Military Review

Conquest of Central Asia

90
Conquest of Central Asia 140 years ago, 2 March 1876, as a result of the Kokand campaign under the command of M. D. Skobelev, the Kokand khanate was abolished. Instead, the Fergana region was formed as part of the Turkestan Governor-General. The first military governor was appointed General MD. Skobelev. The liquidation of the Kokand Khanate ended the conquest of Russia by the Central Asian khanates in the eastern part of Turkestan.


The Central Asian khanates were feudal and slaveholding nests of predators, from which nomad raids splashed out on Russian lands. The backward feudal khanates, mutually weakening each other in constant wars, causing harm to Russia, severely exploiting their own people, were doomed to history. The Russian Empire could not tolerate such parasitic, robber formations on its borders. In addition, the British nestled in Afghanistan, lured by their patronage, incited the Russians, supplied weapon. As a result, the problem of the Central Asian khanate reached the level of the Great Game. And the tsarist government launched an offensive against them, began to push aside lines of fortresses to the south, to strike with expeditionary troops.

The first attempts of Russia to gain a foothold in Central Asia date back to the time of Peter I. In 1700, the ambassador from Khiva’s Shakhniyaz-khan arrived in Peter 1713, asking to accept him as a Russian citizen. In 1714 — 1718 Two expeditions took place: in Malaya Bukharia - Buchholz and in Khiva - Bekovich-Cherkassky. In 1725, Peter I sent Florio Beneveini to Bukhara, who returned to XNUMX and delivered a lot of information about the region. However, Peter's attempts to establish themselves in this region were not crowned with success. This was largely due to time constraints. Peter passed away early, failing to implement strategic plans for Russia's penetration into Persia, Central Asia, and further to the South.

Under Anna Ioannovna, the Young Queen and Middle Juz were taken under the care of the “white queen”. The Kazakhs then lived in a tribal system and were divided into three tribal unions: Junior, Middle and Senior zhuz. At the same time from the east they were subjected to pressure of the Djungars. The births of the Elder Zhuz came under the authority of the Russian throne in the first half of the XIX century. To ensure the Russian presence and protect Russian citizens from the raids of neighbors in the Kazakh lands, a number of fortresses were built: Kokchetav, Akmolinsk, Novopetrovskoye, Uralskoye, Orenburgskoye, Raimskoye and Kapalskoye fortifications. In 1854, the fortification Vernoe (Alma-Ata) was founded.

After Peter until the beginning of the XIX century, the Russian government was limited to relations with subordinate Kazakhs. Paul I decided to support Napoleon’s plan for joint action against the British in India. But he was killed. Russia's active participation in European affairs and wars (in many respects it was Alexander’s strategic mistake) and the constant struggle with the Ottoman Empire and Persia, as well as the Caucasian War that had lasted for decades, did not give an opportunity to pursue an active policy towards the eastern khanates. In addition, part of the Russian leadership, especially the Ministry of Finance, did not want to bind themselves with new spending. Therefore, St. Petersburg sought to maintain friendly relations with the Central Asian khanates, despite the damage from raids and robberies.

However, the situation gradually changed. Firstly, the military was tired of enduring the raids of nomads. Fortifications and punitive raids alone were few. The military wanted to solve the problem in one fell swoop. Military strategic interests outweighed financial.

Secondly, Petersburg feared the British advancement in the region: the British Empire held strong positions in Afghanistan, and English instructors appeared in the Bukhara troops. The Big Game had its own logic. A holy place is never empty. If Russia refused to take control of this region, then Britain would take it under its wing, and China in the long run. And given the hostility of England, we could get a serious threat in the southern strategic direction. The British could strengthen the military formations of the Kokand and Khiva khanates, the Bukhara emirate.

Third, Russia could afford to start more active operations in Central Asia. The Eastern (Crimean) War was over. A long and tedious Caucasian war was coming to an end.

Fourth, we must not forget the economic factor. Central Asia was an important market for Russian industrial goods. The cotton-rich (in perspective and other resources) region mattered as a supplier of raw materials. Therefore, the idea of ​​curbing banditry and providing new markets for the Russian industry through military expansion found increasing support in various sections of the Russian Empire. It was no longer possible to tolerate archaic and savagery on its borders, it was necessary to civilize Central Asia, solving a wide range of military-strategic and socio-economic problems.

