Military Review

Heavy cruiser Admiral Scheer (Admiral Scheer): the last lucky raider

29
Admiral Scheer (him. Admiral Scheer) - German heavy cruiser "Deutschland", relating to the period of the Second World War. The cruiser was named after Admiral Reinhard Scheer. The ship was originally classified as a battleship in Germany, but in February 1940 was officially classified as a heavy cruiser. Also common is the assignment of this ship to the class of "pocket battleships", which was introduced by the British.


The ship was bookmarked on 25 on June 1931 of the year, on 1 of April on 1933 of the year it was launched, and on November 12 of 1934 was commissioned. The cruiser was designed taking into account the rather harsh conditions of the Versailles Treaty, according to which post-war Germany could not have more than 6 ships in the class of battleships. At the same time, newly built ships could not exceed the tonnage 10 thousand tons, and the caliber of the guns mounted on them was limited to 11 inches - 280 mm. In total, three ships of the type “Deutschland” were built - Deutschland itself, Admiral Scheer and Admiral Count Spee himself. The ships were slightly different from each other. Each subsequent ship of the series was slightly wider and exceeded the Deutschland displacement.

The main task that stood before the German designers in the implementation of this project was the creation of a powerful warship - the ocean raider, which would not go beyond the Versailles Treaty. The most severe restriction imposed on the displacement of the ship, which should not exceed 10 thousand tons. The German engineers managed to solve this problem, thanks to their inclination towards various innovations. When building a ship, arc welding of body parts was widely used (instead of the traditional use of rivets). MAN's installed diesel engines proved to be significantly lighter than steam boilers and turbines that were used on heavy ships. The three-gun turrets of the main caliber allowed six 283-mm guns to be placed on board the heavy cruiser, slightly increasing the weight of the turret compared to the two-gun. All of these decisions allowed us to limit the displacement of the ship. But even despite all the efforts of engineers, the ship still came out of the restrictions allowed to it. The ship's standard displacement was 11 550 tons, full - 15 180 tons. At the same time, according to official documents, the ship passed as if it did not violate the conditions of the Versailles Treaty.

Heavy cruiser Admiral Scheer (Admiral Scheer): the last lucky raider


Admiral Scheer project features

The ship’s armament was pretty powerful. The artillery of the main caliber was represented by six SK L / 283 C52 28-mm guns, which were placed in two three-gun turrets - one in the bow and one at the stern. Each tower weighed about 590 tons and provided guns with reliable protection. The thickness of the frontal armor was 160 mm, the back - 170 mm, on the sides of the reservation of the towers was 85 mm, the top of the 105 mm. The technical rate of fire of the mounted guns allowed an 3 shot per minute, but in practice, the rate of fire rarely exceeded the 2 shot per minute. The main-caliber ammunition ammunition consisted of three types of shells weighing 300 kg. Among them were armor-piercing, armor-piercing-high-explosive (with retardation) and high-explosive.

Auxiliary caliber artillery included 8x150-mm SK L / 55 C28 guns located in 8 towers along the sides of the cruiser. Compared with the guns of the main caliber protected they were significantly worse. The calculations of these guns were covered with armor the thickness of the entire 10 mm, moreover the turrets of auxiliary caliber guns were close and inconvenient for calculations. The technical rate of fire of the 150-mm guns was 10 rounds per minute, but in practice it rarely exceeded the 5-7 rounds per minute and was highly dependent on the power supply conditions for the ammunition. The ammunition of these guns included armor-piercing and high-explosive shells, weighing 42 kg.

Anti-aircraft artillery was presented separately. For the ship, which was designed in the 1930s, the weakness of anti-aircraft weapons was commonplace. Few could then predict that one of the main enemies of warships would be aviation. The Admiral Speer’s initial anti-aircraft weapons were already reinforced as compared to the Deutschland cruiser, it consisted of six 88-mm L / 78 C / 31 guns, as well as eight 37-mm automatic L / 83 C / 30 guns, four paired installations. Also on the cruiser there were 8 small-caliber 20 mm L / 65 submachine guns located in quad installations. In 1939, all 88-mm anti-aircraft guns were replaced with more powerful 105-mm guns L / 65 C / 33. The number and location of small-caliber anti-aircraft guns was constantly changing and by the end of the war amounted to 33 units located in single, twin and quad installations.



The power plant of heavy cruisers was traditionally represented by several steam turbines (usually one per screw), the steam into which came from steam boilers (2-4 boiler to each turbine). Such a scheme was heavy and cumbersome. In connection with the Versailles restrictions for "pocket battleships" she did not fit. Therefore, on heavy cruisers of the “Deutschland” type, German engineers for the first time used a diesel propulsion system, which consisted of 4-groups of engines. In each group there were two MAN M-9Zu9 / 42 58-cylinder diesel engines, each of which developed power up to 7100 hp. The total power of all 8 diesel engines was 56 800 hp, which provided the ship with a maximum travel speed in 28 nodes.

