In this article, the author tried, from the perspective of psychology and philosophy of the interaction of man and technology, to consider the important problem of the prospect of creating 5th generation aircraft, taking into account the front-line combat readiness factor aviation. The main attention is focused on the engineering and psychological issues of aviation readiness for a new breakthrough in the fields of culture, education, flight safety and training.
SUCCESSION OF THE SPIRIT
In the minds of aviators, airplanes, an airfield, flights, the sky, risk, spirit and freedom possess continuity and continuity in their spiritual development. These concepts can only alter objectivity, moving into souls along with the images of the past. Such a one-blooded connection between the life of aviators and labor is the result of a semantic love of heaven. Pilots, as a species of celestial beings born on earth, no matter of age, yearn for the sky, for it is for them the roof of "my house." For the military, this means Homeland.
This global, psychological analysis will be covered by an example stories Creation of 5 generation combat aircraft. Moreover, 5-th generation in its power has a direct relationship to war and peace. The methodology of psychological analysis of the stated topic is more convenient to show through the motivational environment of actions according to conscience, entering the field of spiritual experiences, spiritual reflection.
As a psychologist, I argue that the elitism of the creators who created the power of aviation, as a pillar of technical culture and a shield of the Fatherland, was in their fundamental connection with the national interests of the majority.
Let me remind you: military aviation is a subject of defensive action delegated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Military Regulations.
In order to better understand and justify the creation of 5-generation airplanes, you should give a little information about the technology of creating the airline and adopting it.
TURN THE PRECURITORS
It is especially important for methodological pilots, psychologists, flight safety specialists to know in advance how specifically the chosen type of aircraft differs from its predecessor primarily in its aerodynamic, flight-technical, ergonomic characteristics.
Scientists in the field of aviation medicine, psychology, ergonomics, based on the results of their previous research, create a database of current changes in flight crew activities and ground support under the influence of new technologies introduced into the man-plane – flight control system. New technologies at special stands and aircraft laboratories simulating activities are studied in terms of their impact on flight safety, efficiency, and health. Issues of interaction in terms of new role-playing functions, mental well-being, social security, social status of the aviator and his prestige are not ignored.
The main direction is to reduce the accident rate associated with human errors by increasing the ergonomics of cabs, workplaces, providing him with the ability to intelligently make intelligent decisions, especially in unusual situations.
It is established how necessary at the same time with the aircraft the flow of technical means of training, means of support, flight special high-altitude and protective equipment. Will additional equipping of airfields, radio engineering systems, shelters, special ground equipment, missile storage warehouses, etc. be required? etc. I present these basics with one goal: to more clearly assess the mental and financial readiness for the transfer to the 5 generation aircraft in the future.
As a rule, on average more than 50 research institutes, more than 1500 enterprises participate in the creation of an airline complex with weapons, more than 4 thousand research and test flights are conducted. It is appropriate to note here that the 5 generation is not created from scratch. In particular, at the end of 80-s, the A. Mikoyan Design Bureau named after MiG-23ML, MiG-31, designed a fundamentally new product - 1.42 (chief designer GA Sedov). A highly maneuverable fighter with a reclining seat back was also designed, allowing, in combination with the new anti-transfer suit, to transfer the dynamic overload to 12 units.
Everything in technology, design, equipment, weapons was original, priority, and in some ways ahead of England, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan. In particular, fundamentally new composite materials were used, the engine with a specific 10 propellant was designed, super-maneuverability was laid, flying without a boost at a cruising speed of more than 2 thousand km / h using the principle of lateral thrust control, demasking signs that provide radar stealth. The new radar (airborne radar) with a phased antenna array, according to calculated data, made it possible to detect an air target up to 200 km and to ensure simultaneous targeting of more than five missiles to various targets. By the way, this task was practically solved on the MiG-31. The product 1.42, ready for the first take-off, languished for about seven years in a hangar. The Honored Test Pilot of the USSR, Hero of Russia Vladimir Gorbunov in 2001 lifted him up in the air. And again in the hangar.
