In Turkey, 114 large and small shipyards. Much of them are located in the province of Istanbul, in the Tuzla shipbuilding cluster, and on the coast of the Gulf of Izmit, near the cities of Altynova and Geldjuk.
Most Turkish shipyards (93) are incorporated into the non-governmental Union of Shipbuilders of Turkey, founded in 1971, the GISBIR. Among its goals are the promotion of its own products on the world market, assistance in solving typical problems in relations with local and international authorities.
What smaller build themselves
According to 2013 of the year, about 20 thousand people were employed in the shipbuilding industry of Turkey. In 2014, exports of all products in the industry amounted to about 1,280 billion dollars. That year, the country's shipyards built 65 ships and boats (displacing more than 150 tons), which provided the sixth place in the world for this indicator. Their aggregate deadweight was 488,583 tons. This is 12-place in the world. For comparison: China, the leader of the rating, built the 2014 vessel in 1763 year.
“According to the UN Register of Conventional Arms, Turkey has not exported a single large warship”
The Turkish military-political leadership is putting forward quite ambitious projects to create by the national industry forces of all classes and types of warships. The military-industrial complex of the country with varying degrees of success is trying to master the design and production of frigates (project TF2000) and corvettes (project MiLGEM). On the basis of the license for the production of submarines purchased from Germany, Type 209, it is planned to create a promising model with an air-independent power plant (VNEU). The Turkish version of the UDC Juan Carlos I is scheduled for construction. Most of the less technological auxiliary and landing ships of the Turkish Navy are built by national manufacturers.
The main problem of the industry until recently was a high dependence on imported components. First of all, these are high-tech components: power plants, modern propeller shafts and propellers, navigation and radar equipment, weapon systems.
Turkish companies were able to master the production of many electronic systems - navigation, combat control, laser target designation, remotely operated turrets and a number of others. At the same time, 50 – 60 percent of high-tech equipment remains imported. In particular, launchers and missiles themselves, torpedo tubes, artillery guns and air defense systems. Simple deck equipment, hydraulic units, ship chains and anchors are almost entirely of Turkish production.
The big problem is a high corruption component in this industry segment. Lobbying of their interests by certain groups close to the government and personally to President Erdogan is also common. These two factors negatively affect the overall efficiency of the shipbuilding industry.
Golcuk Tersanesi - Turkish Navy shipyard. Located on the territory of the main base of the Navy "Geldzhuk" on the east coast of the Sea of Marmara. The second (after Sedef Shipyard) in size in the country. Specializes in upgrading, licensing assembly and repair.
In recent years, four MEKO 200 frigates under the German license, 11 submarines Type 209 / 1200 (export version), a Klc II-B missile boat, ships and coast guard boats have been built here for the needs of the Turkish Navy. The shipyard plans to build submarines of the AIP project.
Pendik Naval Shipyard is a military shipyard located in the Tuzla area. The company has one of the largest dry docks in Turkey with a size of 300x50x8,5 meters. It built two corvettes of the national development type Ada (project MiLGEM) and six minesweepers. The squadron transport supply project for the Turkish Navy is being implemented.
Private but very large
Dearsan Shipyard is located in the Tuzla area, founded in 1980 year. It is engaged in the construction, repair and modernization of civil and military ships of various classes. The shipyard's 65-meter corvette projects, Tuzla-type 57-meter boats, an assortment of patrol boats from 42 to 120 meters in length, amphibious boats LCT and LCM, a rescue-tugboat, hydrographic and oceanographic vessels, mine sweepers.
In February, the shipyard transferred the last of the 2015 ordered Tuzla patrol boats to the Turkish Navy. A major export success of the enterprise was the contract with Ashgabat for the supply of eight Tuzla-type boats (with an option for two more). From 16, their sectional assembly was organized at the Turkmen ship repair yard in Kenara (former Ufra). Today, all boats transferred to the state border guard of the country. Ten small 2010-meter boats, one LCM-type landing craft, three tugboats and a civil ferry were also delivered.
