Military Review

“I now order the construction of a continuous railway across Siberia ...”

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“I now order the construction of a continuous railway across Siberia ...”



125 years ago, 17 March 1891, Emperor Alexander III signed a rescript. “I now order the construction of a continuous railway across Siberia, which has to combine the abundant gifts of nature of the Siberian regions with a network of internal communications,” the monarch ordered.

125 is the anniversary of the greatest railroad of the planet of the Trans-Siberian Railway - an occasion to recall some facts of economic geography that made this road not only a guarantee of preserving the integrity of Russia, but also a factor of world importance.

Europe and Asia are the parts of the world that have the maximum "difference in economic potentials." This means that the international division of labor implies the greatest level of trade between them. Those who complain today that the flow of goods from the APEC countries turns off European production and does not allow to equalize the balance of trade balance with China, with Korea, it would probably be very surprised to learn that this problem is already more than two thousand years old. Even Pliny the Elder and Tacitus were indignant about "... the irrepressible outflow of national wealth in the insatiable East." Ancient Rome could not do without Chinese silk, oriental spices, but could not find a single product, just as needed by the Orient, except silver and gold.

In the XIX century, the historian Karl Vejle calculated the imbalance of the trade balance in ancient times: 100 million sesterces annually! And even translated the Roman currency into modern German marks for him: 22.000.000. "This led to a complete state bankruptcy and lack of precious metals in the last period of the Roman stories. All the national wealth of Rome lies in the land of the East. "

True, Vejle's contemporary, the British Queen Victoria, solved this problem in her own way. Indeed, in the 19th century, an even more serious product was added to silks, porcelain, and spices. Tea. The famous tea clippers opened the era of racing on the route Hong Kong - Liverpool.

What could the British give to China ?! Like Rome, they were forced to pay for growing purchases of Chinese goods with precious metals. Trying to restore balance, the British authorities sent trade delegations to the Chinese emperors, but ... the balance was not restored. In 1793, Emperor Qianlong told Ambassador George III to Lord McCartney: “We don't need anyone. Go back to yourself. Take your gifts. ” During the first third of the XIX century, of all foreign products, only Russian furs and Italian glass were in demand in China.

The solution to the “problem” for the British Empire was two “opium wars,” which Victoria had conducted in the “drug king” in alliance with France. Europeans fought in these wars for the right to settle with the Bengali opium on the Chinese - and won.

The time has passed. The physical content of Asian-European trade has changed, instead of silks and spices, gadgets and consumer goods have appeared, but the Asia-Europe vector has survived. The development of international trade has attached importance to all options for the construction of trade routes from Asia to Europe. Since the time of Vasco da Gama, and especially with the opening of the Suez Canal, the main route has been the sea route through the Indian Ocean. In connection with global warming, the chances of the Northern Sea Route are growing, but only Transsib can truly compete with the Indian Ocean, which has a much greater growth potential, now held back by a host of technical, organizational and social problems. A consistent solution of these problems will bring to the forefront of world trade the initial advantage of the Trans-Siberian Railway - it is more than two times shorter than the sea route: 11.000 km versus 23.000 km (figures depend on the choice of terminals in the APEC countries and Europe).

Emperor Alexander III, who signed the 17 Rescript of March 1891, understood: the failures in the Crimean War and the half-forced sale of Alaska showed that the level of communications development in the Russian Empire came into striking contradiction with the size of its territory. Preservation of the integrity of the empire depended on the economic development and settlement of Siberia. Without Transsib, the migrant peasants reached Primorye for three years (the term included the necessary stops for planting and harvesting in the intermediate territories). The second way of settling in 1879 was discovered by the Dobroflot society: several ships acquired after the end of the Russian-Turkish war 1877-78. for the export of the Russian army from near Istanbul, were given to transport people along the route Odessa - Vladivostok.

Indicative of the development level of the Siberian roads of the time is the fact: one of the first industrialists of Primorye, Otto Lindholm (coming from Russian Finland), chose the route by sea to San Francisco, by rail to New York and again by sea to St. Petersburg.

The construction of Transsib was preceded by the solution of the most important geopolitical task for Russia: the return of the Amur region, joined by Khabarov, but subsequently lost, and the acquisition of Primorye. Prior to this, the only access of the Russians to the Pacific Ocean 200 for years was a mountain path winding from Yakutsk to Okhotsk, through the Dzhugdzhur ridge, more than 1200 kilometers in length. For ships built in Okhotsk, the ropes had to be cut in Yakutsk, the anchors were cut to dimensions that allowed the load to be loaded on the horse, and then re-connected. Furs were delivered to Kyakhta in the north of China for two years. The first Russian round-the-world expedition of Kruzenshtern - Lisyansky (1803-06) was in fact the first successful attempt to bring furs from Russian Alaska to Hong Kong, and tea and silk purchased there to St. Petersburg. This was the first delivery to Russia of Chinese goods not in seams, but in the holds of ships! However, Alaska in such conditions was not to keep ...

The Russian imperial government, having decided to build Transsib, meant not only world trade, but also world wars, first of all the Crimean one. In one of my books I called it “the first logistic war.” When was the first steam railway built in the Crimea? By whom? That's right: in the 1855, English invaders landed in Crimea for transporting shells with which they filled up Russian troops from Balaklava to the outskirts of besieged Sevastopol. These details of the Crimean War became for St. Petersburg the main motive for the development of railway transport.

Shortly after the end of the Crimean War on the Aygunsky (1858) and Beijing (1860) treaties of the Amur region and Primorye, the domains of the Manchu Qing dynasty, in which the Han Chinese were forbidden to appear, were transferred to Russia without war, without any conflict. China, attacked in the "opium wars" by the British and French, and then threatened by Japan, actually invited Russia to counterbalance European expansion. And these plans came true, despite even losing the Russian war with Japan.