Back in 1850, the Russian-Kokand war began. At first it was a small skirmish. In 1850, an expedition across the Ili River was undertaken to destroy the fortifications of Toychubek, which served as a stronghold for the Kokand Khan, but they managed to master it only in 1851. In 1854, the Faithful fortification was built on the Almaty River (today Almatinka), and the entire Zailiysky Krai became part of the Russian Empire. In 1852, Colonel Blaramberg destroyed two Kokand fortresses of Kumysh-Kurgan and Chim-Kurgan and stormed the Ak-Mosque, but did not succeed. In 1853, the Perovsky detachment took the Ak-Mosque. The Ak-Mosque was soon renamed Fort Perovsky. Attempts Kokandtsev repel the fortress were reflected. The Russians erected a series of fortifications along the lower reaches of the Syr Darya (Syrdarya line).

In 1860, the West Siberian authorities formed a detachment under the command of Colonel Zimmerman. Russian troops destroyed the Kokand fortifications Pishpek and Tokmak. The Kokand Khanate declared a holy war and sent an army of 20 thousand, but it was defeated in October 1860 near the fortification of Uzun-Agach by Colonel Kolpakovsky (3 companies, 4 hundreds and 4 guns). Russian troops took Pishpek restored by Kokands, small Tokmak and Kastek fortresses. Thus, the Orenburg line was created.

In 1864, it was decided to send two units: one from Orenburg, the other from western Siberia. They had to go towards each other: Orenburg - up the Syr Darya to the city of Turkestan, and the West Siberian - along the Alexander ridge. In June, the 1864 of the West Siberian detachment under the command of Colonel Chernyayev, who left Verny, stormed the fortress of Aulie-ata, and the Orenburg detachment under Colonel Verevkin, moved from Fort Perovsky and took the fortress of Turkestan. In July, the Russian troops took Chimkent. However, the first attempt to take Tashkent failed. In the 1865 year, the Turkestan region was formed from the newly occupied territory, with the annexation of the territory of the former Syrdarya line, the military governor of which was Mikhail Chernyaev.

The next major step was mastering Tashkent. The detachment under the command of Colonel Chernyaev undertook a campaign in the spring of 1865. At the very first news of the approach of the Russian troops, the Tashkent people turned for help to Kokand, since the city was ruled by the Kokand khans. The actual ruler of the Kokand Khanate, Alimkul, assembled an army and headed for the fortress. Tashkent garrison reached 30 thousand people with 50 guns. Russian was only about 2 thousand people with 12 guns. But in the fight against poorly trained, poorly disciplined and worse armed forces, this did not matter much.

9 May 1865 in the decisive battle outside the fortress Kokand forces were defeated. Alimkul himself was mortally wounded. The defeat of the army and the death of the leader undermined the combat capability of the garrison of the fortress. Under cover of night 15 June 1865, Chernyaev began the storming of the Kamelian gates of the city. Russian soldiers secretly approached the city wall and, using the element of surprise, broke into the fortress. After a series of skirmishes, the city capitulated. A small detachment of Chernyayev forced a huge city to lay down its arms (24 versts in a circle, not counting the suburbs) with 100 thousand population, with 30 thousand garrison having 50-60 guns. The Russians lost a killed 25 man and several dozen wounded.

In the summer of 1866, a royal decree was issued on the annexation of Tashkent to the possessions of the Russian Empire. In 1867, a special Turkestan Governor-General was created within the Syrdarya and Semirechenskaya regions, with its center in Tashkent. The first governor was appointed engineer-general KP Kaufman.

In May, 1866, 3, a thousand detachment of General DI Romanovsky, defeated an army of Bukharians in the Irjar Battle 40. Despite their large number, the Bukharians suffered a complete defeat, having lost about a thousand people killed, and among the Russians only 12 were wounded. The victory at Ijara opened the way for the Russians to cover Khojent, the fortress of Nau, Dzhizak, who were covering the access to the Fergana valley, who were taken after the Idjarian victory. As a result of the campaign in May-June 1868, the resistance of the Bukhara troops was finally broken. Russian troops occupied Samarkand. The territory of the Khanate joined Russia. In June, 1873, the same fate befell the Khiva Khanate. The troops under the general command of General Kaufman took Khiva.



