they know the recipe for curing the incurable has steadily increased. In the country, hotbeds of acute discontent, strikes and even uprisings flared up here and there.

16 February 1936, with a small margin of votes, leftist parties won the parliamentary elections: communists, socialists, republicans and anarchists. They formed a government that immediately embarked on a complex of radical reforms, primarily economic and political. Not everyone in society was waiting for such large-scale transformations and were delighted with what was happening. The conservative peasantry and the landowners of the western provinces were not satisfied with the redistribution of land and its confiscation from major owners, the Catholic Church was outraged by the reduction of its influence and all sorts of oppression, the officer corps frightened the growing activity of the left. The knot was tightening all tighter, the spring was compressed. Increasingly tangible discontent in the higher army environment was concentrated in a conspiracy to stop the ugliness.

On July 17, 1936, a military rebellion broke out in Spanish Morocco, which quickly developed into a civil war. Society and the army were divided. It should be noted that the armed forces simultaneously survived the crisis with the state and were not in the best condition. The most combat-ready units were deployed in Morocco: the Spanish Foreign Legion and the so-called African Army, gained experience in the Reef War. They almost completely supported the coup. Most air forces and naval ships fleet remained loyal to the Republic.

The rebellion had every chance to stall, fade away, but Germany and Italy came to the aid of the putsch and sent to Spain not only weapon and equipment, but also its military contingents. Britain and France were quick to declare neutrality and non-interference in the conflict. Moreover, their “neutrality” stretched so far that it prohibited them from buying military products to republicans. The Soviet Union reached out to Madrid in a difficult situation. Since none of those sympathizing with both opposing sides had a land border with Spain, maritime transport began to play a crucial role in the war.

Heavy cruisers of General Franco


"Canarias" in color and in all its glory


The main instruments for influencing republican communications in the rebel fleet were the heavy cruisers Baleares and Canarias. These ships of the so-called "Washington type" were ordered for the Spanish fleet long before the start of the civil war - in 1928. Originally it was planned to build three cruisers, but for economic reasons (having destroyed more ships than all naval battles together) it was decided to limit to two. Construction began in the same 1928-m at the shipyard SESN in El Ferrol. Having no experience in creating such ships, Spain turned for help to the British concern Armstrong, whose specialists, taking as a basis the construction of heavy cruisers like Kent, developed a modified and modified project for the customer. These were typical “Washingtonians” with a standard displacement of 10 thousand tons. A characteristic feature of these ships was one large chimney. This decision was made to reduce aerodynamic drag. Reservations have been enhanced, the power plant capacity increased. Armament future cruisers consisted of eight 203-mm guns in four towers. One artillery turret was manufactured directly in England, the other three were to be produced at the state enterprise San Carlos in Cadiz. Auxiliary artillery consisted of eight very modern 120-mm guns - they had electric power drive and elevation angle to 80 degrees. The arsenal of 4 × 2 40-mm anti-aircraft Pom Pom and 4 × 3 fixed 533-mm torpedo tubes, a catapult and a seaplane complemented the arsenal of the ship armament. However, when commissioning, all this weapon system has undergone a significant correction due to lack of time and necessary materials.

Revolutions and other social upheavals have a very negative effect on the economic component of the state and on shipbuilding in particular. Due to the April revolution of 1931 and the overthrow of the monarchy, the completion of the cruisers was delayed. The chronic shortage of money has turned the construction of Baleares and Canarias into the same chronic unfinished business. By the beginning of the rebellion, both ships were not fully equipped. The events of July 1936 of the year found both cruisers in El Ferrol being completed. "Baleares" had only two main-caliber towers - there were no other weapons and fire control devices on it. Although Canaryas had all the standard 203-mm guns, it was also only partially combat-capable - there were no auxiliary artillery, anti-aircraft fire control devices and the main caliber. Nevertheless, heavy cruisers captured by supporters of Franco 18 on July X were a most valuable acquisition for a limited number of nationalist fleets. A successful circumstance was also the fact that the San Carlos artillery plant, like Cadiz himself, was located on the territory controlled by the rebels. This greatly facilitated the re-equipment of the ships. With the beginning of the war, effective attempts were made to put these relatively new and powerful cruisers into service. Since certain problems arose with the staffing of standard weapons, at various times what was at hand at Baleares and Canarias was fixed. At various times, ships carried 1936-mm guns from the Espana battleship crashed on stones in 102, 1923-mm guns from unfinished destroyers, German and Italian anti-aircraft guns. Neither torpedo armament nor the ship's seaplane were ever installed, although some experiments were conducted on the use of the German He-120 in this role.

In general, the two heavy cruisers achieved a more or less acceptable degree of combat capability no earlier than 1937, although their active use began in the autumn of 1936. Both ships were operated with maximum intensity, since in the Francoist fleet they were the most modern and powerful ships.

Blockade

The beginning of the civil war divided the once united Spanish fleet into two not entirely equal parts. Most of the ships remained under the control of the republic: the battleship Jaime I, the cruisers Libertad, Mendes Nunes and Miguel de Cervantes, 14 destroyers, 6 destroyers, 12 submarines, 5 gunboats and several auxiliary vessels. The number of forces at the disposal of the “national forces” was somewhat lower: the ship Espana (the former Alfonso XIII, renamed in honor of the lead ship of the series who died earlier on the rocks), the two above-mentioned heavy cruisers, the Almirante Server light cruisers and the Navarre (former Republic), one destroyer, five destroyers, nine gunboats and a dozen auxiliary ships and vessels. The staffing issue for the republican government was more complicated. Of the total number of the officer corps of the fleet, 1668 officers went over to the side of the rebels, 236 people remained loyal to the republic.