20 June 1860 was founded Vladivostok, an outpost at the turn, held by Russia as a result of all wars. "All powers look at our Vladivostok with envy." This apt phrase belongs to the military engineer and Colonel of the General Staff Nikolai Afanasyevich Voloshinov (1854-1893), ascetic works of which brought the beginning of the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Voloshinov’s expedition, undertaken jointly with Ludwig Ivanovich Prokhasko, an engineer and railway engineer, passed through the taiga, inspecting both routes from Angara to Amur - south of Lake Baikal and north, through the Baikal and Northern Muya Ridges to the Muya and Black Uryum Rivers. Voloshinov and Prokhasko chose the option south of Lake Baikal, and he was destined to turn into Transsib. The second route through 80 years will become BAM, the Baikal-Amur Mainline.

Steel spine of Russia

The value of Transsib, the steel spine of Russia, which allowed to keep the Russian geopolitical space through all the revolutionary storms of the twentieth century, was instantly estimated abroad.

English economist Archibald Kolkhun wrote: “This road will not only become one of the greatest trade routes the world has ever known, and will fundamentally undermine the British maritime trade, but will become a political tool in the hands of Russia, even hard to guess. will make Russia a self-sufficient state, for which neither the Dardanelles nor the Suez will no longer play any role, and will give it economic independence, thanks to which it will achieve an advantage that no other state has ever dreamed of stvu ".

The whole epic of the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway showed the world the ability of the Russians to rally around the great national goals, putting forward figures at the level of the tasks of their time.



The first in the series of these figures, of course, Alexander III. A few years before the start of the great construction, the emperor wrote in the margins of the Irkutsk governor-general’s report: “I must confess with sadness and shame that the government has so far done almost nothing to meet the needs of this rich but neglected land. And it's time, it's time. ”

The king could not help but realize that in the foreign policy of his predecessors on the throne several decades were spent on senseless romp in Europe: “Sacred Union”, aid to England, to German monarchs, Austria-Hungary. Under Alexander III, Russia was just “concentrated”, approaching the great breakthrough to Asia. Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev, not only an outstanding chemist, but also a prominent economist, remarked on the reign of Alexander III: "... the best period in the history of Russian industry." In 1881-96, Russia's industrial production increased 6,5 times. Labor productivity - by 22%. Power of steam engines - by 300%.

“The Russian Empire literally shuddered at the hardships of industrial progress: the seismic station in Riga recorded a two-point earthquake when at Izhora plant in St. Petersburg the second in Europe in terms of power after Kruppsky in Germany, the press force in 10.000 tons bent the armor plates.”

The Tsar-Peacemaker was able not only to define national goals, but also to select people for the fulfillment of the tasks set. The Minister of Railways, then Minister of Finance Sergey V. Witte, who won the “tariff war” from Germany, found money for a nationwide project: thanks to the introduction of the vodka monopoly, the money taken from velvet dealers (24% of the state budget!) Went to a great construction project. .

Witte drew up a construction plan, dividing Transsib into six sections. At the same time, construction began on the West and Middle Siberian areas (Chelyabinsk - Irkutsk) and South Ussuriisky (Vladivostok - Grafskaya). The most difficult section was the Circum-Baikal Railway (Circum-Baikal Railway). Through solid rocks to the west of Baikal, tunnels made their way, demanding protection from rockfalls and avalanches.



The government understood that the international situation was in a hurry. The urgency of Circum-Baikal forced the hiring of Chinese, Albanian, Italian workers. Guides still show here "Italian wall". The new Minister of Railways, Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Khilkov, left Petersburg and lived for two years in the area of ​​the Baikal Slyudyanka station, in the center of the construction of the Great Siberian Route.

The city of Sretensk in the Chita region Transsib forked. The future Amur area went through the mountainous terrain, bending around Manchuria in a gigantic arc, and also demanded the construction of a bridge across the Amur River near Khabarovsk (2,6 km, still the largest bridge in Russia, completed only in 1916 year!). An alternative branch - the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) went through Manchuria to Vladivostok with a direct arrow, chord. She was on 514 versts (almost one and a half times) shorter, mainly passing through the steppes, with the exception of Big Khingan with its 9 tunnels. In the middle of the 1389-chord of the CER, Harbin was located perpendicular to the south: Harbin-Far - Port Arthur, another 957 versts. There was access to the Yellow Sea and the main theater of the future Russian-Japanese war.

The Trans-Siberian Railway marked the coincidence of the geopolitical interests of Russia and China. The CER, which remained 15 for years, was the only Transsib route to Vladivostok, was completed in 1901 and turned out to be a surprisingly strong acquisition. The road with the adjoining lands and the emerging cities was ironically called in Russian newspapers of the beginning of the twentieth century “Zheltorossiya” - by analogy with Novorossia. Even more ironic of history was that Zheltorossiya survived monarchical Russia for 12 for years, and its capital Harbin remained the main non-Soviet Russian city that survived the conflict on the CER in 1920's, the Japanese occupation, wars ... Only the Chinese "cultural revolution" 1960 wiped out the Russian trace here.

Incredible work, sometimes ingenious engineering impromptu ... The world's longest railway was built in 23 of the year. Somewhere Transsib and completely shook the world. While Krugobaykalka, one of the most difficult trails in the world, bypassed Baikal from the south, it was thought up to put the rails directly on the Baikal ice, in the summer they let in steam. Vladimir Nabokov wrote in the novel “Other Shores”: photo postcards with trains going over the ice were perceived in Europe as fantasy drawings. The throughput capacity of the ice section was only 2-3 times lower than the average trans-Siberian.