The loss of independence of the third major khanate - Kokand - was postponed for some time only thanks to the flexible policy of Khan Khudoyar. Although part of the territory of the Khanate with Tashkent, Khojand and other cities was annexed to Russia, Kokand, in comparison with treaties imposed on other khanates, was in a better position. The main part of the territory was preserved - Ferghana with the main cities. Dependence on the Russian authorities was felt weaker, and in the affairs of internal management Hudoyar was more independent.

For several years, the ruler of the Kokand Khanate Khudoyar obediently executed the will of the Turkestan authorities. However, his power was shaken, Khan was considered a traitor who made a deal with the "infidels." In addition, his position worsened the most severe tax policy in relation to the population. Incomes of the khan and feudal lords fell, and they pressed taxes on the population. In 1874, a rebellion began, which covered a large part of the khanate. Khudoyar asked for help from Kaufman.

Khudoyar in July 1875 fled to Tashkent. The new ruler was proclaimed his son Nasreddin. Meanwhile, the rebels were moving towards the former Kokand lands annexed to the territory of the Russian Empire. Khujand was surrounded by rebels. Russian communications with Tashkent were interrupted, to which the Kokand troops were already approaching. In all mosques there were calls for war with the "infidels." True, Nasreddin sought reconciliation with the Russian authorities in order to entrench himself on the throne. He entered into negotiations with Kaufman, reassuring the governor of his loyalty. In August, an agreement was concluded with the khan, according to which his authority was recognized in the territory of the khanate. However, Nasreddin did not control the situation in his lands and could not stop the unrest that had begun. The detachments of the rebels continued to make raids on Russian possessions.

Russian command correctly evaluated the situation. The uprising could spread to Khiva and Bukhara, which could lead to serious problems. In August 1875 was defeated by the Kokand in the Battle of Mahram. Kokand opened the gates to Russian soldiers. A new agreement was concluded with Nasreddin, according to which he recognized himself as “the obedient servant of the Russian emperor”, refused diplomatic relations with other states and military actions without the permission of the governor-general. The lands on the right bank of the upper reaches of the Syr Darya and Namangan departed to the empire.

However, the uprising continued. Its center was Andijan. 70-th has been collected here. army. The rebels proclaimed a new khan - Pulat-bek. The troop of General Trotsky, which was moving to Andijan, was defeated. 9 October 1875. The rebels defeated the khan's troops and took Kokand. Nasreddin, like Khudoyar, fled under the protection of Russian weapons to Khujand. Soon the rebels captured Margelan, looming a real threat over Namangan.

The Turkestan Governor-General Kaufman sent a detachment under the command of General MD D. Skobelev to suppress the uprising. In January, 1876, Mr. Skobelev, took Andijan, and soon suppressed the insurgency in other areas. Pulat-beck was captured and executed. Nasreddin returned to his capital. But he began to establish contacts with the anti-Russian party and fanatical clergy. Therefore, in February, Skobelev occupied Kokand. 2 March 1876, the Kokand Khanate was abolished. Instead, the Fergana region was formed as part of the Turkestan Governor-General. The first military governor was Skobelev. The conquest of Russia by the Central Asian khanates ended with the liquidation of the Kokand Khanate.

Thus, Russia has established itself in Central Asia. Historically, the accession of the Kokand Khanate and other Central Asian territories to Russia was inevitable. The backward feudal khanates, mutually weakening each other in constant wars, with poorly trained and armed, undisciplined troops were doomed to defeat. Most of the population, except for small groups that parasitize ordinary people, benefited from joining Russia. The slave trade was abolished, bloody and ruinous civil wars, raids ended, people could live and work peacefully. Russia brought peace and civilization to Central Asia (in the form of the development of socio-economic infrastructure).