From the first months of the war, after the completion of the orgperiod, the tasks of both opposing fleets began to include actions on the communications of the opposite side. Both Republicans and nationalists were acutely dependent on the uninterrupted supply by sea. Attempts by the Republicans to prevent the intensive transfer of troops from Africa were unsuccessful due to the lack of suitable bases in the area of ​​Gibraltar and active assistance to the Frenchists of the German and Italian Navy and Air Force. A significant role in the low efficiency of the Republican Navy was played by political confusion. Crews consisted of representatives of different parties and simply sympathizers, often hostile to each other. Combat training was abandoned, chaos reigned on many ships. Soviet military specialists assisting the Spanish Republic even noted such glaring cases as smoking in artillery cellars. All this could not but affect the effectiveness of the republican fleet at the initial stage of the war. Only the arrival of military advisers from the USSR could somewhat improve the situation. Both warring parties were very dependent on shipments by sea, but if the rebels received military supplies on German and Italian transport ships almost unhindered, the Republicans had to rely on the help of the Soviet Union. A whole range of political, diplomatic and military reasons prevented the republic from organizing the blockade of ports controlled by the Francoists and at the same time resisting an attack on their own ships.

As early as October 1937, the breakthrough of Soviet transports to Spanish ports was difficult to accomplish. Starting in December, the steamers that left Leningrad or Murmansk were forced to unload in the French harbors of Le Havre or Bordeaux, and already from there, by rail, they brought in transit to Spain. Due to the increasingly hostile attitude of the French authorities, part of the cargo did not reach its destination at all.

Hot night at Cape Palos


Cape Palos battle plan


By the beginning of 1938, the position of the Republic was not yet desperate, but already difficult. More than half of the country was controlled by the Francoists, who, unlike the Republicans, had a cohesive and disciplined army that was not torn by political squabbles. The rear of the nationalists did not shake unrest and strikes - any manifestation of protest during the war was forbidden under the penalty of the death penalty. Prices in the market have been frozen. By this time, Franco had already recognized more than 20 states. The situation was different inside the republic. The economic collapse could not be overcome - the industry, despite the war time, worked with holidays and weekends, the republican peseta depreciated. Under such conditions, among the top leaders of the country, the idea of ​​a decisive battle began to develop, which, if not crushing Franco, then in any case, will strengthen the fragile position of the Republic in the international arena.

At the end of 1937, a bloody battle began for the seaside town of Teruel, where the most combat-ready units, dominated by the Communists, were thrown. The naval command also decided not to lag behind and try, finally, to get rid of the problem of having the enemy Baleares and Canarias. The largest ships of the republican fleet by this time were light cruisers - the battleship Jaime I by this time was already lost as a result of the explosion of the cellars and the ensuing fire. After the meetings with the Soviet military advisers, it was decided to entrust the liquidation of the two “corsairs” who had already gotten the edge of the teeth on torpedo boats, which were to be attacked by heavy cruisers while stationary.

Late February - early March 1938 were marked by increased intelligence activity aviation Republicans. In the first days of March, during the next flight over Mallorca (Balearic Islands), both ships were captured in pictures standing in the bay of Palma behind boom barriers. The preparation of the operation began. On the night of March 4-5, the strike group, consisting of three torpedo boats and four destroyers, moved from Cartagena to Valencia, closer to the enemy’s deployment site. However, Franco intelligence was no less active. Their agents became aware of the upcoming action of the opposite side. The command of the "national" fleet decided to play ahead of schedule. Already on March 5, the squadron of Rear Admiral Manuel de Vierna left the Palm with the heavy cruisers Baleares (flagship) and Canarias, the light cruiser Almirante Server, three destroyers and two mine loaders. One of them was the all-new Jupiter, which, apart from the mine itself, also had good artillery weapons: four 120-mm guns and small-caliber artillery.

Vierna's plan was to intercept the Republican fleet ships using fire superiority at dawn on 6 in March. An additional task was to set up a minefield on the approach to Cartagena. A number of sources indicate that the ships of Vierna were to meet a convoy of two transports and escort them to Mallorca, and that nothing was known about the withdrawal of the Republican fleet. Frankists had information that it was in Cartagena that almost all combat-capable Republican ships were assembled into a squadron, which was supposed to insure a strike group designed to attack Mallorca. The Republicans had no idea about all the activities of the enemy, and therefore in the evening of March 5 a squadron under the command of Luis Gonzalez de Ubieta took to the sea. By the way, at the post of commander of the squadron of Ubieta was quite recently: he was promptly promoted to this position, when in the rank of captain of the 3 rank he commanded the light cruiser "Mendes Nunes". Now, under the command of the newly minted Vice Admiral were light cruisers “Libertad” (flagship), the actual “Mendes Nunes” and the 2 th division of destroyers consisting of six ships. Light cruisers were already quite old by this point - they were designed based on British small cruiser scouts. Libertad had eight, and Nunes had six 152-mm guns.

Already at sea, Ubieta received a message that in the Valencia region a storm was raging with at least 7 points, and in such conditions torpedo boats would not be possible. After consulting with the military adviser, Captain-Lieutenant N. Pitersky, the admiral decided not to return to the base, but to reconnoiter in the area of ​​the Balearic Islands, in particular, near Ibiza Island. The Republican squadron headed for the northeast. Meanwhile, Vierna, relying more on the daytime battle, increased his speed, intending to be in the Cartagena area at dawn. Both minelayers, whose speed did not exceed the 18 nodes, were left under the supervision of the destroyers, and the cruising forces (Baleares, Canarias, Almirante Server), moving with the 30 hub, moved towards Cape Palos.

Before midnight Ubieta separated from their forces a battle group of three destroyers, sending them to a free search in the area of ​​Ibiza. The squadron was as follows: "Libertad" and "Mendes Nunes" in the wake, and to the right of the board from them - three destroyers. Both connections moved on each other, and the meeting took place on March 6 between 0.35 and 0.40 minutes. The signalmen from the Republican destroyer “Sanchez”, which was walking in the head of the column, found a foamy trail of enemy ships that were almost at full speed in the light of the stars, and then saw their silhouettes. The profile of the heavy cruisers with their massive chimney was impossible to confuse with any ship. Vierna may have made a mistake by refusing to escort her cruisers with destroyers for the sake of haste. Apparently, he wanted to take the enemy by surprise, because the weight of the onboard volley of his cruisers exceeded 2 tons against 700 kg among Republicans. New 203-mm guns heavy cruisers had very good performance, and in the daytime battlefield conditions Franco could count on success.