The through route to Vladivostok was opened, and already 1 on July 1903 of the year, even before the start of all official celebrations, the transfer of Russian troops to the east began under the guise of technical tests. Transportation of one 30.000 army corps with armed people took a month.

In St. Petersburg, hurried. In October 1901, the sovereign said to Prince Heinrich of Prussia: “Collision [with Japan. - I.Sh.] is inevitable; I hope it will happen no earlier than four years ... The Siberian railway will be completed in 5 — 6 years ”.

... The road was built on 32 a month before the plan, but only after 1 July 1903, those people in Russia who understood the meaning of what was happening could catch their breath. Before that, only the ironic salutes of Kaiser Wilhelm II in honor of "Admiral of the Eastern Seas of Tsar Nicholas" sounded. If Japan had attacked then, both Vladivostok and Port Arthur would have been in the position of Sevastopol in the Crimean War: an annual “march” without reinforcements, with ammunition limited by what soldiers could carry in their knapsacks and pockets.

A lot of bitter was said about the Russian-Japanese 1904-05 war, but neither the railwaymen nor the Baikal ice brought up that war. More than half a million Russian soldiers were transferred to Manchuria. The time of the military trains on the route Moscow - Vladivostok was 13 days (today - 7 days). Without Transsib, the Russian army in the Far East simply would not have been (except for the Cossack detachments and several garrisons), and Japan would have completed the entire military campaign with forces sufficient for an ordinary police operation.

Transsib and victory over Japan


The finale of the Second World War, which was the Soviet-Japanese war of 1945, requires studying not only with the cards, calendar, but also with the chronometer. On this depends the determination of the actual contributions of the USSR, the USA, and Great Britain to a common victory.

In Yalta, Stalin promised to go to war with Japan through 3 a month after the defeat of Germany. On the night of 8 on 9 on August 1945, the USSR began hostilities in Manchuria, and if we count from the capitulation point of Germany, introducing an amendment to the difference in time zones, we find the elegance of the Stalinist move: the Soviet leader kept the Yalta promise to within a few minutes.

The choice made by China for 90 years before and consisting in that in opposition to the Europeans who started "opium wars", and then and Japan to rely on Russia, justified itself to the full. The Soviet-Japanese war was the decisive factor in the liberation of China, the creation of the People's Republic of China. “The Red Army,” Mao Zedong, the chairman of the CPC Central Committee, said in August 1945, “came to help the Chinese people drive out the aggressors. Such an example has not been in the history of China. The impact of this event is invaluable. ”

To this we can add that one of the conditions for the entry of the Soviet Union into the war with Japan was diplomatic recognition by the Western powers of the Mongolian People’s Republic (MPR), which the West did not recognize until 1945, calling it a “Soviet vassal.”

The Americans, too, were preparing for war. Stettinius, the US Secretary of State, subsequently wrote: “General MacArthur and a group of military men laid out a certificate before President Roosevelt, a calculation of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, which claimed that Japan would capitulate only in 1947 a year or later, and defeating it could cost the lives of a million soldiers.”

The decisive role of the Soviet offensive in Manchuria is indicated by the existence of a plan in Tokyo with the code name Yashma Shattered, which, in the event of the Americans landing in Japan, evacuating the emperor to the continent and turning the Japanese islands into a continuous death zone for the American landing force through the use of bacteriological weapons.

The entry of the USSR into the war prevented the destruction of the Japanese population. Manchuria and Korea were the raw material, industrial base of the empire, here were located the main factories for the production of synthetic fuel. ... The commander of the Kwantung Army, General Otsudza Yamada, admitted: "The rapid advance of the Red Army deep into Manchuria prevented us from using bacteriological weapons." The swiftness of the throw of the Soviet troops was provided by Transsib.

The Commander-in-Chief in the Far East, Marshal Vasilevsky and the Chief of Logistics of the Red Army, General Khrulyov, calculated the time for the transfer of troops. The capacity of the Trans-Siberian Railway has again become a decisive strategic factor. Tens of thousands of tons of artillery were transported, loaded, tanks, cars, many tens of thousands of tons of ammunition, fuel, food, uniforms.

From April to September 1945, 1692 echelons were shipped via Transsib. In June, the 1945 of the year, daily in Transbaikalia, took place up to the 30 trains. In total, in May-July, 1945 of the year on the railways of Siberia, Transbaikalia, the Far East and on the marches in the areas of deployment concentrated up to a million Soviet troops.

The Japanese were also preparing for a fight. Marshal Vasilevsky recalled: “The Kwantung Army doubled its forces over the summer of 1945. The Japanese command held in Manchuria and Korea two thirds of their tanks, half of the artillery, and selective imperial divisions. ”

The actions of the Soviet army in Manchuria had all the features of the most beautiful by the canons of military art operations for the full environment of the enemy. In Western military textbooks, this operation is called the “August Storm”.

In a giant territory more than 1.5 million square meters. km., forcing the Amur, Khingan Mountains, it was necessary to split and defeat the Kwantung Army: 6.260 guns and mortars, 1.150 tanks, 1.500 aircraft, 1,4 million people, including troops of the puppet states of Manzhou-Guo and Mengjiang (Inner Mongolia region).

