The creation of the P-1 rocket was preceded by the study of captured German developments. After the end of the war, Soviet engineers had the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the mass of enemy products, including the planning bombs Hs-293 and Hs-294 from Henschel. Soon it was decided to copy the Hs-293 bomb and try to improve its design. Until a certain time, the work went with varying success, but later they were stopped. In 1948, the next tests of the recycled German bomb passed, which showed the inexpediency of continuing its development. Several years ago, this weapon was of great interest, but now it had no noticeable prospects. Thus, a new weapon should be developed from scratch, based on existing experience.
The development of the German project was carried out by KB-2 (later GS NII-642, after a series of transformations it became part of the NPO Mashinostroyeniya). In April 1948, by a decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, he was entrusted with the development of new guided weapons for fleet. D.L. Tomashevich. Subsequently, his place was taken by M.V. Orlov. Based on the experience gained, captured documentation and some new ideas, it was necessary to create an air-launched guided missile to destroy enemy ships. The project received the designation RAMT-1400 "Pike." For certain reasons, the projectile was called "jet aviation sea torpedo ”, which was deduced in its designation. In the future, the project changed several times and received new names, until it came to adoption under the designation P-1 “Arrow”.
General view of the RAMT-1400B rocket "Pike-B". Figure Airwar.ru
Preliminary work on the "Pike" led to the formation of the overall appearance of promising weapons. In the future, some changes were made to the proposed concept, but the general provisions of the project remained the same. It was proposed to build a cruise missile with a fuselage of high elongation and a trapezoid wing of a small sweep. A V-shaped tail was also proposed, ensuring proper flight control and reducing the size of the product. It was originally planned to use a liquid rocket engine. At the head of the fuselage should be fixed detachable penetrating high-explosive warhead.
Noticeable problems have arisen in the elaboration of the issue of control systems. Ideally, a new rocket was supposed to go to the target area by command, and then independently find the target with the help of an active radar homing head. However, there were no finished products of this class, and their development was an extremely difficult task. For this reason, a proposal appeared to work out two options for the PAMT-1400 project. One of the missiles could be equipped with an active radar homing, and the second modification was to be completed with radio command guidance and controlled from the carrier.
The customer agreed with the above arguments in favor of the two projects, the result of which was the decree of the Council of Ministers on December 27 of 1949 of the year. In accordance with this document, KB-2 was supposed to create a RAMT-1400A “Pike-A” missile with radio command control and a PAMT-1400B “Pike-B” with homing systems. The expediency of parallel development of two projects was soon confirmed by practice. Work on the creation of an active radar seeker seriously delayed, because of which for a long time only the Shchuka-A rocket had real prospects.
Both new missiles should have the most similar design, but some features of the new projects led to a number of differences. So, the projectile with the letter “B” was a little larger, but differed from the “Pike-A” in smaller mass. In addition, differences in the design of the head fairing should have been present: the entire nose of the PAMT-1400A could be fully delivered to the warhead, whereas at PAMT-1400B there should have been a volume for the homing head.
Both jet aircraft sea torpedoes were supposed to receive a similar circular fuselage with a total length of 6,7 m (Pike-A) or 6,8 m (Pike-B). The diameter of the fuselage of both versions was the same - 0,7 m. According to reports, the nose of the rocket with radar seeker should have a hemispherical fairing, and in its lower part an elongated recess was provided for installing a conical warhead. "Pike-A", in turn, was to receive a conical pointed fairing covering a unified warhead. In the tail part of the fuselage was located the nozzle of the liquid propulsion engine. On the bottom surface of the fuselage several protruding blocks were provided. So, in the case of the "Pike-B" under the fuselage placed drop warhead.
Both rockets were supposed to get a wing of similar design, which had a trapezoid shape in terms of. The wingspan of the RAMT-1400A was 4 m, and the RAMT-1400B was supposed to get the tips of the cantilevers tilted downward, increasing the span to 4,55 m. At the rear edge of the wing, narrow spoilers were set up that were planned to be used for roll control. The tail of the two missiles was unified and consisted of two stabilizers installed with the collapse in the form of V. At the rear edge of the tail there were also deviating control planes.
The existing design features should have led to a noticeable difference in the weight parameters of the two missiles. The radio command projectile had to weigh on the order of 2 t, “Pike-B” - no more than 1900 kg.