However, the circumstances were such that Vierna turned out to be in an unpleasant situation. “Sanchez”, reporting to the flagship “Libretad” about contact with the enemy, fired two torpedoes at enemy ships, but did not hit, and the rest of the column slipped at 25 speed nodes, not having time to react. Around 0.50 Ubieta received a radiogram from Sanchez and, fearing that the enemy might cut the escape routes of the previously released combat group, changed course. The entire Republican squadron made a turn to the right and, raising the course to full, tried to cut the course of the rebels' ships, at the same time shortening the distance to Cartagena. The Francoist admiral guessed that the enemy wanted to cut off his escape route to the open sea and press him to the shore. In order not to let himself be trapped, Wierna increased the speed even further, almost to the maximum (the Servers servers, despite being older than the heavy cruisers, could run almost an 32 node), and began to go southeast. leaving the republican squadron behind. He did not want a night battle, rightly fearing enemy destroyers who could get closer and launch torpedoes. It was easier to wait for the dawn on the high seas and impose the Republicans fight on their own terms.

Ubieta did not give up the chase - his ships also developed full speed. The oldest Mendes Nunez had a harder time — his turn did not exceed the 29 nodes, and he gradually began to lag behind. The chase lasted for an hour and a half already, numerous signalmen peered into the night sea. Finally in 2 h. 13 min. from the same “Sanchez”, which continued to go ahead of the squadron, the Franco cruisers again noticed. The enemy was detected at a distance of about 2 miles, and the destroyer went unnoticed, since the Franks, on seeing Republican cruisers, focused all their attention on them. From a distance of about 3 miles, Libertad and Mendes Núñez opened fire on the enemy. In response, the 203-mm of Baleares and Canarias, Almirante Server, were stormed by the fire, because they were hampered by the leading Canarias.


The destroyer "Lepanto"


Artillery contact was short-lived. "Libertad", for example, spent only 27 152-mm shells, having achieved, according to the observations of signalmen, three hits in "Canarias". The francists did not confirm this. On the Republican ships, searchlights were switched on, Vierna ships helped themselves with lighting projectiles. It played a fatal role. During the shootout, both columns of the cruisers intensively maneuvered and went on a collision course, while the Libertad and the Mendez Nunes were on the left of the enemy, and the destroyers on the right. Vierna, allowing himself to be drawn into a night battle, was actually put in two flames. Using a very advantageous tactical situation, Republican destroyers from a distance of a little more than a mile fired torpedoes (Almirante Antequera - 5, Sanchez - 4, Lepanto - 3). Around 2 h. 30 min. On the second in the Baleares column, two (according to other sources, three) powerful explosions thundered. A fire broke out on the ship, as one of the torpedoes hit the fuel oil tank, and he, lurching to the port side, began to sink. The second caused the detonation of the cellars of the tower “B”, which led to the death of all the officers on the bridge, including the commander of the cruiser and Rear Admiral Vierna. "Canarias" and "Almirante Server" turned around and left the battlefield. Information about getting one torpedo in the "Canarias" and jamming his steering wheel seem controversial.

Ubieta did not finish off the flaming cruiser, considering it doomed. He did not continue to chase the rapidly evolving enemy - the news of the failure that befell the cruising squadron, made minelayers and the destroyers accompanying them to go on the opposite course. The Francoists refused to mine the approaches of Cartagena in such conditions. Perhaps the Republicans would have achieved even greater success, having managed to destroy all the ships of the enemy. The Republican commander, in addition, could use a destroyer destroyer group departing from Ibiza Island that had at least 18 torpedoes. For some reason this was not done. Perhaps Ubieta feared the daily attacks of the enemy bombers from Menorca. Subsequently, eyewitnesses claimed that the commander allegedly did not want to drown the "Spanish" ships at the end of the already lost war. One way or another, the opportunity to turn a tactical success into a serious naval victory was missed.

The end of "Baleares"

After both opposing sides left the battlefield, the British destroyers Boreas and Kempenfelt approached the flaming Baleares. The fact is that concerned about the attacks on civilian ships made by "unknown" submarines, the British government ordered to patrol in the area of ​​the Balearic Islands. Noticing bright flames on the horizon, the British came closer and in 3 hours. 50 minutes. discovered a burning cruiser. After a short time, the destroyers proceeded to rescue the crew from the helpless ship. All in all, the British, who showed professionalism and self-control, rescued 12 officers and 360 sailors from the burning Baleares and out of the water. Around 5 am, the heavily damaged heavy cruiser sank.

In 7.20, the Canarias returned to the place of the recent battle and began to take on board the rescued from its sistership. Republican reconnaissance aircraft found him behind this occupation. Having received a signal about the heavy cruiser observed and, obviously, having taken it for aspiring Baleares, the main aviation adviser T. V. Malashkevich directed against him all the bombers on hand. An 3 squadron (27 units) "SB" was thrown to the rescue site. Most of them had mixed Soviet-Spanish crews. In total, three air raids were committed, and the planes met with heavy anti-aircraft fire. The pilots claimed that as a result of hits, Baleares sank and managed to achieve at least one hit in Canarias. Since the flagship of Vierna by this time was already at the bottom, the Republicans, who bombed 3500 meters from the height, took the Canarias standing in its place. Subsequently, the nationalists claimed that there were no hits. On the other hand, the British side noted one sailor killed by the bomb attack from the destroyer Boreas, which was located close to Canarias.