The role of Transsib was not limited to the transfer of troops in trains. During the fighting, the speed of the attack was absolutely decisive. The advanced Soviet units cut through the rear of the Kwantung Army, and here more than once there was a reason to recall how the Russian builders of the Chinese-Eastern Railway built soundly. The hero of the Soviet Union DF Loza (9-th Guards Tank Corps) told about one such case:

“The torrential rains formed something like an artificial sea on the vast Central Manchurian Plain. The roads turned out to be unsuitable even for tanks. In a critical situation, when the roads were every hour, the only feasible decision was made: to overcome the flooded area along the narrow railway embankment from Tongliao to Mukden, 250 kilometers. South of Tongliao, brigade tanks climbed railroad embankments. The march began on the sleepers, lasting two days ... I had to send one track between the rails, and the second - on the gravel bedding of the sleepers. In this case, the tank had a large lateral roll. Here, in such a pereosobosobennom position under the febrile shaking on the sleepers had to move more than one hundred kilometers ... The eleventh day of the operation was very productive: taken Changchun, Jilin and Mukden. "

During military operations, Soviet troops captured 41.199 and captured the surrender of 600.000 to Japanese soldiers, officers, and generals. At a meeting of the GKO USSR 23 in August 1945, Stalin said of the Japanese prisoners: “They were enough to manage the Soviet Far East during the Civil War. It's time to repay debts. Here they will give them away. ”

Another result of the swift campaign in the Far East was that “as a result of the defeat of Japan,” as Marshal A.Vasilevsky noted, “favorable conditions were created for the victory of the people's revolutions in China, North Korea and Vietnam. The People’s Liberation Army of China received huge stocks of captured weapons. ”

As for the lie spread in the West that “the Soviet offensive began when the second atomic bomb exploded over Nagasaki and Japan was demoralized,” many words are not necessary to refute it.

Soviet diplomat M.I. Ivanov, who was in Hiroshima, was among the first to Nagasaki after the bombing, wrote in the book “Eyewitness Notes”: “August August 7 stated that the atomic bomb had been dropped on Hiroshima. Japanese experts did not believe in the existence of such a powerful weapon. Only a few days later, a government commission led by the General Staff intelligence officer General Arisou and Nobel Prize winner Nishin, the largest Japanese scientist, who visited Hiroshima, discovered the impact of the “atomic device dropped by parachute” ... For the first time, the commission’s report was published in an abbreviated form in 20- x dates of August ”... This information reached Manchuzhuria even later, and by August 14-17 the rout of the Kwantung Army was already completed!

The historian Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, in the monograph Racing the Enemy, wrote: “The entry of the Soviet Union into the war made a much larger contribution to Japan’s surrender than atomic bombs ... It deprived Japan and hopes of leaving the war with the mediation of Moscow. "

Terry Charman from the Imperial War Museum in London: “The blow that the USSR struck changed everything. Tokyo realized that there was no hope left. The "August storm" pushed Japan to surrender more than atomic bombs. "

Finally, Winston Churchill: "It would be a mistake to assume that the fate of Japan was decided by an atomic bomb."
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  1. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 20 March 2016 06: 22
    +12
    The most grandiose project!
    Steel spine of Russia

    The role of the Trans-Siberian Railway for the country is very precisely defined.
    Initially, people settled along the banks of rivers along which they had a connection with each other.
    And the railway made it possible to establish settlements in the territories where it passes.
    The national economy began to develop rapidly.
    It’s easy to produce. It is difficult to implement it at the place of production. The market is rapidly saturated. But for this, first of all, we need communication lines.
    1. semirek
      semirek 20 March 2016 11: 07
      0
      And the railway made it possible to establish settlements in the territories where it passes.
      The national economy began to develop rapidly.
      It’s easy to produce. It is difficult to implement it at the place of production. The market is rapidly saturated. Here, for this, first of all, communication paths are needed. [/ Quote]
      ======================================
      All this is true, but there are nuances, the fact is that Siberia has developed its own cargo delivery system, of course by horses, and there was opposition from local freight carriers, for example, when the project of the route involved passing through Tomsk province (it seemed necessary to rejoice), but local merchants -carriers, understood that their case would come to an end, simply bribed officials and designers so that those allegedly because of inexpediency would not lead the way through this city.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. siberalt
      siberalt 20 March 2016 17: 20
      +3
      Great Russia - great construction sites. Well, how many bridges over Siberian rivers, mountain tunnels and dumps? You look, and in 4 years we will build a bridge to the Crimea. But the scale, of course, is not comparable. Such a powerful construction equipment, as under Alexander the Third, it seems, is no longer laughing Thanks to the author for the article!
  2. ism_ek
    ism_ek 20 March 2016 07: 02
    +7
    The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway did not begin with the signing of the Decree of Alexander III. Preparatory work began under Alexander II. A production base was created, and engineering personnel were trained. The money from the sale of Alaska was earmarked for the purchase of railway property in the United States.
    Also, let's not forget that Russia incurred serious debts by building the Trans-Siberian Railway, for which it was finally paid only in the 300st century. Construction cost XNUMX million rubles. The tsarist government took a very serious risk. The current authorities need to learn from them.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 20 March 2016 11: 55
      +4
      Quote: ism_ek
      The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway did not begin with the signing of the Decree of Alexander III. Preparatory work began under Alexander II.


      It was on the Transsib under Alexander II that nothing was done (other than general considerations), and did not meet such information anywhere. And here is Alexander III in 1886 g , having read the opinion of A. N. Korf on the importance of the railway for the Far Eastern regions, he ordered "provide considerations" for the preparation for the construction of the steel sheet. And it began.
      In 1887, under the leadership of engineers N.P. Mezheninov, O.P. Vyazemsky and A.I. Ursati, three expeditions were organized to find the track Central Siberian, Transbaikal and South Ussuri railways, which by the 90 years of the XIX century. basically completed their work. At the beginning of 1891, the Committee for the Construction of the Siberian Railway was created, which issued an important decree that "The Siberian railway, this is a great people's business, should be carried out by Russian people and from Russian materials".

