In 1884, Germany announced a protectorate over the area of the Angra-Peken bay, which was acquired from the leader of the Nama tribe by the merchant of Ludenitz from Bremen. Thus began the penetration of the German colonizers on the coast of South-West Africa. The German Colonial Society of South West Africa was created, the first white colonists began to arrive in Namibia. However, local residents tried with all their might to resist colonization. In response, the colonialists acted extremely harshly. So, after the uprising of the Herero people, a decision was made to destroy all its representatives (but this order was never executed). The most bloody phase of the colonial war occurred in 1904-1907. During the fighting, 60% of the population of the Namibian Plateau died. When the First World War began in 1914, the South African Union (South African Union) entered the war on the side of Great Britain, located next to Namibia. South African troops invaded Namibia and defeated the German colonial units stationed there. After that, the territory of the colony was under the actual occupation of the South African Union, and in 1920 it was officially transferred as the mandated territory of the League of Nations under the control of South Africa. Thus, from the end of World War I to the last decades of the twentieth century, Namibia existed as a colony of South Africa (from 1961 - South Africa, South African Republic). But even under the rule of South Africa, the inhabitants of Namibia did not feel happy. From time to time, popular uprisings flared up, drowned in blood by South African forces, which used, among other things, Aviation to destroy the living forces of the rebels. The South African Union was counting on the inclusion of South-West Africa in South Africa. However, after the end of World War II, the international political situation changed dramatically. The decolonization processes that have begun, including in Africa, could not but affect the situation in South-West Africa. In 1946, the United Nations rejected the application of the South African Union to join South West Africa. But South Africa was not satisfied with the decision of the United Nations and simply refused to transfer the territory of South-West Africa to UN custody. Since that time, SWA has actually turned into an occupied territory. South African troops stationed in South West Africa and local militias of the white colonists severely thwarted any attempts by the African population to achieve national independence. So, in 1959, a demonstration of Africans was shot in the capital of South-West Africa, Windhoek, as a result of which 12 people were killed and 50 people were injured of varying severity.
The desire of the people of South West Africa for independence resulted in the creation of organizations that have set themselves the goal of the struggle for national liberation. Initially, in 1958, the Organization of the People of Ovambland appeared (Ovambo is one of the main nations that make up the population of Namibia). 19 April 1960 was established by the South-West Africa People's Organization (outh-West Africa's Peoples Organization, SWAPO). Its founder was 31-year-old Samuel Daniel Nujoma, better known simply as Sam Nujoma (born 1929). The representative of the people of Ovambo, Sam Nuyoma from his youth participated in the national liberation movement of South West Africa. In 1961, he was forced to leave the country. In 1962, a paramilitary wing was created at SWAPO - the Namibian People’s Liberation Army (PLAN). Initially, the weapons for the PLAN were supplied by Algeria, which supported the national liberation movements of the continent.
The struggle for the independence of Namibia intensified after in 1966, the UN General Assembly closed the South African mandate to manage South-West Africa and transferred the latter to the United Nations. At the same time, South Africa did not rush the decision of the UN to carry out - the occupation regime still existed on the territory of South-West Africa, and South African militias were stationed. In 1966, the armed struggle of SWAPO and PLAN against the South African authorities in Namibia also began. Unlike many other national liberation movements, SWAPO almost immediately received support not only from the socialist states and other African countries, but also from the world community. So, already in 1967, the United Nations recognized South-West Africa as the territory illegally occupied by South Africa. However, the South African authorities themselves paid almost no attention to the attitude towards the “Namibian problem” of the world community. Initially, they hoped to suppress the resistance of SWAPO by the police, however, as military assistance to the Namibian guerrillas on the part of the socialist countries increased, South Africa had to reconsider the strategy to fight the guerrilla formations. At the beginning of the 1970's For the fight against the rebels, the South African Defense Forces - the armed forces of South Africa - were engaged. The situation became much more complicated after the proclamation of independence of neighboring Angola and the coming to power in Angola of the pro-Soviet MPLA. Since that time, Angola has become the main ally of SWAPO. In 1977, the SWAPO headquarters was transferred from the Zambian capital, Lusaka, to the Angola capital, Luanda. Earlier, several hundred Namibian partisans who had previously undergone combat training in training camps in Zambia were transferred to the territory of Angola. The Angolan authorities allowed Namibian refugee camps to be located in the country. In turn, the Namibian partisans were one of the allies of the MPLA in the fight against the South African troops that invaded Angola.