"Canarias" should be to the place of disassembly


The battle at Cape Palos seriously affected the intensity of the activities of the Franco-navy. For nearly a month and a half, his ships were located in the permanently-based points, engaged in repair and combat training. However, due to the general unfavorable situation, there was no practical benefit other than moral satisfaction for the Republican Navy — the battle of Teruel was lost, and very few people believed in the victory of the government in Madrid. Streams of weapons and equipment, sent from Italy and Germany to their ally, became more and more deep. On the contrary, assistance from the USSR began to decline. The republican fleet was in poor technical condition, it began to lack fuel, some types of ammunition (in particular, torpedoes), many mechanisms had exhausted their resources, and it was not possible to bring them to proper condition with constant air strikes and deteriorating supply. The Spanish Civil War ended on April 1 on 1939, less than six months before the start of even more formidable events. The republican government, having failed to overcome its internal political ambitions and cope with the chaos that had developed throughout the war, fell, yielding to a cruel, but purposeful and unified force. The cruiser "Canarias", along with former opponents, continued to serve in the Spanish Navy, occasionally undergoing modernization. One of them deprived the ship of its characteristic chimney, turning it into two ordinary ones. The career of the old cruiser ended with 1977 dismantling for scrap.
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  1. qwert
    qwert 23 March 2016 06: 38
    +1
    The economic situation of the state, still remembering the shock of the defeat in the war with the United States, was disastrous. In 1931, Spain made another “reset”, this time getting rid of the monarchy.
    Something a long shock came from the Spaniards. 40 years could not get out. For example, the Germans, after 20 years after a more terrible defeat, had already begun their victorious march through Europe, which was stopped only by the Soviet Union. For some reason, in other countries the shock passes quickly. Won Russia after Sevastopol in the 18 century, is also not particularly shocked. And here ... Strange
    1. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 23 March 2016 08: 04
      +7
      So the Germans and Russians, and then the Spaniards. If the Germans achieve everything with their hard work, diligence, pedantry, then the Russians - with their wit, willingness to sacrifice their personal good for the sake of the common. Both of them have already proved their ability to quickly get on their feet and revive their countries from the ashes. And the Spaniards ... what are the Spaniards. I got the impression that after the British pirates, with the knowledge of the English parliament and the blessings of Queen Elizabeth, actually interrupted the flow of gold and silver from the American colonies to the metropolis of Spain, economic collapse took hold. The country from a leading colonial power, with the opinion of which was considered in Europe, turned into an outsider, vegetating on the outskirts of Europe and this situation lasted a very long time, naturally ending with the defeat of Spain in the war with the USA for Cuba and the Philippines. After that, Spain was not able to revive its economy.
      I have the honor.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 23 March 2016 10: 47
        +6
        Well, it was this flow of money from the colonies that killed the economy, the money went to luxury and war, it was easier to buy something abroad than to produce at home, in Portugal this process is even more acute
      2. Vladislav 73
        Vladislav 73 23 March 2016 11: 47
        +5
        Quote: Aleksandr72
        I got the impression that after the British pirates, with the knowledge of the English parliament and the blessings of Queen Elizabeth, actually interrupted the flow of gold and silver from the American colonies to the metropolis of Spain, economic collapse took hold.

        So after all, the same British invested a stream of resources from the colonies into their own economy, and the Spaniards into a foreign one. Like, why do we need to produce something, develop it. When can we buy everything? And when this gold-bearing stream dried up, the Spaniards in fact found themselves in a broken trough! If in the 17th century. during the Thirty Years War the Spaniards still represented a certain force, then already in the 18th century ... request But the Napoleonic wars did show all the rottenness of the royal power, and if not for the Guerilla people ... request
      3. kagorta
        kagorta 23 March 2016 12: 22
        +4
        The Spanish people have nothing to do with it. Again, the degeneration of the elite and its inability to intelligently manage the money that the colonies brought.
    2. ZIS
      ZIS 23 March 2016 10: 21
      -1
      Compare ... with a finger. what are the economies of Spain and Germany. And the Marshall Plan for the Spaniards did not come up.
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 23 March 2016 11: 14
      +6
      Quote: qwert
      Something a long shock came from the Spaniards. For 40 years they could not hear. For example, the Germans, 20 years after a more terrible defeat, had already begun their victorious march through Europe, which was stopped only by the Soviet Union.

      Duc ... German industry even after the raunchy Versailles world still surpassed the Spanish one. Plus, the economy of the future Reich was actively pumped up by uncles from overseas with money.
    4. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 23 March 2016 13: 22
      +2
      Quote: qwert
      Russia after Sevastopol in the 18th century,


      In the 18th century. Sevastopol just had city buildings - there’s nothing else to fall into shock with.
      Perhaps you meant the Crimean War of 1853-56, but this is the 19th century. And there is absolutely nothing to fall into shock from it - the war was practically world - 3 world empires against the Russian one. And the results of the war are practically drawn. They all lost. Someone changed Kars for Sevastopol, and someone noble life of the "light brigade" for medals cast from Sevastopol cannons ...
      1. Plombirator
        23 March 2016 13: 36
        +2
        Quote: Kostoprav
        And the results of the war are almost drawn.

        Well, here the question is somewhat controversial, considering that one of the results of the war was the complete elimination of the Black Sea Fleet, the shipbuilding industry, fortresses and arsenals in the basin of the Black Sea. An easy brigade? -Any Empire needs its heroes. considering the ratio of the number in the expeditionary army) deprived Russia of one of its fleets.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 23 March 2016 15: 01
          +1
          Quote: Plombirator
          Well, here the question is somewhat controversial, given the fact that one of the results of the war was the complete elimination of the Black Sea Fleet, the shipbuilding industry, fortresses and arsenals in the basin of the same Black Sea

          So the Black Sea Fleet, in the composition in which it was at the beginning of the Crimean War, was still subject to almost complete liquidation. The age of sail is over.
          And judging by the construction sites of domestic steam-frigates, the main center of steam shipbuilding in Russia before the Crimean War was located in the UK. smile
          After the Crimean one, we barely had the strength to re-equip the shipbuilding industry in the Baltic. And then the mechanisms for the ships now and then ordered abroad.
    5. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 8 November 2016 11: 43
      +1
      Quote: qwert
      Something a long shock came from the Spaniards. 40 years could not hear