Flight diagram of the RAMT-1400B rocket when launched from an aircraft carrier. Figure Airwar.ru
For both RAMT-1400 missiles, a general warhead weighing 620 kg with a charge 320 kg was developed. The warhead had a conical shape and was equipped with a contact fuse VU-150, providing undermining in a collision with a target. In the development of the warhead used developments in the German project, which led to the formation of an unusual method of application. At some distance from the target ship, the warhead was to be separated from the rocket and fall into the water. With the help of a special protrusion on the head, so-called. cavitation ring, separated charge had to move along a curved path and hit the target in the underwater part of the board. Due to the speed and relatively heavy charge, the warhead could cause serious damage to the target, up to the prerequisites for drowning.
The customer set a fairly tight deadline, which led to the acceleration of certain works. However, some necessary units were missing, which affected the testing. Despite the protracted development of control systems, testing of new missiles began at the end of 1949. By this time, the KB-1 had manufactured and prepared for the checks several experienced rockets, which in fact were only a glider with a fluid engine and an abnormal simplified control system. A relatively simple pneumatic autopilot type AP-19 was used to keep the product on the desired course.
Until the end of 1949, a dozen and a half test launches were carried out, in which the flight data of the missiles and the engine were checked. During these and subsequent tests, according to some data, a ground-based launcher was used. Other sources talk about the use of aircraft carriers. The following year, collected several "Pike" with radio command control. Due to the problems of the own project, the equipment was copied from German similar equipment. Then, in 1950-m, we conducted several tests of similar products. The specialized Soviet control system KRU-Pike was only ready in the middle of 1951. In August, the first launches of missiles, controlled by radio. Now the Tu-2 and IL-28 aircraft were used as carriers.
At the end of the year 1951 stories the project "Pike" began a fairly long period of various transformations. The decisions of the leadership and command led to the reorganization of enterprises participating in the project RAMT-1400. In addition, it was decided to change the project in accordance with the new requirements. With all the difficulties that have arisen, all this has brought the Pike missile closer to service in the navy.
In mid-December, KB-2 was merged with plant No. XXUMX, which resulted in the emergence of the State All-Union Research Institute No. XXUMX (GS NII-67). The newly created organization continued to work on the project RAMT-642, but until a certain time the prospects of these weapons were the subject of controversy. The fate of the "Pikes" was decided in the summer of 642. Then in the leadership of the industry was raised the issue of creating a completely new weapon. Based on the RAMT-1400B project, it was proposed to build a promising rocket designed to arm ships and capable of striking enemy surface ships. Preliminary study of the proposal showed the possibility of equipping existing and future warships with launchers for new missiles. At the same time, the shells themselves had to be changed.
The first step in creating new strike weapons for ships was the development of a project to upgrade existing ships. In the autumn of 1954, TsKB-53 (now the Northern Design Bureau) presented a variant of the modernization of the 30-bis destroyer, which involved dismantling two gun turrets and replacing them with two rail missile launchers.
The proposed project was of great interest from the point of view and tactical advantages, which affected the further course of work. In the last days of 1954, the SS NII-642 was commissioned to develop new missile weapons for ships based on the developments of the RAMT-1400 project. Within two years, it was required to submit to tests a guided missile with a range of 50-60 km and an active radar seeker. The new project received the symbol KSSH - “Ship projectile“ Pike ”.
To fulfill the updated requirements, the base project had to be significantly modified. In particular, it was found that the use of a liquid engine will not allow the new “Pike” to fly to the required range. In addition, the use of missiles on ships imposed specific requirements for launch systems. As a result, it was decided to equip the KSSch product with a solid-fuel starting engine and a mid-flight air-jet. Some other design changes were also required.
General view of the rocket KSSch "Schuka". Figure Popmech.ru
The overall architecture of the rocket, with amendments to the use of new parts, has been preserved. An elongated fuselage of circular section was used, under the central part of which there was a bucket air intake. To accommodate all the necessary equipment, the diameter of the fuselage had to be increased to 0,9 m. The length of the fuselage was 7,6 m. A trapezoidal wing of a small sweep with downward flaps was used. Wingspan - 4,6 m. The tail structure remained the same, but the planes were reduced. Also added lower V-shaped plane.
Detachable warhead executed in the form of a cylindrical block with a pointed fairing and hung under the nose of the fuselage, in front of the air intake. As before, it was proposed to drop it at a distance of several tens of meters from the target. The nose of the fuselage itself was used to accommodate an active radar homing head. Other parts of the fuselage contained fuel tanks and other equipment.