Innovation and booking of the cruiser. It departed from the generally accepted rules of both world and German shipbuilding. On the heavy cruiser “Admiral Scheer”, the more powerful “Wotan” armor was widely used, which was created at the Krupp plants. On the cruiser "Deutschland" this armor has not yet been used. The main elements of the heavy cruiser reservation system were belt armor, armor and armor bulkheads. Belt armor was located at an angle 13 °, it consisted of two belts of armor plates - lower (80 mm) and upper (50 mm). The upper armor belt rang higher than on the series head cruiser, reaching the middle deck. The thickness of the armor gradually fell to the nose, and the cruiser’s nose itself was not even booked at all. At the same time, the aft booking was strengthened and reached 45 mm. This was done in order to provide more vitality to the steering. The thickness of the armored decks and the anti-torpedo bulkhead was 40 mm, and between the upper armored bulkheads - just 20 mm. An interesting and not entirely unambiguous decision of the designers was the installation of a longitudinal armored 40-mm bulkhead. On the one hand, it was an important supporting element of the cruiser armor-decks, and also protected from direct hits to the nose, which were particularly dangerous due to weak protection. But on the other hand, such a bulkhead unjustifiably weighed and imbalanced the "Admiral Scheer."

Naturally, the ship, which they tried to fit into the rigid framework of restrictions at the design stage, had both its advantages and disadvantages. Among the obvious advantages of the Doyland-type cruisers were, above all, their main-caliber artillery, which was supplemented with a fairly sophisticated fire control system. Anyone, even the most well-defended heavy cruiser of those years, was vulnerable to the shelling of 283-mm guns of German raiders. The second important advantage of the German "pocket battleships" was the use of diesel engines as a power plant. Such shortcomings as vibration and noise were more than compensated for by the huge cruising range that made these heavy cruisers excellent ocean raiders.



However, the Admiral Scheer’s power plant also had shortcomings. The maximum speed of the ship was insufficient, it was significant - on the 4-5 nodes it was inferior to the indicators of the British cruisers of those years. At the same time the ship was built in strict accordance with the requirements of the Kriegsmarine. In speed, he surpassed the enemy’s battleships, and in firepower, the cruiser. Theoretically, this allowed the heavy cruiser to successfully lead a raider war, attacking the enemy guards poorly guarded and departing from the battle with his battleships. In practice, it turned out that even a group of cruisers was able to drive a “pocket battleship” into a corner without the involvement of battleships for this. An example was the death of the heavy cruiser Admiral Count Spee, which was sunk by the 17 team of its own on December 1939 of the year, being blocked by the British in the estuary of the La Plata River.

Another weak point of the Deutschland heavy cruisers was their armor. The booking did not at all correspond to the offensive capabilities of these ships, even the most advanced Admiral Count Spee in this regard was not adequately protected from the fire of a potential enemy 203-mm guns. The restriction on the displacement of the ship said its role. Also among the project’s drawbacks were the presence on the ship of two auxiliary calibers - anti-mine and anti-aircraft. In real conditions, 150-mm guns were poorly protected and ineffective, and heavy anti-aircraft artillery was present in insufficient quantities. According to experts, the preferred solution would be to install a universal caliber 120-127-mm on an artillery ship, as was provided for by the initial project.

Captain Cranke's Raid

The heavy cruiser "Admiral Scheer" was actively used by Kriegsmarine during the Second World War. Already 4 September 1939, he became the object of attack by the British Air Force. Three 227-kg bombs hit the ship, but all of them, because of the low height, did not cock and did not cause serious damage to the ship. The ship was killed at the very end of the war, on the night of 9 on 10 on April 1945, while at the dock at the shipyard in Kiel, he was again bombed by British aircraft. The ship received 5 bombs hits, rolled over and sank upward with a keel. AT history the same cruiser entered mainly two raider operations. The first of these, known as Captain Kranka’s raid, was successful, but participation in Operation Wonderland in the summer of 1942, when the cruiser bombed Dixon, did not bring any special laurels to the ship.

"Admiral Scheer" in Gibraltar


Captain Theodore Cranke's raid from 23 October 1940 of the year to 1 of April 1941 made this ship famous, having passed more than 46 thousands of nautical miles, it sank and captured the enemy's 16, with a total displacement of 99 of thousands of registered tons. This raid allowed the ship to go down in history as the most successful Kriegsmairne raider, operating up to the Indian Ocean.

October 23 The Admiral Scheer, commanded by Captain I rank Theodore Cranke, left Gotenhafen and headed for Brunsbüttel at the mouth of the Elbe, the starting point of his long march. On October 1940, the ship passed the Danish Strait unnoticed and sailed into the North Atlantic. The fact that the German "pocket battleship" went to sea, in England, they learned only at the end of October. Conventionally, the ship raiding could be divided into three stages: the attack on the convoy “HX-30”, which went from Halifax to the UK, actions in the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean.