      Not an industrial country, Spain at that time.
      If the USSR sold them a license for the production of I-15 and organized assembly production (though very artisanal - based on repair plants). Aircraft engines were also imported from the USSR.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 23 March 2016 07: 47
    +6
    Thank you Denis ..! One way or another, the opportunity to turn tactical success into a serious naval victory was missed...Yes it is .. unfortunately ... For this battle, Gonzalez de Ubiteta was awarded the highest military award of Republican Spain, I don’t remember the name .. On January 8, 1939, Ubieta was transferred to the island of Menorca and was appointed commander of the naval base in Mahone, as well as all the troops on the island. After the fall of Catalonia, on February 8, he surrendered Menorca to the Francoists, and he himself fled to Marseilles on the British cruiser Devonshire, from where he went to his wife in Paris, while the rest of the refugees who had left with him were thrown into a concentration camp by the French authorities. year France was captured by Germany, he left for Mexico, and then settled in Venezuela. In the early 1940s, he was the captain of a Panamanian-flagged merchant ship. On September 1950, 30, the ship sank in Colombian waters near the mouth of the Magdalena River, Ubieta refused to leave the sinking ship and sank to the bottom with him.
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 23 March 2016 09: 43
      +1
      Maybe he just didn’t have enough experience, his career soared so quickly.
  3. Cartalon
    Cartalon 23 March 2016 08: 55
    +3
    Excellent article
  4. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 23 March 2016 09: 45
    +4
    There have been so many excellent articles lately that it’s nice to drop by VO, many thanks to the author for the excellent material.
  5. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 23 March 2016 10: 47
    +4
    The article is very good, Denis tried as usual! A definite plus!

    17 July 1936 in Spanish Morocco, a military rebellion broke out, which quickly grew into a civil war.

    For some reason, in our country, they try not to say that this happened ANSWERING the falsified elections and the reprisals that have begun from the left radicals of Spain traditionalists (not fascists, not nationalists!) proclaimed their adherence to the TRADITIONAL values ​​of their country - "Spain - Christian, United and Great".

    It should be noted that the armed forces simultaneously survived the crisis with the state and were not in the best condition. The most combat-ready units were deployed in Morocco: the Spanish Foreign Legion and the so-called African Army, gained experience in the Reef War. They almost completely supported the coup.
    This, by the way, is very reminiscent of, for example, the army of the former Russia, even in the recent democratic period, where the most combat-ready units were in the Caucasus.

    Most of the air forces and navy ships remained loyal to the Republic.
    Again in Soviet-Russian literature they "forget" to say that this happened only because most of the Spanish officers were killed by left-wing soldiers - in the Air Force and in the Navy.

    As a result, the Spanish Republican fleet could not carry out any military operations corny until a lot of competent Soviet officers appeared on it. The role of which in the battle at m. Palos, by the way, is not at all reflected in the article.

    The rebellion had every chance to stall, fade away, but Germany and Italy came to the aid of the putschists, who sent to Spain not only weapons and equipment, but also their military contingents.

    Wow, of the 5 main leaders of the rebellion at its beginning, FOUR DIED - and only one survived - General Franco.

    And still unarmed Germany generally hesitated for a long time in helping Spain; Mussolini also thought for a very long time whether or not to help the rebels, and only after the USSR actively helped the Spanish Communists (which had begun before the war), both Germany and Italy decided to support the traditionalists - so there is far from everything so simple.

    Well, just to make it clear that there is something, and who advocated for what values ​​in this war - the Spanish left in a temple ruined and desecrated by them.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 23 March 2016 11: 21
      +2
      Quote: Warrior2015
      Well, just to make it clear that there is something, and who advocated for what values ​​in this war - the Spanish left in a temple ruined and desecrated by them.

      EMNIP, the ruin of temples and the killing of clergy during intra-Spanish squabbles began in the 19th century. Just the church was perceived as part of the state machine.
    2. avt
      avt 23 March 2016 16: 23
      +2
      Quote: Warrior2015
      And still unarmed Germany generally hesitated for a long time in helping Spain; Mussolini also thought for a very long time whether or not to help the rebels, and only after the USSR actively helped the Spanish Communists (which had begun before the war), both Germany and Italy decided to support the traditionalists - so there is far from everything so simple.

      laughing Oh, that Stalin! laughing Really
      Quote: Warrior2015
      so there is far from everything is so simple.

      Especially when you find out how our volunteers .... "vacationers" went to Gishpania through France, and together with a load of weapons, and not only Soviet weapons were there, but also Antonov-Ovseenko, Trotsky's creature, was widely deployed there, and in in general, then Trotsky tog, this, like that after the results, on the mountain to all the bourgeoisie, we will fan the world fire "with an ice pick in the head, well, Antonov, along with Ovseenko and the goods. So, if you look with the naked eye "
      Quote: Warrior2015
      there is far from so simple.

      For
      Quote: Warrior2015
      Well, just to make it clear that there is something, and who advocated what values ​​in this war
      The game was not two-tone figures between two ideological Players. Yes, and Stalin was somehow closer to the end, and having received a gold reserve of Gishpan, he began to play giveaways no worse than Franks and impudent people began to play the same way before him.
    3. Rastas
      Rastas 23 March 2016 21: 41
      +1
      In the repressions against the church, the church itself is primarily to blame, which throughout the history of Spain served the interests of the ruling strata, spitting from its high bell tower on the troubles of ordinary people. For your information, in the territories occupied by the Francoists, courts of committees were organized, consisting of a landowner, a commander of the civil guard and a local priest (!!!). If all three considered someone guilty, it meant the death penalty (!!!). I’m silent about the fact that the priests themselves proclaimed “to cut the reds” (well, very Christianly), I am silent about the fact that in the Basque country and Catalonia, the Phalangists, all believers and religious, dealt with the priests who expressed loyalty to the Republic.
      And about the falsification of the elections in February 36th, provide data that would prove this. Even opponents admitted defeat, and here you give birth to myths.
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 8 November 2016 11: 53
        +1
        Quote: Rastas
        In the repressions against the church, the church itself is primarily to blame, which throughout the history of Spain served the interests of the ruling strata, spitting from its high bell tower on the troubles of ordinary people. For your information, in the territories occupied by the Francoists, courts of committees were organized, consisting of a landowner, a commander of the civil guard and a local priest (!!!). If all three considered someone guilty, it meant the death penalty (!!!). I’m silent about the fact that the priests themselves proclaimed “to cut the reds” (well, very Christianly), I am silent about the fact that in the Basque country and Catalonia, the Phalangists, all believers and religious, dealt with the priests who expressed loyalty to the Republic.


