In 1976, a design team from the Czechoslovak company Konštrukta Trenčín Co. finished work on a new 152-mm self-propelled artillery mount. By that time weapon possessed several unique features that put this howitzer in a small list of the most modern in the world. Czechoslovak People's Army gave this howitzer girl's name Dan and the abbreviation vz.77. ZTS Dubnica nad Váhom, now in the territory of Slovakia, was selected as a manufacturer.
The artillery unit Dana vz.77 is based on the Tatra 815 truck chassis with the 8xNNXX wheel formula and two front steering wheels, equipped with an independent spring suspension with an air pressure regulation system in the tires. The frame has three armored, hermetically sealed and air-conditioned cabins, which also provide protection from small arms fire and shell fragments. The crew of this howitzer cannon consists of five people. In the front cockpit are places for the commander and driver. Access to them is through the two upper hatches. The commander operates with a fire control panel and a radio station to communicate with the higher command. The tower consists of two armored half-towers with a gun mounted between them. In the left part of the gun are the gunner and loader jobs located in tandem, followed by mechanized charging of charges. In the right part, the workplace of the second loader, and in front of him the mechanized laying of shells. In the space between the two compartments, there is a gun howitzer, as well as a moving belt, designed to remove used cartridges. Above the barrel of the gun is placed the mechanism of filing. Access to the left is through a side door or top hatch. The gunner uses a small swiveling turret for observation, inside of which is a telescope and two types of rifle sights. The loading operator is responsible for the semi-automatic hydraulic charging conveyor for 8 charges, which is located in the second half of the left side. Behind this conveyor is a smaller box for spare ammunition (30 projectile plus 4 charges), accessible only from the space between the two compartments of the turret. The right side of the tower consists of three parts. In the front there is a place for personal equipment of the crew, in the middle - a semi-automatic conveyor with 12 projectiles. The shells are loaded into the conveyor after the side door is opened, placing them in the slots and tilting into the holder of the charging conveyor. In the back is the place of the second loader. It is accessed between the two compartments of the tower or through the upper hatch. The second loader controls the operation of the entire semi-automatic loading system. This whole procedure is performed without direct contact with ammunition. The upper hatch is also used to use the 36-mm anti-aircraft machine gun DShK 12,7 / 38. In the space of the second loader are also boxes of cartridges for machine guns and charges of anti-tank RPG-46.
The stability of the howitzer cannon when firing is provided by three hydraulic supports (one, main, rear and two small sides). The maximum range of howitzer fire is 18,700 meters, with special charges - 20,000 meters. The loading system allows four shots per minute. It takes about two minutes to transfer an artillery unit from the marching position to the combat position, and leaving the position after the shooting takes no more than 60 seconds. Typically, an artillery mount carries 40 projectiles, but if necessary it can carry up to 60 projectiles. In this case, the shells are arranged as follows: the main semi-automatic conveyor - 36 pieces, spare ammunition boxes - 4 pieces, ammunition boxes on the front axles - 2 + 2 pieces, ammunition boxes between the second and third axes - 5 + 5 pieces, ammunition boxes for the last axis - 3 + 3 pieces.
The charges are located as follows: the main conveyor - 30 pieces, spare ammunition boxes - 12 pieces, ammunition boxes on the right side of the engine compartment - 13 pieces, ammunition boxes on the left side of the engine compartment - 5 pieces. The howitzer gun uses standard high-explosive shells. "Dana" is fully unified in terms of ammunition with the Soviet 152-mm howitzer gun D-20. If necessary, smoke and lighting shells can be added. In the event of hostilities, the artillery installation is also equipped with anti-tank shells for its own protection against tanks and armored vehicles.
The air-cooled twelve-cylinder V-shaped turbo diesel TATRA is located at the rear of the car and is powered by an 500-liter tank. The engine allows the vehicle with a combat weight of 29 t to reach speed on the highway 80 km / h, power reserve in 600 km. There are also two spare 20-liter cans with oil. The crew has a personal weapon, a flare gun and hand grenades for self-defense.
A very serious disadvantage of the “Dana” is the lack of the possibility of loading from the ground.
The first People's Army of Czechoslovakia began to re-equip units of the 152-mm towed howitzers of artillery regiments of combat readiness divisions, namely: the first and ninth tank divisions and the 2, 19 and 20 motorized rifle divisions. The first self-propelled "Dan" artillery mounts were put into service at the beginning of 1980, the first artillery regiment in Terezin (Terezin), belonging to the first tank division. The next was the forty-seventh artillery regiment in Pilsen (Plzeň) 19 th motorized rifle division. In 1981 and 1982, the 38 artillery regiment was reequipped in the Kynšperk nad Ohří 20 motorized rifle division. In 1983, the eighth artillery regiment in Klatov (Klatovy) was the second motorized rifle division and the 362-th artillery regiment in Lesani (Lešany), which belonged to the ninth tank division. Artillery installations "Dan" were presented to the public 9 May 1980, at a military parade in Prague. The largest number of artillery mounts "Dana", 408 units, were in service with the People's Army of Czechoslovakia on December 31 1992 of the year. After the division of Czechoslovakia into two independent states, the Czech Republic Army (ACR) was given the 273 units, the newly established Slovak Army 135 units. To date, the army of the Czech Republic has 209 "Dan", most of which are in storage. In combat readiness "Dana" are in the 13 th artillery brigade in Jince. The brigade consists of two mixed artillery battalions (131 and 132), the first is with the command of Jince, the second is in Pardubice, but must also be transferred to Jitz. “Dana” must remain in active military service until 2014, due to the termination of the technical period of service.