In contrast to many other left and left radical African rebel organizations, SWAPO in 1973 was recognized by the United Nations as the sole legitimate representative of the interests of the Namibian people. Thus, South Africa had to fight against SWAPO itself. The situation of South Africa has especially deteriorated after the decolonization of Angola and Mozambique. Portugal, which remained the last colonial empire, was a natural ally of South Africa in the fight against the partisan national liberation movement in South Africa. After the withdrawal of Portugal from Africa, the situation changed for South Africa for the worse. However, the South African leadership tried by all means to keep South-West Africa under control. To combat the guerrillas of SWAPO, Koevoet-Kufoot detachments were created. They were the classic anti-partisan units that were fighting the rebels by patrolling the “bush”. In “Kufut” served 850 military. Most of the commandos in the rank and file were recruited from representatives of the Ovambo ethnic group — the one whose leaders had created SWAPO in their time. The command of the native special forces was carried out by white officers and non-commissioned officers, there were about 300 people. Officers were recruited from South African police and South-West African police, with selected officers undergoing training at the bases of South African commandos. The detachment was divided into patrols of 40 people in each, who were armed with South African-made Casspir mini-defense armored personnel carriers. Each such armored vehicle had a crew of two people and could take on board up to 12 soldiers - a full-fledged infantry unit. Detachments "Kufoot" quite successfully acted against the Namibian partisans for eleven years. During this time, 153 servicemen died in Kufut, while the Kufut fighters managed to destroy at least 3681 of the SWAPO partisan.
However, despite the deployment of powerful special forces units in South-West Africa and the intensification of repressive measures against the national liberation movement, South Africa was not able to defeat SWAPO. The reason for this was, among other things, military support provided by SWAPO from the Soviet Union. The organization’s militants were trained on the territory of the USSR - in the Crimea, at the 165th training center for the training of foreign military personnel. In 1985, the Soviet Union delivered SWAPO Tanks, cars, light rifle weapon and ammunition, special equipment, uniforms, fuel and lubricants. All this assistance was intended to support the SWAPO units operating against the South African army.
In 1987 - 1988 in the area of the city of Quito-Kvanavale in southern Angola, major battles were fought between Angolan troops and Cuban units in Angola on the one hand, and troops from South Africa and the Angolan insurgent organization UNITA on the other. Large-scale clashes entailed large human casualties both among Angolan soldiers and among Cubans. Moreover, up to ten Soviet military advisers who were under the command and formations of the Angolan army were killed in Kvito-Kvanaval. Among them, Junior Lieutenant Oleg Snitko, mortally wounded on September 26 of September, adviser on organizational and mobilization work under the district commander Colonel Andrei Gorb, a communications driver of the group of Soviet military advisers on the Southern Front, private Alexander Nikitenko, and a number of other Soviet soldiers are among them. As a result of the 1987 battles of May 27, the South African forces left Angolan territory, blowing up the border bridge behind them. After that, the South African authorities began peace negotiations with Angola. Although the Quito-Kvanavala battle was not directly related to Namibia, its outcome, namely, the ousting of South African troops from Angola, had as its main effect the beginning of a gradual revision of South African policy in the region. Already in May, 1988 began negotiations between South Africa, Angola and Cuba in London - with the mediation of American diplomats and in the presence of Soviet representatives. In August 1988, South African troops were officially withdrawn from the territory of Angola. Next came the turn of Namibia. 1988 December 22 in New York signed an agreement to transfer Namibia to the control of the United Nations. Thus ended the 1988-year history of the South African occupation of Namibia.
1 April 1989 began the one-year period for Namibia’s transition to political independence. The situation in the country during the transition period was monitored by the United Nations. During the transition period, rapid changes took place in the political life of the country. First, over 40 thousands of thousands of fighters for independence who lived in Angola, Zambia, Tanzania, Mozambique and other countries returned from emigration to Namibia. Among them were the top leaders of SWAPO. Secondly, political parties were formed and registered, the Constituent Assembly was elected. 57% of voters voted for SWAPO in the elections to the assembly. The tasks of the Constituent Assembly included, first of all, the development of the state constitution of Namibia. 21 March 1990 Namibia was officially proclaimed an independent republic. SWAPO leader Sam Nujoma was elected the country's first president. He remained as head of state for 15 years - until March 21 2005. Then Nuyomu was replaced by his closest ally and friend of Hifikepunye Lucas Pohamba (born 1935), also a SWAPO veteran who held the presidency until 2015, as president. During the presidency of Pohamba, the policy of nationalizing the lands of white farmers continued. Currently, the head of state (from 2015) is Hage Gottfried Geingob (born 1941), who is also a representative of the SWAPO party and from 1964 to 1971. led by the official representative of SWAPO to the United Nations.
- the first president of Namibia, Sam Nujoma
If we consider the natural resources that the land of Namibia hides, then the country can be recognized as one of the richest countries in the world. Here are uranium, diamonds, copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten. Namibia occupies one of the key places in the world diamond mining, besides, there is a large uranium mining pit in the country. Nevertheless, the majority of the country's population lives in poverty, there is a very uneven distribution of income between the upper stratum of society and the main part of the country's population. But one of the undoubtedly positive characteristics of Namibia compared with other African countries is its relative political stability. Only in 1998-1999. in the country was so-called. “Caprivi War of Independence” - a small strip of land in the north of Namibia, inhabited by the Lozi people. But then the Namibian authorities, with the support of Angola, Zambia and Zimbabwe, managed to quite quickly and firmly crush the resistance of the separatists.