The turbojet engine AM-5А was selected as the power plant. This product has already been used on some new fighters. It was suggested that during the repair, engines with a small residue of the resource should be removed from the aircraft and mounted on rockets. This saved on the development and production of new engines, while at the same time solving the problem of building guided weapons. It was proposed to launch from the launcher using a solid-fuel accelerator PRD-19M. The applied propulsion system from the starting and main engines allowed to accelerate the rocket with 2,9 mass up to relatively high speeds.
It was proposed to carry out targeting with the help of the new GOS RG-Pike. Search and seizure of targets was carried out at a distance of no more than 25 km within a sector of width 150 °. The first part of the trajectory of the rocket was supposed to pass with the help of an autopilot, after which the control was carried out by the commands of the radar homing ship. The autopilot provided for an independent discharge of the warhead when approaching the target.
The used power plant and other missile units, according to calculations, made it possible to hit targets at ranges up to 100 km. However, in practice it was impossible. At that time, domestic warships did not yet have advanced radar with a large detection range. Thus, the actual range of use of the Schuk could not exceed 35-40 km. Target indication from another ship until a certain time was unrealizable.
To use the new missiles on ships in the TsKB-34 (now KB special engineering) was developed launcher CM-59. This product was based on a stabilized platform and equipped with two starting rails. Also provided for a device for lifting rockets from the hold and installation on the guide. There were guidance systems in two planes for commands from the fire control station. The main elements of the launcher and the missile were protected by booking.
In the middle of 1955, the shipbuilding industry received an order to develop a ship carrier on the basis of the destroyer of the 56 project. At the beginning of the next year, the 57 project was introduced, which provided for the use of CM-59 systems with Schuku missiles. The project was of some interest, but differed in the reduction of some characteristics in comparison with existing ships. For this reason, the 56-EM project was created with a single CM-59 installation and an eight-rocket ammunition load.
At the end of 1953, the construction of the destroyer 53 project “Bedovy” was carried out in Nikolaev. In the summer of 1955, it was decided to finish building it on the 56-EM project, which implies the use of KSSC missiles. In 1958, the ship was incorporated into the Black Sea Fleet. Even before the official start of the service, “Bedovy” managed to become a platform for testing new aircraft shells. By the beginning of 1957, the rocket was ready for testing, and the ship received all the necessary equipment.
2 February 1957 of the Year The “poor” for the first time in the world launched a guided anti-ship missile. Unfortunately, the first launch was unsuccessful. Even before the starting engine was reset, the Pike began to roll over on its side, after which it fell into the water, flying just a couple of kilometers. In mid-February, the second launch took place, this time ending successfully. Product KSSch successfully hit the target in the form of an unfinished ship and struck her. The rest starts in spring and summer ended with both successes and failures.
6 September 57-th held the first launch of the "Pike" on a moving target, which was used as a torpedo boat with radio control. The rocket flew over 20 km, aimed at a target moving at a speed of the order of 30 nodes, and successfully hit it. Due to the marching speed of more than 250 m / s, the rocket simply cut the boat in half.
In 1958, the ship "The Perspicacious" of the 56-M project joined the tests. He also received a CM-59 launcher and could use new missiles. Further tests of missiles and auxiliary equipment were carried out with the use of two carrier ships. Such inspections allowed us to refine all systems, as well as to form the best way to use weapons. So, after starting and rising to a height of more than 100, the rocket had to descend to 60 m above the surface and fly to that target at that height.
Also at this stage, test launches were conducted from a distance of 75 and 85 km from the target. The rocket launched from 75 km captured the target from a distance of 20 km, after which it confidently attacked it. The rocket itself fell into the water in front of the target ship, and the dropped warhead went under water and exploded under the target, flooding it. Starting with 85 km ended in failure. Rocket several times captured and lost purpose. The last capture occurred at a distance of several kilometers, when the rocket could no longer maneuver properly. A miss made up 2 km in azimuth and 5 km in range.
The destroyer "Elusive" project 56-M, 1970 g. In the rear part is visible launcher missiles KSSCH. Photo of Wikimedia Commons
According to the test results in 1958, the KSSH missile was put into service. The new anti-ship missile system received the designation P-1 "Strela" and became the armament of several warships of the Soviet fleet.
Ships and missiles
The first carrier of the Shchuka complex was the destroyer Bedovoy of the 56-EM project, commissioned by the Black Sea Fleet in 1958. In the future, three 56-M ships of the project received a similar weapon: the Seer, the Elusive, and the Unstoppable. Another destroyer of the project, “Indomitable”, was enrolled in the fleet lists, but was not mortgaged or built. The destroyers of the 56-EM / M project received one launcher for the KSSC missile aircraft. Ammunition consisted of eight missiles.
