“In the media, reporting on law enforcement agencies of the Chechen Republic, we are mistakenly called SOBR“ Terek ”. This is not true. Officially, we are called an instructor group and do not belong to Terek. We are engaged in the training of the personnel of this detachment, ”Daniil Martynov, assistant to the head of the Chechen Republic for interaction with the security unit, told the Military Industrial Courier.
The instructor team appeared in 2013, after it was decided to build an international training center in Gudermes to train special forces. In it, as the head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov, wrote on his Instagram page, special forces units of all types and types of troops and special services of both Russia and other countries will train.
“The center is not only educational classes, simulators, models and so on. First of all, these are instructors - people who organize and conduct classes, show by example what to do and how to do it, ”explains Daniel Martynov.
“In nature, there are no even shapes and black. These are all signs of unmasking. Therefore, we pay close attention to the coloring of our weapons "
The group selected officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the Chechen Republic - with a higher education, experience of participating in hostilities and having awards. All candidates passed serious tests for physical training, passed psychological tests.
“We paid close attention to tests for intelligence, for compatibility in the team. We need not just great fighters, teachers. People who can teach fighters, ”the assistant head of the Czech Republic in the security unit formulates the task.
By the middle of 2014, the backbone of the instructor group was formed. The mentor fighters were divided into several divisions: for operations in mountain-wooded areas, urban, airborne, diving (combat swimmers) and fire training. Last summer, picking was completed.
“If an employee is from the airborne department, then this does not mean that he only jumps with a parachute. All instructors, regardless of which department they serve in, have the same training. They know how to scuba dive, storm buildings, fight in the highlands. In the summer of 2015, we conducted an internal final exam following the results of the training, - continues Daniil Martynov. - In the process of training, instructors received a second degree. Initially, all had a legal, and now they are certified teachers. The construction of the training center has not yet been completed, but the instructor group is already training the Ministry of Internal Affairs officials of the Chechen Republic, police officers from other regions, military personnel of the internal troops and even the Ministry of Defense of Russia coming to special courses. ”
Students learn the basics of tactical medicine, the "alphabet" of action in difficult combat situations, other important elements of special training. Instructors lead classes and take tests.
In April last year, employees of the Gudermes center became winners of international competitions of special forces for the prize of the King of Jordan, ahead of teams from more than forty countries.
“There were severe tests, they took away a lot of strength and nerves. To be honest, by the end, many already “broke down”, had various injuries, damages. Rescued willpower. If in the first days none of the participants took us seriously, then at the end everyone wanted to take pictures of themselves with tactical bearded men, as we were called then, ”says an employee of the instructor group.
But according to Daniil Martynov, one cannot stop at what has been accomplished: “If we want to train combat-ready special forces, then we must be aware of world experience, moreover, in many respects be ahead of it. We are constantly testing new models of equipment, equipment from around the world. We develop and hone new tactics. ”
As already mentioned, the center has a fire training department. “Now the so-called practical shooting is actively developing in the world. Of course, this is primarily a sport. There the main task is to perform the exercise and get an assessment. But for the special forces soldier, the task is completely different: he must win not a competition, but a fight. Act as part of a unit, cover comrades, perform a combat mission. Although some elements of practical shooting are useful in combat training. On the basis of these, we are already creating our own tactical exercises, introducing new standards, ”the instructor in charge of fire training shares his experience.
High school special forces
The future alma mater of world special forces is located at the entrance to Gudermes. To get here, you need to drive through a forest near the village of Dzhalka, well-known to all participants in the fighting, where militants attacked columns of federal forces several times a day. Now it is a quiet area, which we pass in minutes. “In the summer, there will be cafes with excellent barbecues,” the attendant laughs, who has previously been on a business trip.
Despite the fact that the construction of the center began recently, in the summer of this year, according to Daniil Martynov, a landfill will be commissioned for urban fighting, and in the fall a wind tunnel will appear, followed by a parachute complex, a runway and equipped jump landing sites. Team members are already training in several fully equipped shooting galleries.