The specific domestic multifunctional fighter (MFI) was bypassed by the American F-22 only at the time of testing. We were overtaken not so much by the mind as by financial resources (the cost of the F-22 is more than 100 million dollars). I want to remind you that the military promised the senate: one F-22 will replace the F-15-x air wing. Now they doubt the very concept of super-maneuverability, the use of the vector of lateral thrust and the super-automation of the "glass cabin". Apparently, 1,8 billion dollars in development and two disasters on the test cooled their ardor.
INVESTING FACILITIES IN IRON AND HUMAN
To understand the level of military organizational readiness for the construction of aviation complexes with all the infrastructure, I’ll briefly discuss the creation of 4 aircraft as an example.
By the time the 4 generation appeared in the Russian Air Force, an institute of military-scientific support was created for the development, testing and introduction of military equipment and weapons, which included all four research test institutes and air force test sites. The State Research and Testing Institute of Aeronautical and Space Medicine was determined to be the leading one in terms of ergonomics and then human factors.
When approaching the creation of 4 generation aircraft, aircraft were introduced with variable wing sweep, deep automation, controlled high precision weapons, automated obstacle flyby systems. The aerodynamic characteristics were significantly expanded and thrust-to-weight ratio increased. As a result, the psycho-physiological load on the crew began to increase. And it was the technical innovations that gave the aircraft higher combat qualities that turned out to be the most life-threatening for the crew (pickup, corkscrew, swinging, inertial rotation, engine surging, and much more).
When they came close to the 4 generation, a new scientific paradigm was formulated: the informational communication of a person with an aircraft, the harmony of fusion of a control action, and the precisely expected response of an understanding aircraft is the reference point for creating weapons control laws. The scientific basis of learning was introduced, based on the psychophysiological laws of behavior in non-standard, emergency and catastrophic conditions. Moreover, standards for cockpit ergonomics were created, starting from a review, ending with the magnitude of the effort on the aircraft and weapon control bodies. Finally, funds were invested not only in "iron", but also in man. Using its natural data, it became possible to achieve a combat level for which it is respected. And now they pay big money for it.
In the human dimension, we have reached the highest: the pilot, by definition, was no longer considered the culprit, a new class of natural errors was discovered, including those that were incorporated into the vehicle.
This naturally manifested itself in the literacy requirements for the aviation industry and the strengthening of understanding interaction. By coordinated actions, more than 60 standards for ergonomics, hygiene, and physiology were worked out. Created a state certificate for methods of psychological selection, functional tests for medical flight examination.
In our experiments, we evaluated the behavior of the pilot based on the principle of preferred interaction, and not on control alone. Without ethics, it is difficult to ensure flight safety. This is the core of the design worldview, especially when designing the level of automation for controlling aircraft and high-precision weapons. What a sin to conceal, they strive, and very strongly, to make the heads of rockets smarter than the heads of pilots. Normal and emergency experience shows that the “over-salted automation” on the fighter causes the flight crew a sense of excess on board, which reduces its social status. When creating the 4 generation, the psychophysiological principle of the active flight mode operator was used; from our point of view, the steering control turned out to be more reliable (1985 year).
SUPPORT ON SUPERMANEURABILITY
But back to the 5 generation of aircraft and ask ourselves: for what purpose do we create them? Let's estimate our partner in the person of the USA. We are still talking about the defense of the country. Some technical explanations.
Air superiority in the 21st century can be won by aviation only by acquiring a new quality — super-maneuverability. However, from a psychophysiological point of view, this means that an energetic maneuver with an overload of 9 – 12 units on unsteady mode will necessarily cause a shortage of time for the use of special means. Hence the improvement of aerodynamics in the form of expanding the range of permissible angles of attack at subsonic speeds. Balancing the aircraft at low speed at high angles of attack due to the use of deflection vector vectors, new aerodynamic controls located in front of the center of mass of the aircraft. This ensures super-maneuverability. Overloading into 9 – 12 units and the gradient of its rise over 0,03 seconds are transcendent for a person. A special, another anti-overload protection, mandatory automated control over the level of human consciousness with an automatic exit of the plane into the horizon is required when there is a threat of losing consciousness.