The plant in Dubnice nad Vahom produced a total of 672 Dana installations, some of which were exported. The Polish Army acquired 111 howitzers. The first of them were delivered in 1983 year and are still in service with the Polish army. Libya has acquired an unknown number "Dan", but at least 27 units. Not less than 12 installations "Dan" were noticed at the disposal of the army of Georgia.
Special история with the service of "Dana" in the army of the Soviet Union, which acquired 126 installations. It was almost the only weapon system used by the Soviet army, but not designed or produced in the Soviet Union. They were used in limited quantities.
In the 1979, at the Rzhev artillery range, qualification tests of two Dana samples were carried out, which, as expected, showed no advantages for the Czechoslovak howitzer cannon over the domestic counterpart. In 1983, a letter was sent to the General Staff from the USSR Academy of State Administration about the inexpediency of supplying Dana installations to the Soviet Union.
Nevertheless, in the same year 1983, the decision was made to accept a certain amount of vz.77 into experimental military service in the USSR. For this, a number of self-propelled units were purchased in Czechoslovakia. For about one year, Dana were in trial operation, after which they were returned to Czechoslovakia. In 1985, in the name of USSR Minister of Defense Marshal S.L. Sokolov was sent a report on the results of trial operation of LNG "Dana". After reviewing it, the Council of Ministers of the USSR issued 25 of October 1986 a decree No. 2151rs “On the purchase in 1987-89 of Czechoslovakia 152-mm self-propelled howitzer guns“ Dana ”.
Deliveries were made in 1987-1989. and Dana were in service with the 211 Artillery Brigade from the Central Group of Forces, located after the invasion of Czechoslovakia 21 in August 1968 in Jeseník. Until the rearmament, the 211 Brigade consisted of four divisions equipped with D-20 towed guns and 2-XNNXX self-propelled guns. With the beginning of the replacement of the material part, the compound moved to a new state: it now included five divisions, each of which had three 5-gun artillery batteries. As of 8, the brigade had 02.02.1990 Dana installations. In addition to the TsGV artillery brigade, vz.104 entered the artillery training center located in the territory of the Belarusian Military District. After the withdrawal of the Central Group of Forces from Czechoslovakia, the 77 Brigade was incorporated into the troops of the Moscow Military District and redeployed to the village of Mulino, Gorky Region. The materiel of the brigade was transferred to Kazakhstan and remained there.
In the opinion of the officers who served in the 211 Brigade, the artillery unit of the “Dana” was very sensitive to the operating conditions, and it turned out to be too “tender”, for this reason there were a lot of failures. The maneuverability of the eight-wheeled chassis, which was even higher than that of the BTR-70, received a certain praise. The turning radius of an artillery installation allowed it to drive in narrow places in one go where the armored personnel carrier needed to go with reverse gear in two stages.
The self-propelled howitzer gun "Dana" was first used in the eighties during the military operations of the troops of Gaddafi in Chad. Further combat use was in the summer of 2008, when Georgian “Dans” took part in battles with the Russian army during the conflict in South Ossetia. Then the Georgian troops, retreating, threw three "Dana", which were captured by the Russian army. From 2008, the X-NUMX howitzer “Dana” has been successfully used by the Polish contingent at the Ghazni base in Afghanistan as part of the 5 artillery brigade.
At the end of 80, there was an attempt to modernize Dana. Only units were modernized and named Ondava. The barrel was extended almost 2 meters, and other changes were made to the weapon systems and the cockpit. The gunner’s compartment received new electronic equipment and infrared night vision systems. Based on Dana vz.77, a new Zuzana howitzer gun was created, but this is another story.
Manufacturer: TSG Hejnice, NC
Production Period: 1980 - 1989
Combat weight (kg): 28,100 (including 40 shots), 29,250 (including 60 shots)
Total length (mm): 11,156 (with barrel forward), 8,870 (body length)
Overall width (mm): 3,000
Total height (mm): 3,350
Main Equipment: 152-mm howitzer
Caliber (mm): 152,4
Projectile initial velocity (m / s): 693
Maximum range of special projectile (m): 20,000
Maximum range of standard projectile (m): 18,700
The minimum range (m): 4600
Vertical guidance (°): from -4 to + 70
Homing Angle (°): ± 225
Guidance angle for closed firing positions (°): -45
- With automatic loading (shots / min): 9
- with manual loading (shots / min): 4
The number of shots in the charging machine: 36
Number of transported charges: 40-60
Additional Armament: 12,7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun 38 / 46M DShKM
Engine: Tatra T3-12-930.52V- Diesel with air cooling and turbocharging
Motor power (kW) 265 at 2200 rpm
Road speed (km / h :) 80 (maximum)
Cross-country speed (km / h): 25 (average)
Cruising on the road (km): 600
Ground clearance (mm): 410
Gradient: (°) 30
Side tilt: (°) 15
Overcoming vertical obstacle (mm): 600
Wading depth (mm): 1,400
- Front axle (mm): 2 000
- Rear axle (mm): 1950
Wheelbase (mm): 1,650 + 2,970 + 1,450
Fuel consumption on the highway (l / 100 km): 65
Cross-country fuel consumption (l / 100 km): from 80 to 178
Transition from traveling to combat (min.): 2
Transition from combat to marching (min.): 1