Yonca-Onuk Shipyard is located in Tuzla, founded in 1986 year. Specializes in the design and construction of high-speed boats made of composite materials. Fulfills orders of both civil and military users. The main products are high-speed composite boats of the MRTP type (multifunctional tactical platform). The shipyard also has the concept of corvettes with a length of 65 and 70 meters. Among the most successful and best-selling models of the company - MRTP 15 / 16, MRTP 20 and MRTP 33 / 34. Yonca-Onuk boats serve not only in the Navy and the Coast Guard of Turkey, but also in Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Pakistan, Malaysia, Georgia. Licensed production of MRTP established in Egypt, Malaysia, the UAE. Negotiations are underway with other countries.
RMK Marine Shipyard, founded in 1978, is located in Tuzla. It is owned by Koc Holding conglomerate - the largest in Turkey in terms of revenue, exports and total number of employees. The main owners are the Koç family.
The shipyard is engaged in the construction, repair and modernization of superyachts, commercial and military vessels for Turkish and foreign customers. The company not only builds, but also makes the design and development of ships, the integration of electronics and weapons systems. RMK Marine Shipyard is the only one in Turkey with its own electronic systems and logistic support departments. Projects include a corvette 85 meters long and a tonnage of 1600 tons, a multifunctional coast guard ship (66 m, 700 tons), a speed patrol boat, UDC (200 m, 25 thousand tons). For the needs of the Navy and the Coast Guard of Turkey at the shipyard built four search and rescue ships.
Ares Shipyard is located in Antalya, on the Mediterranean coast. Able to build small warships and boats. The shipyard has projects of corvettes, as well as high-speed composite boats of the “Ares” type, which can be used for the needs of the Navy, the coast guard, special operations forces, medical services. Assistance in the design and construction of the British company provides BMT Nigel Gee. The shipyard won the recent tender for the supply of two new boats for the special forces of the Turkish Navy, and in 2014 a contract was signed for the supply of 17 boats for the Qatar coast guard.
Sedef Shipbuilding Inc - Shipbuilding Corporation and Shipyard, история which begins in 1972 year. Located in Tuzla. It is a subsidiary of Turkon Holding. It is considered the largest private shipyard in Turkey. It has the largest dry dock in the country with a length of 315x50 meters with the possibility of building ships up to 180 thousand tons of deadweight.
Over its history, the corporation has built a significant number of civil courts of various classes. The company also manufactured parts for various engineering projects, marine cranes and parts of drilling platforms. Now the company is building floating docks NB 177H and NB 178, projects are being implemented for the conversion of civilian vessels, and the construction of the Turkish UDC is planned.
Anadolu Shipyard (ADIK), formed in 1982, is located in Tuzla. It has one of the largest slipways in Turkey. In 2008, she won a tender for the construction of tank landing ships (LCT) for the Turkish Navy. All eight are built and transferred to the customer. Since 2011, the shipyard has been building two large tank landing ships (LST).
Istanbul Shipyard, founded in 1980 year, is located there. In August, 2003 was acquired by SNR Holding companies, which carried out a large-scale reconstruction and renovation. Together with the adjacent SNR Shipyard and ABS Metal areas, the company occupies 34 500 square meters.
Since 2004, the company has built and delivered to customers over 20 ships and boats, including patrol boats for the Romanian coastal police and supply vessels. According to the contract concluded at the shipyard in 2013, five ships of the Coast Guard of Turkey of the SAR-33 type are being upgraded.
In 2014, the shipyard launched a submarine rescue ship (MOSHIP) and two rescue tugs (R&T Ship) for the Turkish Navy. In 2015, a seismic survey ship was launched for the Geological Exploration Department of Turkey. It is planned to build a promising patrol and inspection boat SNR-17.