        Atrocities were happening on both sides: it was commonplace to torture and decapitate a pilot shot down over enemy territory - both from the Franks and from the Republicans.
        Only by 1936-37 did they begin to capture pilots, which would subsequently be exchanged.
  6. Plombirator
    23 March 2016 11: 10
    +3
    Quote: cth; fyn
    Maybe he just didn’t have enough experience, his career soared so quickly.

    Career took off, like the MiG-29K from the deck of "Kuznetsov", not from a good life - the Republicans were sorely lacking officers. If Canarias and Baleares could not be completed for a long time ordinary composition, then the Republicans had problems exactly the opposite.
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 23 March 2016 12: 03
      +1
      I’m talking about that, being a commander of a ship and an admiral are two different things, if an admiral and can command a ship, then the captain needs to learn to command a squadron, this is a completely different level, but here the bats and the admiral do not increase knowledge by hanging stars, life is not IMO RPG.
    2. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 8 November 2016 11: 56
      +1
      Quote: Plombirator
      Career took off, like the MiG-29K from the deck of "Kuznetsov", not from a good life - the Republicans were sorely lacking officers. If “Canarias” and “Baleares” for a long time could not be manned by the rank and file, then the Republicans had problems exactly the opposite.


      The Francoists had a short conversation - as soon as they seized a city, they organized a "conscription" into their ranks - driving out age-appropriate men. The motivation is simple, whether you serve Franco or lean against the wall - most served, stick discipline in the Franco troops worked, in contrast to the republican and other anarchist and volunteer formations.
      But the soldier and the sailor - are very different - the sailors need to be trained, so while the training was going on, the ships could not go out.
  7. Plombirator
    23 March 2016 11: 22
    +3
    Quote: Warrior2015
    The article is very good, Denis tried as usual! A definite plus!

    Thank you for your opinion and detailed comment! Undoubtedly, the fight against the Catholic Church, with this largely cementing factor of Spanish society since the time of the Reconquista, was one of the fatal mistakes of the republic and turned away entire sections of the population from it (for example, the province of Navarre, which fully supported the Francoists so much that the cruiser was renamed after it " Republic "). But the Francoists, too, did not suffer from excessive sentimentality - in a number of units (in the same Ceuta, for example) supporters of the republic were also mercilessly shot.
  8. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 23 March 2016 11: 37
    +1
    // England and France hastened to declare neutrality and non-interference in the conflict. Moreover, their "neutrality" stretched so far that it forbade the Republicans to buy military products. // How many read about this war, this so-called "non-intervention committee" was always "touched". With the presence of ships of the Italian and German navies. the "pickpockets" there were on a rotational basis. Like a naval blockade, with "zones of responsibility." Well. Allotted the same "Deutschland" a piece of the coast, and deliver any cargo, any help. Yes, and not particularly controlled by the guardians and the Anglicos, who there and what luck the Francoists are, considering their policies in the 30s. Another example of Western hypocrisy in its purest form!
  9. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 23 March 2016 12: 24
    -1
    Quote: Alexey RA
    EMNIP, the ruin of temples and the killing of clergy during intra-Spanish squabbles began in the 19th century. Just the church was perceived as part of the state machine.

    Well, so to say, it can be said that the war between God and Satan began from the beginning of time.

    Quote: Plombirator
    If “Canarias” and “Baleares” for a long time could not be manned by the rank and file, then the Republicans had problems exactly the opposite.
    Yes, that’s how it is, almost the POTENTIAL murder of fleet officers is exactly the same as in the Russian Empire in the era of the same revolutionary turmoil, in percentage terms even more (something in the region of 92% of all officers who ended up in the republican zones of the country).

    It’s just that the tragedy was further aggravated by the fact that a significant part of the officers, both the Navy and the Spanish Air Force, FIRST REFUSED TO SUPPORT BOTH PARTIES in the Civil War. In the Christian zones of the traditionalists, they were simply removed from command and that’s all, but in the republican zones they were all killed - as a result, most officers in the Francoist zones sharply improved and became active supporters of the struggle against the Communists.

    Quote: Plombirator
    Undoubtedly, the struggle with the Catholic Church, with this largely cementing factor of Spanish society since the Reconquista, was one of the fatal mistakes of the republic and turned away entire layers of the population from it.
    The doctrine of the struggle against the Church was one of the basic ones for the Spanish left (as well as for most communist parties in the world at that time), if this factor did not exist, then in general the revolution and the civil war would most likely not happen there.

    Quote: Vladislav 73
    Yes, and the custodians and the Anglicos did not really control who the Francoists were and what they were taking into account, given their policies in the 30 years.
    You are wrong - England and France adhered to neutrality, and Germany and Italy, on the one hand, and the USSR and communist Mexico (where Trotsky just lived), on the other hand, were actively supplying weapons (Mexico was the channel and unofficial supplies of American weapons to the left).

    Well, for example - the burning of a church in Spain back in the 1931 revolution of the year.
    1. Vladislav 73
      Vladislav 73 23 March 2016 16: 35
      +1
      Quote: Warrior2015
      You are wrong - England and France adhered to neutrality, and Germany and Italy on the one hand, and the USSR and communist Mexico (where Trotsky just lived) on the other hand, were actively supplying weapons

      You are wrong. England and France adhered to "neutrality" so much that the invading countries, Germany and Italy, were in the same ranks with them, and the Spanish Republic was in a tight ring of economic blockade, but this blockade "somehow miraculously" did not spread on the Frankists. A strange "neutrality". When they actively help some, and just as actively "put a spoke in the wheels" of others. The policy of "appeasement" in action. which led to the Munich Agreement and to the World War in the end. I do not know how about Mexico , but the United States, despite the "1935 neutrality law", actively sold (even in debt) equipment, fuel, ammunition to the Francoists ... The USSR did not initially plan active intervention, but: ... "Thus, due to the policy of" non-interference "And" neutrality "The Spanish Republic found itself in a tight circle of economic blockade, it could buy weapons, military-strategic raw materials, medicines and food only in the USSR.