By the way, the first accidents on the tests of the F-22 demonstrated that this kind of overload in combination with aerodynamic forces from lateral overloads is a serious threat to the life of the pilot. But the main danger is the disorientation of the pilot, especially in the conditions of invisibility of ground objects. When piloting at angles of attack greater than 90 ± and gliding one should expect a lot of surprises in the form of a special kind of illusion and disorientation. For a sharp increase in speed relative to the angular displacement of the object of observation, visual-vestibular illusions will follow.
At one time, in the interests of the 1.42 product, simulating lateral overloads with different positions of head deflection, backrest deflection, that is, changing the resulting gravitational vector relative to the longitudinal axis of the body, our scientists determined the appearance of pronounced false sensations: diving, tailing, roll to the left, to the right. Moreover, lateral overloads create a moment of inertial forces that cause the head and neck to rotate. You can imagine the working conditions when the information field of flight parameters and combat parameters is put on the helmet-mounted viewfinder. In particular: the head is tilted down, the effect of Gx is the diving sensation of 7-8 ±, the head forward / upward is the sensation of tailing up to 13 ±, the head to the right is the sensation of left roll and tailing. Yes, plus all this, on-screen indicators are created virtual figurative images, strictly not tied to the coordinates of the earth. In this case, it will be necessary to especially carefully process the information field in order to counteract disorientation. And it is very dangerous to overestimate the benefits of modern concepts of artificial intelligence, the “talking cockpit”, the “side handles”, the cabin interior in the form of a television operator's console, separating the crew from reality and forcing it to press buttons in a monkey manner.
During the creation and operation of the Raptor F-22 fighter aircraft, the Americans faced a number of serious problems. Reuters Photos
4 aircraft generation rejuvenated the disease by four to five years, reduced flight longevity by three to four years. The creation of an air refueling system has increased the ominous role of hypodynamia and hypokinesia in the form of growth of urolithiasis, osteochondrosis, and vascular and joint diseases. As a result, the cancellation of the flight work only according to the diagnosis “osteochondrosis and its consequences” over the years 1992 – 1998 increased five to six times! If someone is not very interested in the problem of a person, then think about the economic damage to the loss of an airplane worth 50 million.
Unfortunately, long flights over 6 – 8 – 12 hours. in the cockpit of a fighter is not equivalent to flying in the cabin of the main liner. The issues of physiological conditioning, nutrition, methods for improving performance, physical training in flight and for the 5 generation remained unresolved.
Having visited the air bases of the US Air Force and the US Navy, I was personally convinced with what depth and understanding the questions are being worked out to protect a person from dangerous factors in flight on 5th generation airplanes. Already today, sensors of the main parameters of the state of operability are mounted in special equipment, which transmit information to the earth through a satellite system. Means have been developed that protect the head and neck from shock overloads. A fundamentally new high-altitude special equipment has been introduced. The command of the Navy Air Force introduced a new concept: "Arms control through the state of man." Only in American aviation fleet 14 research programs are being developed in six research centers with a total annual budget of $ 12 billion. The Air Force medical service includes 73 hospitals, 41 clinics, and more than 50 research institutions. The annual budget is $ 3,9 billion. During a personal conversation with many military leaders of American air bases, research institutes and training centers, they insisted on me: “We have come up with a new military doctrine: we have no specific enemy, there are interests that we defend. They can occur anywhere in the world. Therefore, we are creating the military-technical level of weapons and their delivery one to two orders of magnitude higher than in any other country. And in this case, we will always maintain full combat readiness to defend our interests. ”
Bitter note, we, as always, act asymmetrically! Withdrew from the Air Force Scientific Research Hospital, Scientific Research Institute of Aerospace Medicine, the Central Medical Flight Commission, advanced training of aviation doctors and much more. Practically destroyed the scientific base of the Flight Research Institute named after M.M. Gromov.