On November 5 “Admiral Scheer” sank its first victim - the English ship Mopan (5389 gross registered tons, grt). Bananovoz obediently stopped and 105-mm shells were sunk in 40 minutes after his crew sank into the boats. The evening of the same day at the coordinates 52 ° 45 'N and 32 ° 13 'W.D. German ocean raider attacked the HX-84 convoy, consisting of 37 ships. The security of the convoy was provided by only one auxiliary cruiser “Jervis Bay”, which was an armed cargo-passenger ship (14 164 brt). The convoy commander, Admiral Moltby, immediately after the discovery of a large warship, ordered the ships to disperse, and the captain of the auxiliary cruiser entered into an unequal battle with the Admiral Scheer. The outcome of the battle was predetermined even before its commencement; Jervis Bay was sunk in 20 minutes. But even such a small delay allowed the convoy ships to disperse and put smoke screens. Before nightfall, the German heavy cruiser managed to launch the convoy ships 5 to the bottom, but the bulk of the ships managed to escape. The victims of the “pocket battleship” were the Beaverford transports (10042 brt), Meydan (7908 brt), Kiebane Head (5225 brt), Trevellard (5201 brt) and Fresno City (4955 brt) The German cruiser did not succeed in completely crushing the convoy, but its actions forced the British to stop the movement of trans-Atlantic convoys for two weeks (until November 17), which was a success during the war. At the same time, the fact that it was impossible to destroy a large convoy of ships that are scattered in different directions by the forces of one ship became obvious.



The British quickly responded to the attack of the convoy: the battleships Nelson and Rodney blocked the Danish strait, and the Reyles and Hood battlecruisers approached the Bay of Biscay, blocking the routes to the bases for the German heavy cruiser. Perhaps it was these actions that led Admiral Scheer to go south. On November 24, he captured and then sank the English transport Port Hobart (7448 brt), en route to Auckland with cargo, which included 5 light training aircraft. The ship managed to signal a meeting with the German "pocket battleship", so the cruiser again changed course and went east to the Cape Verde Islands.

1 December 1940 of the Year “Admiral Scheer” attacked and sank another British transport “Tribsmen” (6242 brt), which was heading from Liverpool to Calcutta. Since the boat with the captain of the ship could not be intercepted, Crank again decided to change course, again sending the cruiser to the Central Atlantic. In the afternoon of December 18, he managed to capture the large transport of Dukesa (8652 brt), on board of which were 3500 tons of frozen meat and 13 million eggs. The captured ship was decided to use as a floating warehouse until its coal reserves were exhausted. At the same time, Theodore Kranke intentionally gave the ship the opportunity to transmit a radiogram of a meeting with a raider. By this time, he received a message saying that far to the north, the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper had begun his first voyage into the ocean. The trick of the German captain was successful, the British sent three ship groups to the south to intercept the Admiral Scheer, but the cells of the “net” spread out against him were very large and the “pocket battleship” escaped without any problems, making it easier for another German raider.

In the second half of December, the cruiser cruised in the South Atlantic, where 8 January replenished fuel supplies and headed for the line between Cape Town and Freetown. Here, on January 17, he captured the Norwegian tanker Sandefjord (8038 brt), which transported approximately 11 000 tons of crude oil from the Persian Gulf region to England. On board the captured tanker, 250 prisoners were transferred and sent as a prize ship to Bordeaux. At this time, the captain of the "Admiral Scheer" decided to change tactics, he began to converge with the transports during the day, not at night. To disguise, he began to use the call signs of the English warship. The reception was a success, 20 January captured and then sank the Dutch transport Barnveld (5597 brt), which carried 5 light bombers for the South African Air Force, 86 trucks and more 1000 tons of ammunition and other military equipment. A few hours later, he sank the British transport Stanpark (5103 brt) with a load of cotton on board. Both sunk ships did not have time to give a distress signal.



Raider actions in the Atlantic showed that a single ship that does not have information about the paths of the enemy ships finds them relatively rarely (6 cases in the 2,5 month). Moreover, these actions require special measures to ensure his life, during which time the heavy cruiser 4 once replenished its reserves with the help of a supply vessel.

3 February 1941, the ship circled the Cape of Good Hope, heading for Madagascar. February 20 captured the British Advocate tanker (6994 brt), which carried almost 10 000 tons of oil and gasoline, and later captured and sank the Greek transport Gregorios (2546 brt). On February 21, the ocean raider managed to capture and sink the Canadian transport Kenediien Cruiser (7178 brt) carrying ilmenite (raw material for titanium production), and on February 22 the Dutch steamer Rantaupajang (2452 brt), which delivered coal from Durban to Singapore. From the last two ships, victims of the German "pocket battleship", radiograms were received. Therefore, the British have taken steps to neutralize the heavy cruiser. On board the English cruiser Glasgow, which was 140 miles from Rantaupajang, a plane was raised that was able to detect a German raider. The pursuit organized by the British could not lead to the destruction of the ship or the establishment of permanent visual contact with it, however, it forced the Admiral Scheer to return to the Atlantic again. Raider actions in the Indian Ocean have shown that in a zone of intensive navigation a ship can act effectively - intercepted the ship's 4 in 18 days, but only for a limited time. In fact, the cruiser was pushed out of range in less than 3 weeks.