      The USSR, through the Committee on Non-Intervention, declared that if foreign aid to the rebels was not terminated, the Soviet government would consider itself free from the implementation of the “Agreement on Non-Intervention”. The first Soviet ship armed for the Spanish Republic arrived on October 13, 1936. "
  10. Georg Shep
    Georg Shep 23 March 2016 13: 30
    +2
    The Spanish national patriots won the Civil War because, unlike the Republicans (liberals, communists and anarchists), they showed unity and will, fighting for the traditional way of life and faith. The struggle was harsh, but the one who had more ideals and character won.
    1. Rastas
      Rastas 23 March 2016 21: 52
      0
      And the German legion "Condor", the Italian fascists are national patriots? And the 90 thousand Moroccans who committed atrocities in Spain, how did they fight for the national patriots? At the same time, such a nationally oriented Franco first sold, according to the Montagna project, the mining industry in favor of Germany, the Francoists were required to increase the supply of iron ore (in 1938, Germany imported 22 million tons of iron ore, including half from Sweden). But this was not enough for Berlin. "National" Spain was to exempt from all customs duties the machinery and equipment imported from Germany for German concessions worth 5 million marks and to give a guarantee of payment for these same machines by deliveries of raw materials to Germany within 5 years. To complete the humiliation of the Caudillo, he was presented with an invoice for the expenses associated with the stay of the Condor Legion in Spain, beginning November 7, 1936, totaling 190 million marks. Franco accepted all the conditions. Also after WWII, he sold his national Spain into the hands of NATO, and the economy - the United States.
  11. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 23 March 2016 16: 27
    +3
    Many thanks to the author!
    To my shame, I note that I did not know the details of this battle
    1. Vladislav 73
      Vladislav 73 23 March 2016 16: 43
      +2
      Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
      To my shame, I note that I did not know the details of this battle

      Very ashamed, comrade! yes And write on marine topics, argue ... wink laughing
      1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 23 March 2016 18: 28
        +2
        Well, what can you do, no one is perfect :))) hi
  12. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 23 March 2016 17: 25
    0
    Quote: Vladislav 73
    So after all, the same British invested the flow of resources from the colonies into their own economy, and the Spaniards into a foreign one. Like, why do we need to produce something, develop it. When can we buy everything?

    As for example, many countries do in our time, including and ours. But now the flow of petrodollars has also drastically dried up, as Spain had gold from the colonies.

    Quote: parusnik
    After the fall of Catalonia, on February 8, he surrendered Menorca to the Francoists, and he himself fled to Marseille on the British cruiser Devonshire, from where he went to his wife in Paris.
    This is another fact showing who helped whom.

    Quote: Vladislav 73
    Britain and France adhered to "neutrality" so much that the interventionist countries Germany and Italy were in the same ranks with them, and the Spanish Republic was in a tight ring of economic blockade

    Exactly. Great Britain was very strictly neutral. France had a leftist government and there was an open land flow of arms supplies. And the Republic - well, right in such a ring of blockade that the ships were unloaded in a continuous stream. laughing

    Quote: Vladislav 73
    in spite of the 1935 neutrality law, the United States was actively selling (even on credit) equipment, fuel, and ammunition to the Francoists.
    Private companies sold and it was SLAUGHTER deliveries. And the US military weapons were smuggled to the left Republicans or through Mexico.

    Quote: avt
    Yes, and Stalin is somehow closer to the end, and having received a gold reserve Gishpan
    It does not seem strange, Spain owned one of the world's largest gold reserves, and because of it, including the largest geopolitical players.

    Quote: Vladislav 73
    She could buy weapons, military-strategic raw materials, medicines and food only in the USSR.

    But is that not enough? and in reality, she bought all this in France, and in the USA, and a number of other countries, including for example Belgium and Poland.

    Quote: Vladislav 73
    The USSR did not initially plan active intervention, but: ..
    Oh, hold me seven. The USSR had the DENEST ties with the Spanish left since the 1920x, and from the beginning of the 1930x not only Moscow, but the entire Communist International, tried in every possible way to establish its power there. Which actually succeeded - but the intensification of repression provoked an uprising of part of the army.

    In general, in fact, Spain almost became almost the next republic of the USSR. For example, Madrid, Puerto Alcalá.
    1. Vladislav 73
      Vladislav 73 23 March 2016 18: 06
      +1
      Quote: Warrior2015
      Oh, hold me seven.