“Urban combat is an important element of combat training. But we went further. Look at the modern war. The fighting takes place not only in urban areas, but also on the ruins of complex technological structures. The assault on the Donetsk airport is a case in point. But modern urban buildings are underground communications, in fact, another city that can be successfully used. Therefore, we will have a separate course in the center - fighting in the ruins and underground communications, ”the assistant head of the Czech Republic on the security block shares his plans.
Paratroopers will work out in the center both long jumps with a dome opening on the ground itself (the so-called HALO - high altitude low opening) and jumping with a high altitude opening immediately after leaving the aircraft (HAHO - high altitude high opening), which allows commandos secretly plan from a point of release for several kilometers.
In total, the center plans to create 33 training sites. There will be separate shooting ranges for all types of small arms - ranging from pistols and ending with machine guns and sniper rifles, swimming pools for combat swimmers, training places for mine explosives, autodrome.
With the completion of construction, the 12 Russian sports federations will move to the center, and in the spring of 2017, a parachuting championship will take place in Gudermes.
Survive by clothes
“We do not strive for modern tactical fashion, but choose the most suitable equipment for us, uniforms and equipment. We test everything, we check, and we always fire off the means of protection. No matter who the manufacturer is, the main thing is that it is convenient, practical and reliable, ”says the instructor team member responsible for logistical support.
For this reason, they abandoned field uniforms in cartoons so popular in the world today. For the area prevailing in the Chechen Republic, A-Tacs was more suitable. In urban settings, the AU variant with a predominant gray color is used, and in the mountainous and wooded area - a greener FG.
It is noteworthy that for the instructor group not only trousers, pants, tactical shirts, but also wind and moisture protective suits made of soft-shell and membrane materials are purchased not from world leaders like Crye or Tactical Perfomance, but from Polish companies producing similar products for the Polish special forces group. Thunder".
On the one hand, the group has no strict requirements on the form of clothing. The staff wear what's comfortable. The manual encourages instructors to choose what suits them. But there are certain standards that cannot be violated.
“At one time, we also took thermal underwear from the Polish Helikon, but now we switched to Italian X-bionics. "Teplyak" (clothing for low temperatures. - AM) we have the company Carinthia. But we also buy a lot in Russia, for example, Polartek caps. Now we are testing products of the domestic company "Magellan", - said the interlocutor of "MIC".
From the shoes, the instructor group gives preference to LOWA - both tracking models and products with shortened berets, so-called tactical sneakers, convenient for work in urban environments.
But the individual means of protection are all Russian.
“Our armor plates are much better than Western ones, even widely publicized American ones. We design bulletproof vests together with manufacturers for specific tasks. True, while in Russia, certain difficulties with materials, so the threads, fabrics and accessories for our products have to be taken abroad. The group has all types of body armor - ranging from mobile plate-carrier and ending with heavy assault. We also have ballistic helmets produced in Nizhny Novgorod, ”says one of the instructors.
The group’s own development was an unloading vest for operations in mountainous wooded areas with the possibility of installing an armored plate. “It withstands hit of an X-NUMX B-32 armor-piercing bullet of a millimeter 7,62 from five meters. As experience shows, such a decision increases the head patrol a chance to survive in the forest and mountains, if he suddenly collides with the enemy. Put the plate in unloading as needed. The rest of the time is carried in the backpack, ”explains the instructor team member.
Weapon by measure
Great attention is paid to the tuning of weapons: Picatinny rail, various handles, adjustable butts, sights and other necessary elements.
“It is important that everything is adjustable. Each person has their own physiological characteristics, and when fitting a weapon, all this must be taken into account. We worked with various products of the company MAGPUL and FAB, but still give preference to the domestic "Zenith", - the instructor admits.
Despite the fact that now on the world market there is a huge amount of different tuning for Russian Kalashnikovs, the Zenith products are distinguished for the better by their durability.
“There is a famous movie of amateur shooters, when they dragged several kilometers of a Kalashnikov assault rifle with a Zenith receiver behind a pickup truck, and after that, the AK shot normally, the cover did not fall off, and the scope retained“ zero ”, explains the team member.
Depending on the task, a reactive muzzle brake compensator or tactical flame arrester is installed on the Kalashnikov machine gun.