The project destroyer "57" in the proposed form did not suit the customer. For this reason, it was reworked, resulting in a project 57-bis. In 1957-61, nine ships of this type were laid, eight of which were handed over to the fleet: Wrathful, Thundering, Persistent, Burning, Proud, Boyky, Vigilant and Daring . After launching another ship was removed from construction and mothballed. Later, the last destroyer of the series, The Brave, became an energy vessel. On the bow and stern of the 57-bis ships were mounted two missile launchers of missiles KSSCH / P-1. The total ammunition of the two installations reached 16 missiles.
Launchers for missiles P-1 "Strela" received only 12 ships. The operation of this weapon continued for a long time, during which the sailors managed to explore all the strengths and weaknesses. First of all, there was a low reliability of rockets associated with the general imperfection of the design. It got to the point that with a double launch one of the missiles hit the target, and the second fell into the water near the ship. However, if the rocket managed to get to the target and hit it, the effect could be very high.
In 1961, the destroyer “Wrath” of the 57-bis project performed combat firing with the P-1 missile with an inert warhead using the old type destroyer. An important feature of these exercises was the use of a target without dismantled equipment: the target retained all the superstructures, towers, etc. Thus, the opportunity to work out the detection of a full-fledged ship, as well as to study the results of its attack.
Before shooting, the target ship was not placed on the barrels, which is why it constantly changed its position. At the time of the hit, the destroyer stood as a stern to the “Wrath” and it was there that the rocket hit. "Pike" with an inert warhead hit the aft deck, ricocheted and flew forward. On her way, she tore out of places and threw gun turrets, parts of the superstructure, etc., to the sides. Then the rocket proportional to the deck and stopped near the bow artillery. The "conditional enemy" remained afloat, but could hardly return to combat service without major repairs.
Soon, they fired at the old cruiser "Admiral Nakhimov" of the 68-bis project. From the distance of 68 km, the destroyer Prosorlivy (project 56-M) launched the Pike missile, again equipped with an inert warhead. The rocket entered the target and left a major hole in the form of the eight, formed by the engine and the warhead. The Arrow broke through the ship and made a smaller outlet in the other board. Part of the hole was below the waterline, which led to a partial flooding of the target. In addition, there was a fire spilled kerosene from a rocket. Rescuers had to try to put out the fire and return the cruiser to the base for further cutting into metal.
By the beginning of the seventies, the KSSH / Pike / P-1 missiles are morally and physically outdated. By this time, new anti-ship missile systems had been created, which is why the continued operation of Strela was considered impractical. At the same time, all 12 carrier ships could still continue to serve. The consequence of this was the modernization of ships with the installation of new equipment and weapons.
The destroyer "Graemy" project 57-bis after upgrading the project 57-A. Launchers CM-59 replaced by another weapon. Photo of Wikimedia Commons
Shortly before the end of the P-1 missiles, the last launch of such weapons took place. In 1971, the ship "Elusive" took part in the tests of the newest anti-aircraft complex "Storm". The destroyer launched four Strela missiles, which served as training targets. Due to the specificity of the flight trajectory and the incompleteness of the air defense system, none of the targets was hit.
In 1972, the destroyer “Bedovy” left for modernization under the new project 56-U. The project involved the dismantling of all equipment of the P-1 complex with the installation of AK-276 artillery systems and the Termite P-15 missile system. In the future, the other ships of the 56-M project underwent a similar modernization.
Simultaneously with the modernization of “Bedovoy”, the redesign of the destroyers of the 57-bis project started. In accordance with the new project 57-A, they were deprived of obsolete missiles and received new weapons. Interestingly, after such a modernization, the destroyers became large anti-submarine ships.
Already in the new quality and with new weapons 12 destroyers continued to serve until the end of the eighties and the beginning of the nineties. Later they were written off and divided into metal due to moral and physical obsolescence.
From the end of the forties, specialists from several organizations were engaged in the creation of a new missile weapon of the as yet absent class. The result of their work was the emergence of the P-1 “Strela” complex, also known as the Shchuka KSSch. It was the first domestic anti-ship missile intended for use by ships. In addition, "Strela" left behind and primacy on a global scale. Destroyer "Bedovy", in turn, became the first ship in the world with anti-ship missiles.
Like many other pioneers in their field, the Pike was not distinguished by high performance and had insufficient reliability. However, it reached mass production and was used by the navy. In the future, the Soviet industry created a mass of other anti-ship missile systems, but the first such system was the Strela П-1.
Shirokorad A.B. Weapons of the domestic fleet. 1945-2000. - Minsk: “Harvest”, 2001