Selah Shipyard, founded in 1982 year, is also located in Tuzla, engaged in the construction and repair of civilian and auxiliary military vessels. Owned by Selah Industries Inc. The shipyard has two stocks that allow building vessels up to 30 thousand tons of deadweight. At the end of 2014, Selah Shipyard signed a contract for the construction of two supply vessels for the Turkish Navy. The shipyard has its own projects of speedboats - patrol and anti-sabotage.
Duzgit Shipyard, a shipyard in the province of Yalova, is owned by the Duzgit Group. Civil and military ships and ships of various classes are built and repaired here. Among other things, at 2009, the shipyard handed over two 20-meter high-speed patrol boats to the Ministry of Transport of Syria.
Not a shipyard, however ...
An important partner and contractor in Turkish shipbuilding is Aselsan, which specializes in the production of electronic, radio-electronic, telecommunications equipment, as well as armory systems and other products for the Turkish military-industrial complex and foreign customers. In particular, it is actively involved in the project to create a national corvette MiLGEM.
Among the company's independent shipbuilding projects can be identified high-speed unmanned modular boat LEVENT. It is equipped with various reconnaissance and auxiliary equipment and weapons. In the Turkish Navy, it is used as a floating target. In the interests of the military, the company has developed a system for remote control of ships and unmanned vehicles. The list of products for the Navy includes remotely operated turrets (with the possibility of installing guns and machine guns of various calibers on them, as well as air defense missile systems and automatic grenade launchers), torpedoes (TORK), anti-torpedo complexes (HIZIR, ZOKA and ZARGANA), geological exploration systems (TURKUAZ) , combat planning (VATOZ) and information management (VKS).
Another company that has been involved in electronics manufacturing since 1989 is GATE Elektronik. It has several offshore projects: an autonomous underwater reconnaissance device of the GMK-C modular structure, a national autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and a remotely controlled underwater robot GELiBULU-ROV.
Global Teknik also manufactures an electronic component base for the shipbuilding industry. Has its own project unmanned boat GLOBiDA. It can be equipped with various reconnaissance and surveillance devices.
Havelsan, despite its predominantly aerospace specialization, in 2012 participated in the modernization of the combat management program of eight Oliver Hazard Perry frigates transferred to Turkish the fleet according to the FMS program.
On the water and on the way
25 Ton Coast Guard Boats - 2011's contract for the construction of 17 boats (MRTP 20) for the Turkish Navy at Yonca-Onuk shipyard. 15 units already delivered to customer.
Coast Guard search and rescue ship. Since 2009, the shipyard RMK Marine built four of them, all for the coast guard in Turkey.
Fleet Replenishment Ship is a squadron transport supply project for the Turkish Navy. The contract for development and construction was concluded at the end of 2012 of the year with Pendik Naval Shipyard.
Landing Craft Tank (LCT) Project - a series of landing ships with a displacement of 1156 tons for the Turkish Navy. Armed with two 25 mm cannons and two 12,7 mm machine guns. Standard carrying capacity - 200 tons, maximum - 400 tons (three tank M-60 or 260 Marines). All eight ordered ships were handed over to the customer.
Landing Ship Tank (LST) Project - a project of a large tank landing ship with a displacement of 7254 tons. The contract for the construction of two samples concluded in 2011 year. Load capacity LST - 1200 tons. He carries on board four landing craft (LSVP). Armed with two 20-mm anti-aircraft artillery systems Phalanx CIWS, two 40-mm cannons and two 12,7-mm machine guns. There is a helipad. Construction is underway at Anadolu Shipyard.
Logistic Support Ship - supply vessel for the Turkish Navy with a displacement of 8628 tons. Two similar vehicles are being built at Selah Shipyard. On the ship can be transported about 4000 tons of cargo. The armament consists of two 12,7-mm machine guns, there is a helipad.