1 April 1941, the ship without special adventures entered Kiel. During the 155 days of the cruise, he passed 46 419 nautical miles, sank one auxiliary cruiser and captured and sank 16 of merchant ships with a total displacement of 99 059 tons, while the cruiser commander himself insisted on the number 151 000 tons. Of the three German “pocket battleships” of the “Deutschland” type, he became the most successful raider. For the commission of this raid, the crew of the ship was presented to the awards, and the captain of the cruiser received the rank of Rear Admiral.

The end of the heavy cruiser "Admiral Scheer"


Modern historians estimate the raid "Admiral Scheer" is not so clear. Of course, the actions of the ocean raider caused interruptions and nervousness in the Allied shipping, diverted large surface forces to organize escorting convoys, but the practical result did not justify the effort expended. German auxiliary cruisers, which were disguised as civilian ships, moved with less risk along the sea routes, and sometimes even a heavy cruiser was bypassed through the sunk tonnage. Their use was more effective for raider actions. In addition, the actions of surface ships were incomparable with the actions of German submarines, which forced Kriegsmarine with time to abandon this tactic.

Information sources:
http://warspot.ru/2846-posledniy-reyder
http://wunderwafe.ru/Magazine/BKM/Karm_BB/05.htm
http://battleships.spb.ru/Germ/Spee/Admiral_Scheer.html
http://fanread.ru/book/4033486/?page=24
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  1. bionik
    bionik 18 March 2016 06: 54
    +7
    The ruins of the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel. At the top of the photo you can see the bottom of the sunken and overturned German battleship Admiral Scheer.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 18 March 2016 12: 04
      0
      Quote: bionik
      The ruins of the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel.

      This is how many bombs dropped there !? belay
  2. Good cat
    Good cat 18 March 2016 06: 55
    +1
    The logical end of the pirate (last photo).
  3. bionik
    bionik 18 March 2016 06: 58
    +4
    Installation of guns.
  4. bionik
    bionik 18 March 2016 07: 00
    +2
    Launching.
  5. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 18 March 2016 07: 02
    +13
    The case of the design of the Deutschlands proves that the characteristics of a ship are influenced not only by the economic capabilities of the state (cost), but also by political and ideological ones. This proves once again that the ship is a balanced creature, and the fact that you can shove it into it does not mean superiority. So no matter what many sofa critics, authorities, analysts and other specialists say, there is nothing ideal and the sacrifice of some parameters to strengthen others always goes along the edge of a compromise, validity, logic. hi Plus
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 18 March 2016 08: 38
      +2
      Quote: Rurikovich
      So that many couch critics, authorities, analysts, etc. specialists would not say there, there is nothing perfect and the sacrifice of some parameters to strengthen others always goes along the edge of compromise, validity, logic

      And the techies say that new is the science of compromises. In principle, these ships used a new hull assembly technology, a new power plant. These were the first ships with a welded hull and a diesel-hydraulic SSU. I just can't understand why a heavy cruiser. According to Washington agreements from 1922 to heavy cruisers were cruisers with 8 "or 203mm artillery.
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 18 March 2016 10: 00
        +11
        Quote: Amurets
        I just don’t understand why a heavy cruiser. According to the Washington agreements of 1922, cruisers with 8 "or 203mm artillery were referred to as heavy cruisers.
        The Germans did not sign this agreement, as did the USSR (our heavy cruisers of the "Kronstadt" type were designed for 305 mm, later, they wanted from 254 mm, even later, with the filing of the Germans before the war, with 381 mm German guns). The German warships of the "Deutschland" type were intended for raiding, and these are, namely, heavy cruisers, cunningly designated by the Germans as "battleships" and, ironically and bewilderedly by the British, as "pocket battleships". But, paradoxically, the restrictions of Versailles gave rise to such ships (according to the restrictions, Germany could build battleships no larger than 10 tons of displacement). If we talk about compromises here, then the Germans brilliantly embodied them, shoving everything possible into the ships.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 18 March 2016 10: 40
          +3
          Quote: Per se.
          The German warships of the "Deutschland" type were intended for raiding, and these are, namely, heavy cruisers, slyly designated by the Germans as "battleships", and, ironically and bewilderedly by the British, as "pocket battleships"

          And how else could the Germans classify these ships if, according to the Treaty of Versailles, they could be part of the fleet and build to replace only the following types of ships: armadillos, KRL, EM and MM? wink
          In those days, the Germans still pretended to comply with the Versailles Accords.
          Article 181
          After the expiration of two months from the date of entry into force of this Treaty, the strength of the German navy should not exceed in armed courts:
          6 battleships of the "Deutschland" or "Lothringen" type,
          6 light cruisers,
          12 counter-destroyers,
          12 destroyers,
          or an equal number of replacement vessels built, as stated in Article 190.
          They should not contain any submarines.
          All other warships, since there is no opposite resolution of this Treaty, must be put in reserve or receive a commercial purpose.