      Quote: ism_ek
      Also, let's not forget that Russia incurred serious debts by building the Trans-Siberian Railway, for which it was finally paid only in the 21st century. Construction cost in 300 million

      The cost of building the Trans-Siberian Railway from 1891 to 1913 amounted to 1 455 413 000 rubles.
      . It is interesting to whom Russia in 2000 years paid for the 1891-1916 Trans-Siberian Railway?
      1. ism_ek
        ism_ek 20 March 2016 13: 51
        0
        Quote: Aleksander
        It was on the Transsib under Alexander II that nothing was done (other than general considerations), and did not meet such information anywhere.

        When Alexander II came to power in Russia, there was one major railway between Moscow and St. Petersburg, which did not function due to burnt bridges. Not all were made of wood. By the end of the reign of Alexander II, the entire European part of Russia was covered by a network of iron. The first railway bridge over the Volga was built in Syzran. The production of Russian rails, steam locomotives and wagons has begun.
      2. ism_ek
        ism_ek 20 March 2016 13: 54
        0
        Quote: Aleksander
        The cost of building the Trans-Siberian Railway from 1891 to 1913 amounted to 1 rubles.
        Trassib are still being built. The cost of work can be calculated in different ways. From what was built in the 1901 year, almost nothing was left.
        1. Aleksander
          Aleksander 20 March 2016 22: 53
          0
          Quote: ism_ek
          Trassib are still being built. The cost of work can be calculated in different ways. From what was built in the 1901 year, almost nothing was left.


          The cost of building the Trans-Siberian Railway 1891-1916 -1.5 billion rubles (a figure recognized by all), which is five times more than the 0,3 billion indicated by you. And if you take "they are still building", it is many times more.
          Quote: ism_ek
          From what was built in the 1901 year, almost nothing was left.

          Transsib Directory to help you and Semireca certificates.
    2. Aleksander
      Aleksander 20 March 2016 11: 55
      0
      Quote: ism_ek
      The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway did not begin with the signing of the Decree of Alexander III. Preparatory work began under Alexander II.


      It was on the Transsib under Alexander II that nothing was done (other than general considerations), and did not meet such information anywhere. And here is Alexander III in 1886 g , having read the opinion of A. N. Korf on the importance of the railway for the Far Eastern regions, he ordered "provide considerations" for the preparation for the construction of the steel sheet. And it began.
      In 1887, under the leadership of engineers N.P. Mezheninov, O.P. Vyazemsky and A.I. Ursati, three expeditions were organized to find the track Central Siberian, Transbaikal and South Ussuri railways, which by the 90 years of the XIX century. basically completed their work. At the beginning of 1891, the Committee for the Construction of the Siberian Railway was created, which issued an important decree that "The Siberian railway, this is a great people's business, should be carried out by Russian people and from Russian materials".

      Quote: ism_ek
      Also, let's not forget that Russia incurred serious debts by building the Trans-Siberian Railway, for which it was finally paid only in the 21st century. Construction cost in 300 million

      The cost of building the Trans-Siberian Railway from 1891 to 1913 amounted to 1 455 413 000 rubles.
      . It is interesting to whom Russia in 2000 years paid for the 1891-1916 Trans-Siberian Railway?
      1. ism_ek
        ism_ek 20 March 2016 14: 01
        +3
        Quote: Aleksander
        I wonder who in 2000 Russia paid for the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1891-1916?

        In 2000, Russia completed the payment of royal debts to French holders of pre-revolutionary bonds, giving them $ 400 million. 13% of these debts were bonds of Russian railways
        1. Cap.Morgan
          Cap.Morgan 20 March 2016 19: 27
          +3
          But the USSR and Russia had income from the operation of these roads. Or didn’t she?
          It follows from the article that the road was needed before the cut, without it we would probably lose the Far East.
    3. siberalt
      siberalt 20 March 2016 17: 25
      +3
      Such historians claim that the money for Alaska never reached Russia. The ship with the attendants sank. hi
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 20 March 2016 07: 30
    +8
    Winston Churchill: “It would be a mistake to assume that the fate of Japan was decided by the atomic bomb.”..Fate of Japan was decided by the Trans-Siberian ...
    1. venaya
      venaya 20 March 2016 07: 41
      +3
      One of the results of the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway was the Russian-Japanese War of 1904. Realizing that as a result of the completion of this construction, the North American United States is losing its monopoly on the economic development of the Pacific Basin, they threw their "bulldog" into the war - Japan, which had been thoroughly trained and armed before.
      1. ism_ek
        ism_ek 20 March 2016 08: 33
        +1
        America and Canada by 1891 already had a whole network of transcontinental railways
        Quote: parusnik
        The fate of Japan was decided by the Trans-Siberian ...
        or the Panama Canal ...
        1. Hitrovan07
          Hitrovan07 20 March 2016 18: 50
          0
          America and Canada did not have a "friendly" Europe in the West.
        2. co-creator
          co-creator 21 March 2016 14: 58
          +1
          Quote: ism_ek
          America and Canada by 1891 already had a whole network of transcontinental railways

          These roads do not even stand next to Transib.
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan 20 March 2016 12: 08
        +2
        Quote: venaya
        One of the results of the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway was the Russian-Japanese War of 1904. Realizing that as a result of the completion of this construction, the North American United States is losing its monopoly on the economic development of the Pacific Basin, they threw their "bulldog" into the war - Japan, which had been thoroughly trained and armed before.