The project to create a national corvette MiLGEM (type Ada) has been implemented since 1996. It was originally planned to localize the construction of the German corvette MEKO A-100 by Blohm + Voss in Turkey. At the beginning of the 2000-s cooperation with the Germans was curtailed, it was decided to design and build a new corvette on their own.
Multi Purpose Corvette Type Ada. Displacement - 2400 tons, length - almost 100 meters. The ship is equipped with a combined power plant (CODAG) power 31 640 kilowatts. The two MTU 16V595TE90 diesel engines of the German company MTU Friedrichshafen are complemented by the gas engine LM2500 manufactured by GE Marine (a subsidiary of American General Electric). The propeller system is purchased from Andritz Hydro GmbH, a division of the Austrian Andritz AG. The maximum speed of the corvette is 30 knots, the cruising range reaches 3500 miles. Crew - 93 person, you can additionally take on board up to one hundred passengers.
The Corvette is equipped with the SMART-S survey radar, manufactured by Aselsan under license from Thales Nederland, STING EO Mk2 fire control systems (also manufactured by Thales) and UniMACS 3000 (Dutch Imtech Marine) information processing, as well as high-frequency integrated navigation system of the Canadian company OSI Geospatial Inc . All equipment complies with NATO standards.
The 76-mm gun of the Oto Melara Super Rapid is mounted on the bow of the ship, there are two turrets with 12,7-mm machine guns on the Aselsan STAMP platform. The Corvette carries eight Harpoon Block II anti-ship missiles. The ship’s air defenses are provided by the RIM-116 short-range missiles (in the Mk49 RAM launcher). There are two dual 324-mm torpedo tubes. Corvette is equipped with a helipad and hangar.
The MiLGEM project is estimated at three billion dollars. The program involves the design and construction of 12 ships (four optional). The first two prototypes were built at the Pendik Naval Shipyard state shipyard in 2008 and 2011. The initial tender for the construction of serial ships was won by RMK Marine Shipyard. However, its results, according to official data, for economic reasons, and according to unofficial data, because of Erdogan’s conflict with the Koch family, the shipyard owners, were annulled. The completion of the third and fourth ships of the series will be carried out at state shipyards. Another four ships, designed by MiLGEM-G (Batch II), which is the second generation, will announce a new tender. The layout was presented at IDEF 2015. In appearance, the ship is almost identical to the first generation of corvettes, except that the weight is slightly increased.
The main weapon remains the same - 76-mm gun. Behind it are the 16 universal vertical launchers Mk41 VLS. On the ship is installed a surveillance radar SMART-S Mk2. Corvette can carry 16 RCC (instead of eight for the first generation). Presumably, it will be Harpoon Block II. Instead of the launcher for the Mk49 RAM anti-aircraft missiles, two quick-fire Mk-15 Phalanx cannons are to be installed on the second-generation corvette. Such a replacement may be due to cost savings. What changes will undergo the "inner" stuffing is unknown.
By developing the MiLGEM project on the basis of national resources and technologies, Ankara hopes to improve the production capabilities and professional skills of local shipbuilders. But during the construction, problems that the military-industrial complex of Turkey is not able to cope on their own have come to light. The first is the lack of a suitable ship diesel engine of its own production.
Mine Hunting Vessels is a minesweeper for the Turkish Navy. The contract for six ships was signed in 1999. Construction was carried out in cooperation with the German minesweeper concern, Abeking & Rasmussen and Fr. Lurssen Werft. The first ship was made in Germany, the other five were made by Pendik Naval Shipyard. All six are part of the Turkish Navy.
New Type Patrol Boats (Tuzla type) - 16 patrol boats for the Turkish Navy, ordered in 2007 year and built on the Dearsan Shipyard.
Rescue and Towing Ship (R&T Ship) Project is a rescue tug for the Turkish Navy. Both ships were launched in 2014. Construction was carried out at Istanbul Shipyard.