      Yes, at least ten belay I will not argue. I do not consider it necessary. Moreover, with such an all-knowing scholar, who has knowledge in absolutely everything! belay
    2. Rastas
      Rastas 23 March 2016 22: 21
      0
      With France, the border was closed and for a long time deliveries were only smuggled in small quantities. Blum's left government lasted only 72 days, and even then deliveries through France with him were quickly stopped, because France did not want to quarrel with Germany. Regarding the United States, one example is that the government of the Spanish Republic tried to buy planes in the United States. But when the Glenn L. Martin aircraft company turned to the US government for clarification, it was announced on August 10, 1936 that the sale of Spanish aircraft did not meet the spirit of US policy. In December 1936, businessman Robert Cuse signed a contract for the sale of aircraft engines to the republic. To prevent this from happening, Congress passed a record embargo law on January 8, 1937, explicitly prohibiting the supply of arms and other strategic materials to Spain. In December 1936, Republican-friendly Mexico purchased planes from the United States to resell them to Spain, however, as a result of a rough pressure from Washington, was forced to abandon the deal. On the other hand, the air bombs sold by the United States to Germany were then handed over by Hitler Franco and used by the rebels in the bombing of peaceful cities, including Barcelona. Throughout the war, American companies supplied the rebel forces with fuel (which Germany and Italy themselves, who suffered from oil shortages, could not have done. In 1936, Texaco alone sold 344 thousand tons of gasoline to the rebels on credit, 1937 thousand tons in 420, 1938 in 478 and 1939 thousand in 624.
    3. Rastas
      Rastas 23 March 2016 22: 25
      0
      For a long time there was a joke about the Spanish gold that sailed into the USSR — why so many ships were needed — one boat would be enough. But seriously, this gold ended already in the 38th, since March all Soviet deliveries have been carried out on credit. First, the USSR granted Spain a loan of $ 70 million for three years at three percent per annum, and in December 1938 (then the whole world considered the situation of the Republicans hopeless) another loan of $ 100 million. Thus, all the stories that Moscow has appropriated someone else's gold simply cannot stand comparison with the facts.
    4. Rastas
      Rastas 23 March 2016 22: 30
      0
      I don't understand what has to do with the fact that Ubietta fled to his wife in Paris? And how does this prove that France was an ally of the Republic? If you have read Remarque's novel "Arc de Triomphe", you must remember the episode when drunk Frankists were sitting in a Parisian restaurant, and this was still the time of the civil war. And one more historically proven fact - on December 4, 1936, the Spanish security service, with the assistance of seconded Soviet advisers from the NKVD, carried out an unexpected raid on one of the buildings of the Finnish embassy in Madrid (from there they often fired on patrols) and found 2000 people there, incl. 450 women, as well as a lot of weapons and a workshop for the production of hand grenades. Naturally, not a single Finn was in the building. All the diplomats were in Valencia, and each "guest" was charged between 150 and 1500 pesetas per month. By order of the then Prime Minister Largo Caballero, all "refugees" from the Finnish embassy were deported to France, from where most of them returned to the rebel-controlled zone.
    5. Rastas
      Rastas 23 March 2016 23: 51
      -1
      And why do you arrange the manipulation of consciousness, showing portraits of Stalin, Voroshilov and Litvinov in the Spanish capital? At the same time, you conclude on this example that Spain has become the next republic within the USSR (!!!!). Absurd delirium. It was only recognition and gratitude for the help that the USSR provided to the Republic. Stalin and Voroshilov were popular among the population. When the Republicans entered the city of Belchite, women greeted them with shouts of “Viva Rusia!”, “Viva Stalin!” and "Vivan los kozakos!" And is it nothing that the governments of Caballero and Negrina, who were never communists, were at the head of the Republic to draw such stupid conclusions about the communist government in Spain?
  13. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 23 March 2016 20: 17
    -1
    So, judging by the minuses, apparently lovers of defiling Christian churches have revived!

    Quote: Vladislav 73
    I will not argue. I do not consider it necessary. T

    Why argue with the facts? just for general development, I hope my comments were useful to you.
    1. Rastas
      Rastas 23 March 2016 22: 39
      -1
      Nothing wrong. Christ, too, drove out merchants from the temple, and called the priests the Pharisees and hypocrites. Also considered a defiler.
  14. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 24 March 2016 00: 06
    0
    Quote: Rastas
    Christ, too, drove out merchants from the temple, and called the priests the Pharisees and hypocrites. Also considered a defiler.

    Firstly, you are blaspheming and insulting my religious feelings, and for this we have a responsibility in our country.

    Secondly, you simply don’t understand (or pretend that you don’t understand) the history of the New Testament - did Christ really burn the Jerusalem temple at the head of a crowd of left-wing radicals? and maybe He somehow defiled the sacred place? No - "Not to break the Covenant of My Father, but to fulfill it."
    1. Rastas
      Rastas 24 March 2016 01: 47
      -1
      And I will say that you insult my religious feelings, opposing the fact that Chritos denounced the scribes and Pharisees. Now, let’s essentially, otherwise you’ll write some nonsense.
  15. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 24 March 2016 10: 43
    0
    Quote: Rastas
    And I will say that you insult my religious feelings

    You apparently have no religious feelings, because you allow yourself to blaspheme Jesus Christ and directly insult the religious feelings of many Russian Orthodox patriots in this forum.

    Until an apology is brought on your part - ignore.
  16. xomaNN
    xomaNN 24 March 2016 18: 34
    0
    Interesting material, thanks to the author. A mess in the fleet is an international matter bully
  17. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 26 March 2016 15: 10
    0
    Quote: xomaNN
    A mess in the fleet is an international matter bully

    But I do not agree! For example, there are countries where it’s better with this and somewhere just horror.

    On the question of the Spanish Civil War, I can say about a little-known fact. There was in the Spanish fleet the battleship "Jaime Primeiro", the flagship of the fleet, which actually became "the Spanish battleship Potemkin" - on it the first crew supported the communist regime as opposed to the traditionalists.

    However, after several small combat operations "the crew got tired of fighting." The revolutionary sailors - again modeled on their Russian counterparts - traditionally killed almost all officers and declared their ship a "self-governing zone of anarchism."

    However, there was a problem - the flagship of the Republican fleet as a result of this peacefully stood at the berth, because its remaining crew simply could not even start its engines, let alone control it. Moreover, the battleship did not even plan to move from its place, because there were merry revels on it around the clock. The "vanguard of the revolution" marked the onset of the "era of freedom" ...

    However, around noon on 17 June 1937, the inhabitants of the Spanish port of Cartagena were deafened by the roar of a powerful explosion. A huge column of smoke and flame shot up above the masts of the battleship that stood on the joke (here the Russian comic expression takes on a completely different and very true meaning!).

    The Republican government, of course, blamed the traditionalists for the death of the battleship, but all the people in the city knew perfectly well the true cause of what happened, because everyone saw what was happening in the "free self-governing zone of anarchism."

    By the way, it was one of the strongest non-nuclear explosions, certainly not comparable with the Yamato explosion that happened 8 years later, but also very strong.

    Here are the sailors having fun on their deprived of officers and immobilized due to the incompetence of the team "Jaime I" shortly before the super explosion.