        Your untruth. Japan was a British bulldog, not an American one.
        The Americans, on the contrary, were anxiously looking at their Japanese rival. It was they who contributed to the conclusion of a peace treaty favorable to Russia.
        Britain was armed with Britain and not America. At that time, the United States did not have any military industry; it appeared in the First World War.
        1. venaya
          venaya 20 March 2016 13: 02
          0
          Quote: Cap.Morgan
          Japan was a British bulldog, not an American one.

          Stunned !!! And what, does anyone see the difference between the owners of American capital or British capital? From my point of view, this is one gang of watering cans. And further: "they contributed to the conclusion of a peace treaty favorable to Russia"- what is such a beneficial treaty for Russia, in which Russia lost half of Sakhalin, except for such a convenient and economically very profitable Dalniy harbor (now the Chinese Dalan). In addition, the peace treaty itself was signed in San Francisco under the direct leadership of the New York banker Schiff, who always worked under the roof of his master Rothschild, and on the part of Russia the contract was drawn up and signed by Count Witte, whose wife was also the daughter of a Wall Street banker. Perhaps you did not know this, otherwise your post is more like not a simple delusion Let me remind you that after all these events, Emperor Nicholas II expelled Count Witte with a filthy broom from all government posts, lamenting how it took him so long to identify such an enemy of imperialism as this count.
          1. Cap.Morgan
            Cap.Morgan 20 March 2016 19: 20
            +1
            Quote: venaya
            Quote: Cap.Morgan
            Japan was a British bulldog, not an American one.

            Stunned !!! And what, does anyone see the difference between the owners of American capital or British capital? From my point of view, this is one gang of watering cans. And further: "they contributed to the conclusion of a peace treaty favorable to Russia"- what is such a beneficial treaty for Russia, in which Russia lost half of Sakhalin, except for such a convenient and economically very profitable Dalniy harbor (now the Chinese Dalan). In addition, the peace treaty itself was signed in San Francisco under the direct leadership of the New York banker Schiff, who always worked under the roof of his master Rothschild, and on the part of Russia the contract was drawn up and signed by Count Witte, whose wife was also the daughter of a Wall Street banker. Perhaps you did not know this, otherwise your post is more like not a simple delusion Let me remind you that after all these events, Emperor Nicholas II expelled Count Witte with a filthy broom from all government posts, lamenting how it took him so long to identify such an enemy of imperialism as this count.

            In general, the price of a peace treaty was half of Sakhalin. Islands where convicts were serving their sentences. That's all.
            What Russia did there in China is unknown to me. There are enough convenient harbors and wonderful places in Russia and the Far East where you can build trade ports and military bases.
            We lost the squadron ... this is certainly sad. But the twentieth century was the age of the dreadnoughts, the old battleships were already useless anyway. So the losses were not as catastrophic as is commonly believed.
            But the impetus given to our army helped to carry out the necessary reforms, to prepare for the First World War.
            The Americans and the British are two completely different forces. The Americans are precisely the people who built heavy industry for Comrade Stalin, sold military technology, supplied strategic materials during the two world wars, gave veterans of the Russian army military pensions as allies ...
            And you scold them with bad words. You look at the result, not where whose wife took a bribe in which bank. Nicholas had every opportunity to continue the war. Perhaps I would have won. But...
            Nikolai did not need this war. Korea and Manchuria were not needed. And Russia did not fight there seriously.
            1. venaya
              venaya 20 March 2016 21: 02
              0
              Quote: Cap.Morgan
              What Russia did there in China is unknown to me. There are enough convenient harbors and wonderful places in Russia and the Far East where you can build trade ports and military bases

              It is unfortunate that you have not studied this question in sufficient detail, in this sense it is not clear by what right you are not just making some kind of non-binding comment there, but completely tactlessly allow yourself to criticize the commentary of a person who knows much more deeply about this topic, in general it is not clear on what basis. In order: In the Far East, we really had year-round sea harbors at that time, just on the southern coast of Sakhalin Island and on the continent itself just in China, the port city of Dalniy (now Dalian). Both that and another just was lost as a result of the war which was not completely completed and the peace treaty treacherous for Russia drawn up and half-written by Count Witte. View city port Vladivostok, as a full-fledged port, was not possible, due to the fact that in those years during the winter period it froze for several months, therefore, it was not developed, it did not matter much, since it was limited in its capabilities. In general, to confuse the daughter of the owner of the bank with the investor of personal finances in the bank for me is a complete surprise. It is a fairly well-known fact that all bankers in the world do not just consider themselves to be a certain nation, but they also have at least distant and most often even close family ties. Is that something you are not familiar with?
              As for whether Russia fought seriously there, I personally lived for a long time in a house built for the widow of an officer who died in that war, and therefore naturally I know in detail the significance of that war for both Russia and its participants. It was not only possible to win there, but frankly it was necessary for the normal functioning of the same Trans-Siberian Railway and profit from its work. And with respect to American banks and industrialists, both in the 1st and 2nd world wars, they both organized these wars, and not only paid them at interest, they always helped both warring parties with weapons. Apparently you don’t know all this at all, but I really want to teach and correct others. What is it for?
          2. Vladislav 73
            Vladislav 73 21 March 2016 23: 32
            0
            Quote: venaya
            Stunned !!! And what, someone sees the difference between the owners of American capital or British capital? From my point of view, this is one gang of watering can.

            This is only from your point of view, apparently inspired by modernity. And at that time, at the end of the 19th-beginning of the 20th century, the USA and Great Britain were two big differences! So I completely agree with Cap.Morgan:
            Quote: venaya
            Japan was a British bulldog, not an American one.