          Article 190
          Germany is prohibited from building or acquiring any military vessels other than those intended to replace the armed units provided for in this Treaty (Article 181). The above-mentioned vessels for replacement may not have a greater displacement than:
          10000 tons for armadillos,
          6000 "for light cruisers,
          800 "for counter-destroyers,
          200 "for destroyers.
          Except in cases of loss of the ship, units of various classes can be replaced only after a period of in:
          20 years for armadillos and cruisers;
          15 years for the destroyers and destroyers, counting from the time the ship was launched.
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 18 March 2016 13: 43
            0
            Quote: Alexey RA

            And how else could the Germans classify these ships if, according to the Treaty of Versailles, they could be part of the fleet and build to replace only the following types of ships: armadillos, KRL, EM and MM? wink
            In those days, the Germans still pretended to comply with the Versailles Accords.

            I know the provisions of the Versailles Treaty on ships, I cannot understand why the Germans reclassified these ships? They also had a series of heavy cruisers of the "Admiral Hipper" type. However, it turned out to be not entirely successful.
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 18 March 2016 14: 12
              +2
              Quote: Amurets
              I know the provisions of the Versailles Treaty on ships, I cannot understand why the Germans reclassified these ships? They also had a series of heavy cruisers of the "Admiral Hipper" type. However, it turned out to be not entirely successful.

              But because the tasks of the Panzerschiff were purely cruising. So they reclassified them - not according to the "Washington TTX framework", but according to their purpose.

              According to the "Washington" system, all three panzerschiffs whistled past the KRT class and splashed down in the LC class. Next to Rodney, Queens, Colorado, Texas, Nagato and Fuso. laughing

              Leaving them in the battleship class was also somehow not with the hand: by that time, out of the whole variety of types of battleships, only "coastal defense battleships" remained in the classification, which the panzerschiff also clearly did not pull.
              1. Amurets
                Amurets 18 March 2016 14: 22
                +1
                Quote: Alexey RA
                According to the "Washington" system, all three panzerschiffs whistled past the KRT class and splashed down in the LC class. Next to Rodney, Queens, Colorado, Texas, Nagato and Fuso

                Thank you! Now I understand.
        2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          Andrei from Chelyabinsk 18 March 2016 19: 58
          +3
          Quote: Per se.
          The Germans did not sign this agreement, as did the USSR

          Of course. But in fairness, we note that both the Germans and we signed under the second London (having concluded the Anglo-German and Anglo-Soviet naval agreements)
          Quote: Per se.
          If we talk about compromises, the Germans brilliantly embodied them

          It’s hard to say ... many points of view on this issue. But yours certainly has the right to life! hi
  6. bionik
    bionik 18 March 2016 07: 07
    +2
    Guns of the main caliber and torpedo tubes.
  7. bionik
    bionik 18 March 2016 07: 14
    +1
    According to the old maritime tradition, they break a bottle of champagne on board.
  8. kvs207
    kvs207 18 March 2016 07: 41
    +1
    All is well, but why a cruiser?
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 18 March 2016 10: 45
      +1
      Quote: kvs207
      this is good, but why a cruiser?

      Because there are two options: either a cruiser or a battleship. The panzerschiff is not pulled to the battleship - they have a thinner armor belt than other KRLs. Yes, and the 28-cm HA after PMV for LK is somehow weak.
      So there are CR. Moreover, the tasks of the Panzerschiffe are purely cruising.

      In general, it would be better to leave them the German classification - armadillos. To emphasize that they do not fit into any Washington class. smile
    2. AK64
      AK64 18 March 2016 22: 20
      +1
      All is well, but why a cruiser?


      Because it’s a heavy cruiser by appointment.

      How else to classify it? A battleship, or what? This "battleship" could not stand the battle with light cruisers (La Plata, 1939).

      Byaka was a boat, to be honest. And it’s correctly noted that auxiliary cruisers coped with the same task no worse
  9. Symarokov897
    Symarokov897 18 March 2016 07: 48
    +1
    I also thought that the "pocket" battleship ......
  10. kuz363
    kuz363 18 March 2016 08: 22
    -2
    Yes, here are the true sea powers that fought on all the seas and oceans! Even if Germany was an adversary. It is very interesting to read, just real adventures. You can even make a movie
    1. King, just king
      King, just king 18 March 2016 09: 09
      0
      Germany was not an enemy, citizen kuz363 (I don't know where you are from, the flag is disguised), but an enemy. Adventures????? Yeah, for the lost sailors with prizes. Movie????? Where in Russia???? Although at present ... "Admiral" ....
    2. Vladislav 73
      Vladislav 73 18 March 2016 10: 44
      +2
      kuz363. Shoot a film. I propose a topic - how "Admiral Scheer" shot the Soviet icebreaker ship "Alexander Sibiryakov" (Operation "Wunderland") in the Kara Sea ... Out of 99 people, 22 were taken prisoner, I think the fate of the rest is clear. I think there is no need to explain the German captivity. And for the sake of completeness, I advise you to go somewhere in the Arctic, sail away and swim in the sea-ocean!
    3. Alex
      Alex 18 March 2016 12: 04
      +3
      Quote: kuz363
      It is very interesting to read, just real adventures.