Of course, work continues, every scientist, doctor, psychologist, biologist, engineer, mathematician in all biomedical centers of the newly created single Institute of Military Medicine, in aviation hospitals working on specific tasks. Worse is different: the work goes without military-tactical participation of aviation military leaders, without a strict sovereign eye on the part of the Air Force for the developers of military equipment. Private orders are too prevailing because of the "hillock", breaking our well-established ties. To put it mildly, our Air Force, by the criterion of readiness to exploit 5-generation airplanes, professional skills of the flight engineering team are lagging behind.
To summarize, of course, at the level of their understanding.
The parity state of the 5 generation of airplanes with any aviation power is not a successful war, it is a stable reliable world.
To create and preserve it, it is imperative to take the following measures:
- it is highly desirable to assign military-technical policy in aviation to military research institutes, combat training and test centers, and the Air Force to manage the entire infrastructure for creating 5 aircraft. And this should be done by people like Sergei Korolev, who gave a huge result in the form of a quiet squeak of an artificial satellite of the Earth;
- it is necessary to return to the higher flight schools (institutes) thoughtlessly reduced faculty. Raise the role of the Academy named after NE. Zhukovsky;
- in the interests of improving the organization, centralization of cases, request the Supreme Commander to decide on the creation for five to seven years of specialized specialized brigades with specialists of different profiles from industry and all research institutes and SIC, universities, test centers of combat use of the Air Force for each newly developed type of aircraft 5- th generation, except for federal programs;
- for this organization to create a specific program for passing all stages of research and testing, to the military commanders to report each quarter to the Supreme Commander personally or on his instructions to the Prime Minister, to the Minister of Defense (this was the only way the country quickly returned parity in the atomic industry — in five -eight years);
- As an option, it is proposed to form a financial flow from extrabudgetary funds from the sale of aircraft (at least 50%), from training foreigners, long-term loans from banks that have state priority, deductions for civilian aid rendered by military personnel and during a natural disaster. It is especially important to organize the cash flow from the protection policy of the state in favor of increasing our defense capability, including at the expense of the regions;
- reducing the cost of flight training would be useful to achieve due to the development of general aviation (gliding, small aircraft), from where to recruit applicants to flight schools;
- flight schools and in combat, and in economic terms it is more profitable to finish on combat aircraft, for which to begin training on transitional training machines with the 3 course, attracting test pilots. This practice was once introduced to the Armavir Flight School by the commander of the air defense aircraft, Colonel-General Vladimir Andreev, and gave excellent results;
- to strengthen the professional training of pilots for flying in the mountains, in the desert, over the water area using training and combat firing, refueling in the air, for which purpose to allocate modern communications and satellite navigation tools to the target method, actively connecting flight centers to solving these tasks combat use. In our conditions, the system "science - education - professional training" should work in a single time scale;
- standardize the ergonomic control at the stage of development and testing of aircraft, psycho-physiological training in schools and in combat units the status of combat training. Aviation medicine on military issues should be included in the Air Force Combat Training Directorate;
- to limit "pacifist" propaganda in the part concerning combat training and military education in a patriotic vein. The duty of the military is to protect our life under a peaceful sky;
- to return the status and managerial functions to the combat training departments and the higher educational institutions of the Air Force as pillars responsible for combat readiness and combat capability. The scientific and technical committee, the leading research institutes to subordinate personally to the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force;
- test flight work to finance a separate line.
If we are really going to reach the level of leading peacekeepers in the coming 15 – 20 years in the plan of the president of the country and the Security Council, we cannot do without the 5 generation for all aviation branches. Without belittling the fearless submarine fleet, the ground forces are a fundamental pillar of the Armed Forces, but projecting the structure and course of the last 10 war over the first half of the 21st century, I note: the view from above literally and figuratively holds the winning strategy on the wings, especially since the threat most likely they will bring us on the wings too.
And the last. Give scientists freedom, for they are the only state institution that morally transforms the freedom given to them, by definition, into responsibility, not into willfulness.