            Instead of specific facts, you are here "forcing" the next conspiracy theories about the "Jewish conspiracy." And the facts, which are stubborn things, say something else. By the beginning of the 20th century, the Japanese fleet was almost all built at the shipyards of Great Britain. .Reconcluded in 1902 following the results of the R-I war, which secured Japan's acquisitions in China and Korea. Following the results of 1905 MV, Japan was transferred to the former colony of Germany-Qingdao, which is why the Americans REFUSED! To ratify the Treaty of Versailles! And lastly about the "American Bulldog "- at the conclusion of the Washington Treaty, the Americans made the termination of the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of 1 IMPOSSIBLE. At that time, the Americans viewed Great Britain as a potential enemy because of the alliance with the Japanese. So do not deceive the people! request
      3. Hitrovan07
        Hitrovan07 20 March 2016 20: 24
        0
        But only 40 years have passed since the civil war in the United States - history, alas, shows that Russia, helping other nations, receives a "knife in the back" in response (it was no fucking thing to fly to Turkey).
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  5. semirek
    semirek 20 March 2016 10: 53
    +6
    The article is not bad, but in a nutshell, you can’t tell about the construction and importance of the Trans-Siberian Railway. My father is from Isilkul station, which is 150 km from Omsk, and I am often struck by the monumentality and beauty of the architectural buildings of that period, which have survived to this day. : water towers, train stations, bull-bearing bridges, hit a pace of construction - 3 versts a day, but the builders were paid good money and this is the key to the success of this project. The Trans-Siberian Railway played a big role in the life of the country, for example, the Stolypin resettlement reform would not have been possible without The Transsib was the locomotive of the economic development, branches went off from it, for example Novonikolaevsk-Barnaul-Semipalatinsk-Turkestan, in 17 the rails came to Semipalatinsk, and then at 29m Turksib was completed. In Novosibirsk, the monument to Alexander the Third was erected near the railway station, a car and mastermind of the Great Siberian Way.
  6. rudolff
    rudolff 20 March 2016 11: 28
    +7
    I still cannot understand how the Trans-Siberian Railway was built. It just doesn't fit in my head. On horses, carts, having only axes, saws, shovels ... Fiction. Especially in the Baikal region. On one side is a wall, on the other an abyss, somewhere below the lake ... It is simply impossible to tear yourself away from the window in the car. Unreal!
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 20 March 2016 12: 11
      +3
      Indeed, it is interesting to know how it was built. Well, Russian artisans were capable of feats. They built roads in the Caucasus.
      Any road is new settlements, trading posts, mines. New features in the use of resources.
  7. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 20 March 2016 12: 16
    +2
    The Siberian Railway also played a role during the war.
    At first, trains with evacuated equipment went along it, and then, in the opposite direction, the equipment supplied by Lend-Lease. The driver of the next echelon often saw the tail of the previous one.
  8. Aleksander
    Aleksander 20 March 2016 12: 34
    +4
    For ten years, the builders of the Trans-Siberian Railway laid 8144 km of railways. For a year, an average of 815 km of track was laid - the highest construction speed in the world, and in conditions of permafrost. In just a quarter century, the construction of the Great Siberian Railway was laid 12.120 versts of rail track.
    The foreign press noted that after the discovery of America and the construction of the Suez Canal, history did not mark an event richer in consequences than the construction of the Great Siberian Way.
    And it was fair:
    A huge amount of work was carried out only by surveys: special detachments carried out reconnaissance hydrographic surveys of the Kara Sea, the mouths of the Ob and Yenisei, to establish the possibility of delivering building materials and structures to the route by the Northern Sea Route. At the same time, work was done to improve the riverbeds for safe navigation.

    And indeed, many materials have been delivered Northern Sea Route through the Arctic Ocean
    Some of the materials were delivered via the Ob-Yenisei water system (built in 1887 waterway with canals and locks St. Petersburg-Pacific)
    Materials were also delivered through Pacific Ocean (bridge structures. Such was the scope of transport tasks only.
    In the areas adjacent to the Trans-Siberian Railway, extensive geological work was carried out. Many deposits of coal and various metals were discovered. To monitor the regime of rivers and their behavior during freezing, ice drift, high water and floods, stations and stations of the hydrometeorological service were created.
    Many technical solutions found by domestic engineers had no analogues. So, for the first time in the construction of tunnels, they began to use a heat-insulating layer between the lining and the ground in order to maintain immobility of permafrost. When constructing a bridge over the Yenisei, the longitudinal method of sliding large farms was used, which provided acceleration of the installation of span structures.

    Scientists at the Institute of Railway Engineers in laboratories and at testing sites tested domestic grades of cement, new types of rails, bridge designs, alarm and centralization systems, water and electricity supply to the railway, and ways to protect it from the effects of permafrost and mountain collapses.