      I recommend two books:
      T. Kranke, J. Brennecke. "Pocket battleship" Admiral Scheer "in the Atlantic"
      M. Powell. "The last campaign of" Count Spee "".
      The first was written by the participants (commander and officer) of that same campaign, the second - from the words of the captain of the Africa Shell tanker Patrick Dove and others who were released in Montevideo.
  11. King, just king
    King, just king 18 March 2016 08: 22
    +1
    Somehow the song was cut short by the author at a glance. Well, a raider and a raider, he posted a photo of the overkill, but did not describe the subsequent fate of the ship.

    "Pocket battleship" or rather "pocket warships" is an ironic English characterization. Battleship is then a heavy cruiser in the Kriegsmarine classification.

    It is rather difficult to refer to any specific type, like our "Kirov". Versailles dominated the designers.
  12. unknown
    unknown 18 March 2016 09: 32
    +4
    Theoretically, the battleships that have served their terms were replaced, therefore, the armadillos.
    The limitation of displacement, respectively, led to a limitation of speed.
    Calculations by the Germans were carried out, it turned out that with an increase in displacement of about 500 tons, with an increase in length and an improvement in the contours of the hull, while maintaining the power of the installation, the speed increases by about three knots. This corresponded to the speed of the British cruisers.
    The battle at the mouth of La Plata is not an indicator. The Germans made too many mistakes.
    The type was not developed further rather because of ideological motives.
    Too Germans wanted it to be like everyone else. And they did not succeed in the heavy cruisers. And we, with an eye on them, embodied many ideas in 68 bis. We can’t live without non-metal.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 18 March 2016 10: 59
      +4
      Quote: ignoto
      The battle at the mouth of La Plata is not an indicator. The Germans made too many mistakes.

      This fight is just very revealing. The Spee stumbled upon the weakest of the RN connections - and that was the end of her cruising.
      Even if Langsdorf had somehow defeated Harwood, the fate of “Spee” was still decided. Most of the BC has been used up. Evaporators, fuel filters and galley are out of order.

      Anyway, the very concept of raider warships was a utopia for Germany. How many wolves do not feed, the lion still has more... And the example of "Spee" is extremely indicative: after all, Harwood's group was far from alone in the South Atlantic. From the south, a British MCT practically approached the battlefield. From the north came the British APUG (AV, LKR, KRL). Another APUG departed from the coast of Africa.
  13. alpamys
    alpamys 18 March 2016 09: 45
    +3
    how the ship died is incomprehensible.

    shelling of ship’s armor of the Krupp company in 1905 with different ammunition, armor thickness 70mm





    1. Uncle ho
      Uncle ho 18 March 2016 12: 23
      +2
      Quote: alpamys
      shelling of ship’s armor of the Krupp company in 1905 with different ammunition, armor thickness 70mm

      I will correct slightly: these plates were exhibited at an exhibition in Dussel in 1902-m
      By the way, the layout "A.Sh." in this room of the German Museum.
      1. alpamys
        alpamys 18 March 2016 13: 23
        +1
        Quote: Uncle Ho

        I will correct slightly: these plates were exhibited at an exhibition in Dussel in 1902-m
        By the way, the layout "A.Sh." in this room of the German Museum.

        Thank you ... an excellent museum, by the way, I have been to it more than once.
        1. Uncle ho
          Uncle ho 18 March 2016 13: 28
          +2
          Quote: alpamys
          thanks ... great museum by the way

          absolutely) Always, when I get in, I feel boyish delight.
          By the way, the maritime museum in Kiel was not impressed when I first got there. To be honest, I expected more from Kiel, "the pride of Deutsche sailors". Butcher Harris knocked the militarist spirit out of him with his bombs. Well, or drove into the far corners of the mysterious Teutonic soul)
          1. alpamys
            alpamys 18 March 2016 13: 40
            +2
            Quote: Uncle Ho
            Quote: alpamys
            thanks ... great museum by the way

            absolutely) Always, when I get in, I feel boyish delight.
            By the way, the maritime museum in Kiel was not impressed when I first got there. To be honest, I expected more from Kiel, "the pride of Deutsche sailors". Butcher Harris knocked the militarist spirit out of him with his bombs. Well, or drove into the far corners of the mysterious Teutonic soul)

            it wasn’t in the north, but I visited the museum of the MAN company, there is also a ship theme.
            1. Uncle ho
              Uncle ho 18 March 2016 13: 55
              0
              Quote: alpamys
              it’s not in the north