“Although a reactive DTK boosts sound and flash, it seriously reduces recoil, which helps even novice shooters hit the target. And a tactical flame arrester is a kind of silencer, which partially removes the sound of a shot, but completely hides the flash, which is very important at night when working with a night vision device, ”one of the instructors reveals the secrets of the profession.
For AK-74M rifles, EOtech's collimator sights with triple magnifiers are used, which, depending on the task, can be supplemented with either night or thermal imaging attachments.
Instead of the new PKP Pecheneg machine guns, instructors use old, time-tested PCs and PKMs. “PKP is harder, because it has a thicker barrel, designed for 1500 shots. I don’t know if the special forces had to shoot so much in battle. Special Forces cannot get to such a war. And everything has to be dragged to its back, so a lighter PC, in my opinion, is preferable, ”the mentor admits.
On machine guns, as well as on Kalashnikov assault rifles, front handles, reactive or tactical DTC, as well as AImPoint or ACOG sights are installed. “Since the fire from a machine gun is conducted mainly at a long range, we immediately set the sights three to four times. But on the same ACOG, if necessary, we deliver small collimator sights, it is more convenient to carry out close combat with them. We use sights in combination with night or thermal imaging attachments, ”the instructor shares his experience.
The machine gunner always works with a partner, and when they go into the forest or mountains, in addition to the regular box with cartridges, the first number carries two more, each with 100 cartridges, plus spare tapes in the backpack. Total 500 rounds. The same number carries the second number. “The situation in the city is different. There are machines and equipment where there are ammunition, which, if necessary, will bring you comrades. Now we have tested in a city environment a pack of ammunition for 500 cartridges, ”says the interlocutor of the“ MIC ”.
True, for work in a mountainous wooded area, for tasks solved by special forces, even PCs are heavy. “Americans have an M249 machine gun. We would like the same chambered 5,45. Modern ammunition of this caliber is not inferior in its ballistics and 7,62-mm characteristics. Such a machine gun will be lighter, more compact, and most importantly, in case of need, unlike a PC, you can put a full-fledged silencer on it, ”explains the instructor.
Depending on the location of the task, ammunition is also selected. Instructors categorically do not recommend the use of tracer and armor-piercing tracer ammunition in the forest and mountains. They unmask the position of the shooter. But BZT must necessarily be at the machine gunner, if you work in an urban setting, when it is often necessary to stop the car trying to break free of the cordon ring.
“Another important element, on which many prefer to save, is the coloring of their weapons. But in nature there are no smooth forms and black. These are all signs of unmasking. Therefore, we pay close attention to the coloring of our weapons, ”says the center employee.
The conduct of combat operations at night is an important element of combat training. “It only seems that he put on a night vision device and won all. With NVG you need to be able to work not only for one fighter, but for the entire unit. Competently cover each other, move around, do not fall under the fire of colleagues. There are a lot of nuances, and everything must be taken into account, ”says the instructor.
If 10 – 15 years ago, when night-vision technologies were not so common, and the price of devices, various illuminators and lasers looked excessively high, the party using night-vision equipment had an undeniable advantage over the enemy. But now, when relatively cheap night vision devices have become widespread and it is easy to buy them, during the operation it must be borne in mind that the same terrorists may have equipment no worse than that of special forces. And the victory will be won by a more trained, and most importantly, a well-coordinated and able to work at night unit.
The group tested various night vision devices and sights, including products of the Russian firms "Daedal" and "Sot", American PVS-14, PVS-15 and even the newest ones, often called the four-tube PNVG-18 for their characteristic form.
Infrared laser illuminators combined with both IR and conventional laser target indicators are installed on automatic machines and machine guns of instructors of the center.
“The IR illuminator illuminates the night vision devices in places where there is no necessary amount of light, especially such products are important in urban environments, when storming the enclosed space without windows. For these purposes, not only in the world, but also in many Russian special forces, the American device AN / PEQ-15 is popular. But we conducted long-term comparative tests with the use of foreign products, in particular, DBAL-D2 and AN / PEQ-15, and products of Russian firms "COT" and "Zenit". We stopped at the Zenit "Finger-3", which by its characteristics surpassed even the Americans, "- explains the employee instructor group.