    The Russian Empire has proven that it can and can build, like no one else in the world.
    1. Nicola Bari
      Nicola Bari 20 March 2016 12: 50
      +1
      Thank you, a very interesting addition to the article.
    2. ism_ek
      ism_ek 20 March 2016 14: 35
      0
      Quote: Aleksander
      And indeed, many materials were delivered by the Northern Sea Route through the Arctic Ocean
      Some of the materials were delivered via the Ob-Yenisei water system (the waterway built in 1887 with canals and locks St. Petersburg-Pacific Ocean)

      They did not carry anything through the Northern Sea Route. In the Ob basin was the Ural industrial region, which provided construction with everything necessary, and there was a Railway to Tyumen.
      There are rapids on the Yenisei and the Angara, the movement of ships there is limited.
      1. Aleksander
        Aleksander 20 March 2016 22: 40
        0
        Quote: ism_ek
        Nothing was transported through the Northern Sea Route


        Northern Sea Route materials Have taken: part of the cargo for the construction of the highway was delivered by the Northern Sea Route, hydrologist N.V. Morozov carried 22 ship from Murmansk to the mouth of the Yenisei (↑ G.P. Avetisov. Morozov Nikolay Vasilievich (1862 – 1925) // Names on the map of the Russian Arctic (Biographical data about 200 of domestic and foreign researchers). - St. Petersburg: Science, 2003.). In particular, rails from England.
  9. egor1712
    egor1712 20 March 2016 12: 42
    +3
    Very interesting article. In general, you need to know the story, much is hidden by time. There are ideas that would be useful even now.
  10. Nicola Bari
    Nicola Bari 20 March 2016 12: 53
    +2
    It is difficult to overestimate the importance of the Trans-Siberian Railway. And somehow we do not know how to appreciate the significance of this, and not only this phenomenal achievement of Russia, taking everything for granted, at the same time admiring the achievements of other states.
  11. Roman 11
    Roman 11 20 March 2016 14: 40
    +2
    Still more interested in the Great Transsiberian with a view to "international trade route"as a competitor to the "great silk road" !!

    This is the cornerstone expression: "The English economist Archibald Kolkhun wrote: “This road will not only become one of the greatest trade routes the world has ever known, and will fundamentally undermine English maritime trade, but will become in the hands of Russia a political tool, the strength and significance of which is even hard to guess ... it will make Russia a self-sufficient state for which neither the Dardanelles nor Suez will no longer play any role, and will give it economic independence, thanks to which it will achieve an advantage like no other country has ever dreamed of"" For some reason does not receive its purpose ??

    It’s kind of its advantages - half as long! And another fundamental factor - geopolitically reliable (not vulnerable to political tensions in numerous Asian countries). Nevertheless, international trade is mainly bypassing the Trans-Siberian Railway, with more expensive sea shipping costs via Suez and the Atlantic.

    Does anyone know what the sea turnover between Asia and Europe ??

    Probably in the hundreds of billions of American dollars, if not trillions. If the tariffs are halved from the sea tariffs, they will not be able to resist and will surely load our way ..... although now some part is being transited.

    Now the level of railways has increased compared to what it was 120-150 years ago. In Europe, high-speed highways allow you to accelerate to 320-350 km / h, and over time there is a likelihood of an increase in performance, somewhere it was said about work on 400 km / h speeds.

    With such opportunities, our government is surprised - where does it look? Indeed, South Korea, China, Japan can easily integrate into the railway route and thereby significantly reduce the transport costs of their multinational companies, thereby increasing production in their countries.

    Moreover, with current technology, the American continents can be included in a trade orbit. The Bering Strait is small, with a depth of up to 100 meters, in my opinion the largest depth is 81 meters, you can fill several artificial islands and connect with a bridge.

    It seems that some Japanese car manufacturers will be interested in having their Taets get to Uruguay in a couple of days, at reduced transport tariffs. In such conditions, the Transsiberian becomes a trading "continental crossroads" (with monopoly rights) between the main booming international markets - Europe - Asia - North America (the Russian concept of tsars and the envy of the Rkfellers laughing ) Calculate the turnover between the Americas and Europe, + Asia and the Americas ......

    In this regard, a second steel spine is required - through, north of Lake Baikal. What does cross-cutting mean ?? Everything is simple - in order to maintain a high speed of movement along the route (and thus a high throughput, which can further take away part of the niche from air carriers), the trains fly along a two-track line to the side (deaf), only branches go to the stations.

    Where, asking for construction money? But will China not be interested in moving the goods of its exporters for preferences for participation in construction? Or the Japanese? Even South Koreans can throw a bridge to Japan if the northerners refuse .......
  12. iouris
    iouris 20 March 2016 15: 46
    0
    The Trans-Siberian Railway is more powerful than the nuclear bomb used by the United States.
  13. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 20 March 2016 16: 46
    0
    Quote: Novel 11
    With such opportunities, our government is surprised - where does it look?

    It is beneficial for our anti-people thieves to have people sit at home and not stick their nose out, buried in a zombie. While she plunders the people's good. Therefore, there are no normal roads throughout the country.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 20 March 2016 17: 15
      +1
      Quote: 16112014nk
      Quote: Novel 11
      With such opportunities, our government is surprised - where does it look?

      It is beneficial for our anti-people thieves to have people sit at home and not stick their nose out, buried in a zombie. While she plunders the people's good. Therefore, there are no normal roads throughout the country.

      The people should work.
      Receive new specialties. Teach children. Take care of the elderly.
      If the people stick their nose out of the house and go smash to the left and to the right, only this people will be worse.
      Our people’s power. All thieves in power studied in our native Soviet school and were our neighbors.
      At the conservatory, something needs to be improved, as Zhvanetsky said.
      The experience of Ukraine in establishing "order" is enough for me personally.
  14. nivander
    nivander 21 March 2016 09: 50
    0
    special stops were arranged along the Trans-Siberian route for fans of hunting for taiga game
  15. Victor N
    Victor N 21 March 2016 18: 19
    0
    I learned a lot of new and interesting things.
    Our glorious ancestors! Even if the memory of everyone was not preserved in the family, everyone was involved in great achievements. It is necessary to firmly believe in it and honor their memory and traditions, at least.
    Suddenly I thought: if we were late with the start of the operation in 1945, then many of our soldiers would be alive. But then there was a different logic, to us now it may not be available.