              Well, you should definitely visit Laboe) The Memorial and U-995 are worth it!))
  14. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 18 March 2016 12: 00
    0
    I would like to note several points of the article, which are quite controversial. 1. The armoring of "pickpockets" (specifically the belt armor) was so different from each other both in thickness and in the location of the belts that it was rather not a series, but a consistent development of one general idea. 2.Author's quote: "Such shortcomings as vibration and noise were more than compensated for by the huge cruising range." So it is, and some problems were solved, but the increased vibration from lightweight diesel engines and engine foundations remained, and disabled the precision instruments of the SUAO and means of communication. That is, shooting at moves close to the maximum was very problematic. The transfer from economic to full speed caused the release of a column of smoke comparable to some coal steamer - this is the word about camouflage in raiding. 3. Quote from the author: “In practice, it turned out that even a group of cruisers was capable of driving a“ pocket battleship ”into a corner without engaging battleships. An example was the death of the heavy cruiser Admiral Graf Spee, which was sunk by her own crew on December 17, 1939, being blocked by the British in the estuary of the La Plata. " No cruisers drove anyone into a corner! The British lost the battle outright in the battle at La Plata! "Exeter" Completely out of order, "Ajax" lost half of the artillery, "Achilles" was running out of ammunition. I think Langsdorff's suspiciousness, misinformation about " Rinaun and British influence in Uruguay (although he could have gone to Buenos Aires, where there was a strong pro-German influence) did their job. A series of mistakes and accidents allowed the British to turn a lost battle into a resounding success!
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 18 March 2016 13: 34
      +1
      The victory of Count Spee was that he managed to escape from the light cruisers and take refuge in a neutral port. A similar "victory" was won by the Germans in the Battle of Jutland
      1. Alex
        Alex 18 March 2016 16: 56
        +2
        Quote: Kenneth
        The victory of Count Spee was that he managed to escape from the light cruisers

        Who didn't even try to chase him. And leaving to Montevideo is an almost compulsory measure: the "pickpocket" received quite tangible damage, the repair of which required the port.

        In general, the situation almost repeated, as in the WWI: to neutralize the squadron of Admiral Spee (a man, not a cruiser), the British did not have to destroy it at all, it was enough to cause serious damage. Without bases, away from Germany, ships would be doomed. But the admiral turned out to be a more competent commander than the namesake commander.
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth 18 March 2016 22: 22
          0
          The British not only drove the hare under the bench, but also impudently divided, locking the exit. The German did not have the honor even to attempt a breakthrough.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Uncle ho
      Uncle ho 18 March 2016 14: 11
      0
      Quote: Vladislav 73
      1. The armoring of "pickpockets" (specifically the belt armor) was so different from each other both in thickness and in the location of the belts that it was rather not a series, but a consistent development of one general idea.

      I agree to 100. And even according to the materials. To consider Luttsov, Spee and Scheer as twins would not be true.
  15. VohaAhov
    VohaAhov 18 March 2016 13: 25
    +1
    And this is my generalized data. If anyone has something to add - I'm only for
    "Admiral Scheer" sank:
    1. Aux. cruiser “Jervis Bay” (England, 1922) 5.11.40 (14164 t., 167х21х10 m., 15 knots, eco-254 people, 7x1-152 mm, 2x1-76 mm) (189 people died, in including 16 of.)
    2. Refrigerated steamer “Moran” (England) 5.11.40 (5389 gross tons) (105 mm sunk by artillery)
    3. Steamer "Maid An" (England, 1925) 5.11.40 (7908 gross vehicles) (91 people died)
    4. Steamboat "Travelord" (England, 1936) 5.11.40 (5201 gross vehicles) (16 people were killed)
    5. The ship "Kenban Head" (England, 1919) 5.11.40 (5225 gross vehicles) (23 people were killed)
    6. Steamboat “Biaverford” (England, 1928) 5.11.40 (10042 brt) (79 people died)
    7. The motor ship "Fresno City" (England) 5.11.40 (5225 gross vehicles) (1 person died)
    8. Refrigerated steamer “Port Hobart” (England) 24.11.40 (7448 gt) (cargo including 5 light training aircraft)
    9. Steamboat “Tribesman” (England, 1932) 1.12.40 (6242 brt) (8 people died, captured 14)
    10. Refrigerated steamboat Dukes ”(England) 18.12.40/8651/3539 (720 gt) (cargo - 13 tons of frozen meat, 99 tons (XNUMX million pcs.) Of eggs) (XNUMX people were taken prisoner)
    11. Tanker “Sandefierd” (Norway) 17.01.41/8038/11000 (XNUMX gross tons) (gross - XNUMX tons of oil) (captured as a prize)
    12. Transport “Barnveld” (Holland) 20.01.41/5597/5 (86 gt) (cargo - 10000 light bombers, XNUMX cargo vehicles, XNUMX tons of ammunition)
    13. The steamer "Stanpark" (England) 20.01.41/5103/XNUMX (XNUMX gross vehicles) (cargo - cotton)
    14. The tanker British Lawyer (England) 3.02.41 (6994 gt) (cargo - 10000 tons of oil and gasoline) (captured as a prize)
    15. Transport "Gregoria" (Greece) 3.02.41/2546/XNUMX (XNUMX gross)
    16. Passenger ship "Canadian Cruiser" (Canada, 1921) 21.02.41 (7178 gross) (cargo-ilmenite)
    17. Steamboat “Rangaupajang” (Holland) 22.02.41/2452/XNUMX (XNUMX gt) (cargo-coal)
    1. Uncle ho
      Uncle ho 18 March 2016 13: 35
      +2
      Quote: VohaAhov
      If anyone has something to add - I'm only for