Submarine Rescue Mother Ship (MOSHIP) Project - a project of a rescue ship of submarines for the Turkish Navy, equipped with a helipad. Construction was carried out on the Istanbul Shipyard. The ship is launched in the 2014 year.
Seismic Research Ship is a seismic survey ship for the Geological Survey of Turkey. Built on the Istanbul Shipyard. Launched in 2015 year.
The 600 Type Coast Guard Boat is a patrol ship project for the coast guard in Turkey. It is planned to build eight units. Now there is a formation of requirements. The project of such ships is at Dearsan Shipyard.
AIP project - submarine with VNEU. The contract for the design and construction was concluded in 2009 with the German company Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft. It is planned to build from ready-made sets of six adapted submarines Type 214. The project, which is under development, is scheduled to be transferred to the shipyard Golcuk Naval Shipyard. The new submarines are designed to replace the German 209 / 1200 type in service with the Turkish Navy.
Landing Platform Dock (LPD) project - UDC for the Turkish Navy. Construction is assumed at Sedef Shipyard. A contract worth nearly a billion dollars involves making one ship. The partner of Sedef Shipyard in the project is the Spanish company Navantia. The project is based on the UDC project Juan Carlos I. The Turkish clone will be able to take on board up to 1200 people, eight multi-purpose helicopters, three UAVs and up to 150 units of tracked and wheeled vehicles. Construction must be completed by 2021.
It should be noted that the UDC project of its own design is in RMK Marine. Initially, this shipyard was the main contender. However, as in the case of the MiLGEM corvettes, the conflict between Erdogan and the Koch family led to the fact that the choice was made not in favor of RMK Marine.
SNR-17 - a project of a promising patrol and inspection boat. It is planned to build on Istanbul Shipyard.
TF2000-class frigate is a project of a “national” frigate with a displacement of more than 6000 tons, specializing in air defense / missile defense. Completed feasibility study. The development of the project model. One of the co-authors may be the Spanish Navantia.
Place in the sea
MiLGEM is declared as a national project, but many of its elements (diesel engines, propellers, a surveillance radar, a fire control system, etc.) are foreign-made, since the Turkish defense industry is simply not able to produce them.
In January 2014, a memorandum of understanding was signed regarding the establishment of a Turkish-Japanese Institute of Technology in Pendik. Apparently, it will be focused on the naval sphere.
Cooperation between Russia and Turkey in the field of military shipbuilding as such is absent. However, according to the representative of Aselsan, the company supplies electronic components for periscopes to the Russian Federation, which are installed on submarines under construction for third countries. If we take into account the current realities, further cooperation of this kind is unlikely.
According to the UN Register of Conventional Arms, for all the time of observation, Turkey has not exported a single large warship. There are prospects in the segment of boats and small ships. Ares Shipyard, Dearsan Shipyard, Yonca-Onuk Shipyard, RMK Marine Shipyard and Selah Shipyard have export potential.
It is worth noting the company Aselsan, which supplies the world market turrets STAMP, STOMP, MUHAFIZ, BORA, navigation systems, weapons control. Projects of unmanned ships made by Turkish firms are promising.
According to the chairman of the sub-secretariat for the defense industry (SSM), M. Bayar, the country is now unable to independently build frigate or corvette class ships (although in 2011, he also said that Turkey is able to master even the aircraft carrier project). Despite ambitious statements, the national industry was never able to master the production of critical components, in particular, ship propulsion systems and high-tech weapons systems. At present, the Turkish military-industrial complex provides about 54 percent of the needs of the armed forces from its own resources. According to Erdogan, the goal is to completely eliminate the dependence of the defense industry on the supply of foreign equipment and components to the 2023 year.
In the next decade, Turkey will not become a significant player in the global market of large warships. At the same time, its companies are very actively developing the segment of the undersized fleet, focusing primarily on customers from the third world. Composite boats equipped with various weapons can be very attractive to neutral countries that adhere to the defensive doctrine.