      + one "Bristol" shot down by anti-aircraft gunners on September 4, 39th smile
  16. VohaAhov
    VohaAhov 18 March 2016 13: 37
    +2
    Forgot "Sibiryakov"
    18. The icebreaker "Alexander Sibiryakov" (USSR, 1909) 25.08.42/1384/76,5 (10,8 gbt, 6 x 2360 x 13 m., 2 hp, 1 knots, 76x2- 1 mm, 45x2- 1 mm, 20x349-XNUMX mm) (XNUMX tons of cargo (dogs, cows, station equipment, provisions, fuel, building materials)
  17. Uncle ho
    Uncle ho 18 March 2016 13: 40
    +1
    and now at the site of the death of A.Sh. parking...
  18. Uncle ho
    Uncle ho 18 March 2016 13: 52
    +2
    counter for calculations in the cantin A.Sh.
  19. 89067359490
    89067359490 18 March 2016 14: 48
    +2
    The southernmost grave of a German soldier. The island of Kerguelen. In 1940-1941 German raiders were quite active there.
  20. Sleepwalker
    Sleepwalker 18 March 2016 17: 19
    -2
    By many indications, these "raiders" are yachts for management and were used for important visits, and raiding - along the way in their spare time for cover. For example, in the "Wunderland" of the 43rd Scheer with an escort took Hitler to Franz-Joseph Land, and while he was examining either the Ancient or the newest cruiser went to the NSR, fired at Dixon, pulling enemy aircraft there, then returned for the passengers, took them and took home.
    In La Plata, Spee also first of all destroyed something important inside himself - it was strange for an ordinary cruiser, the enemy could destroy them, but for the communications center the Bids were normal - they were always destroyed in advance.
    The lead ship was called "Germany" - in the Russian Federation, the airline for the authorities "Russia" ...
    Seriality 3 ships - just for shift duty.
    The comment above about the raiders' visits to the southern oceans ...
    Sevmash just recently stopped building "superyachts" for someone ...
    So there are a lot of similar ones, just now the planes fly further.
  21. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 18 March 2016 18: 12
    0
    Sheer could have escaped and left, but the British convinced the captain that a whole squadron was waiting for him. In fact, the British had no strength. Artificial misinformation.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. BM-13
      BM-13 18 March 2016 22: 14
      0
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      Sheer could have escaped and left, but the British convinced the captain that a whole squadron was waiting for him. In fact, the British had no strength. Artificial misinformation.

      You obviously mean "Admiral Spee"?
    3. AK64
      AK64 18 March 2016 22: 39
      0
      Sheer could have escaped and left, but the British convinced the captain that a whole squadron was waiting for him. In fact, the British had no strength. Artificial misinformation.

      Spee. Admiral Graf Spee.
      I could not: the fuel filtration station was broken (the armored boat was bad for such a tonnage), and as a result, when trying to break through the diesel engine, hours would have died in 10 maximum. (By the way, these are all the "advantages" of diesel engines)
  22. Ustinov 055 055
    Ustinov 055 055 21 March 2016 14: 33
    0
    Speer is an excellent ship of his time, mistakes in using him ruined
  23. Alex_623
    Alex_623 April 3 2016 13: 54
    0
    Quote: Amurets
    ... I just don’t understand why a heavy cruiser. According to the Washington agreements of 1922, cruisers with 8 "or 203mm artillery belonged to heavy cruisers ...

    Both the Americans and the Japanese gave up on these agreements.
    As a result, the Japanese heavy cruisers were the strongest in the world, and the Americans, in turn, had to build heavy cruisers such as Alaska with a 305mm GK to counter Japanese and German cruisers - which included not only the Deutschlands, but also Scharnhorst-Gneisenau.

    On the other hand, for Scharnhorst-Gneisenau, even at the project stage, it was planned to replace towers with three 280mm guns and towers with two 380mm guns.
    In this version, they in service became equal to the British battlecruisers Rinaun and Ripals with significantly better protection.
    If the Germans had time to do this in time, American Alaska and with them the Soviet Kronstadts would have completely depreciated ...
  24. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 6 February 2018 12: 21
    +1
    Perhaps it was these actions that made Admiral Scheer head south.

    Yes, yes - the author is burning.
    A tropical form took on board - to attack the convoys in the North Atlantic - bravo author!
    Nothing that a rendezvous with a supply ship was in the South Atlantic?
    To write such articles, it was worth carefully studying the materials of Raiding Admiral Scheer. Moreover, there are translated books.