It is worth noting that the modern republics of Central Asia now also face a similar choice. The time that has passed since the collapse of the USSR shows that living together in a single, mighty empire-power is much better, more profitable and safer than in separate “khanates” and “independent” republics. 25 years, the region has steadily degraded, was returning to the past. The Great Game continues and the countries of the West, Turkey, the Arab monarchies, China and the network structures of the “army of chaos” (jihadists) are active in the region. The whole of Central Asia can become a huge “Afghanistan” or “Somalia, Libya,” that is, an inferno zone.

The economy in the Central Asian region cannot independently develop and maintain the life of the population at a decent level. Some exceptions were Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan - due to the oil and gas sector and more intelligent government policies. However, they are also doomed to a rapid deterioration of the economic, and then the socio-political situation, after the collapse in energy prices. In addition, the population of these countries is too small and cannot create an "island of stability" in the storming ocean of world turmoil. Militarily, technologically, these countries are dependent and doomed to defeat (for example, if Turkmenistan is attacked by jihadists from Afghanistan), if they are not supported by the great powers.

Thus, Central Asia is again facing a historic choice. The first way is further degradation, Islamization and archaization, disintegration, civil strife and transformation into a huge “inferno zone”, where most of the population simply will not “fit” into the new world.

The second way is a gradual absorption of the Celestial and cetatization. First, economic expansion, which is what happens, and then military-political. China needs the resources of the region and its transportation capabilities. In addition, Beijing cannot allow jihadists to base themselves near it and carry the flames of war to the west of China.

The third way is active participation in the re-creation of the new Russian Empire (Soyuz-2), where the Turks will be a full-fledged and prosperous part of the multinational Russian civilization. It is worth noting that Russia will have to fully return to Central Asia. Civilization, national, military-strategic and economic interests above all. If we do not do this, then the Central Asian region will collapse into distemper, become a zone of chaos, inferno. We will get a lot of problems: from the flight of millions of people to Russia to the attacks of jihadist detachments and the need to build fortified lines (the Central Asian Front). China's intervention is no better.
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  1. Titanumide
    Titanumide 2 March 2016 06: 38
    -13 qualifying.
    The author is better than you. In the morning I ruined my mood. 25 years we did not degrade but developed !!!! at least one hundred claims to the article !!! One hundred minuses to you
    1. Floock
      Floock 2 March 2016 07: 01
      16
      Well, if it’s about Kazakhstan ... Of course, we did not degrade, but successfully ate what was accumulated during the USSR. The robot plant in Kapchagai was changed to a casino, AHBK was given to Armada shopping center, etc. you know everything yourself. Well, they led a cunning eastern foreign policy - here, yes, everything is wise and right. But only the oil industry and other spoils developed.
      As the Poles say - Big brother will always be. For them, this is now SCO. Do you want China for us? Or do you seriously think that we are truly independent? From all of us?
      1. Pig
        Pig 2 March 2016 07: 12
        13
        "" We did not degrade, of course, but successfully ate ""
        Yes, this is degradation only in milder terms ...
        1. Mobius
          Mobius 2 March 2016 11: 44
          +4
          An important, without any doubt milestone in the formation of the Russian Empire.

          This is a good article, the only thing I would like to add is that after the conquest of Turkestan thugs and slave traders, Russia brought CIVILIZATION to Central Asia, which, incidentally, differed in its centuries-old history from the Naglo-Saxons, who by the way played their card in the then "containment of Russia".

          Believe it or not, but the idea that history is still "twisted in a spiral" find confirmation in the comparison of the past and the present.
          1. xan
            xan 2 March 2016 12: 49
            +2
            Quote: Möbius
            Good article

            The article is good, but superficial. Since Peter I, Russia in one form or another was constantly present in Central Asia. There were merchants and spies who went to Russia or from Russia, there were court groups based on Russia, there were khans sitting on two or three chairs, and so on. And there was also the Kazakh Khan Dzhangir, who without any sitting on several chairs took a clear course towards Russia, and carried out a long-overdue administrative reform in his area. His words: "I am not Russian, but my hands are covered in the blood of Russia's enemies."
            Kazakhstan will not leave for China for many reasons.
            1. Alena Frolovna
              Alena Frolovna 2 March 2016 15: 44
              +6
              Kazakhstan will not leave for China for many reasons.


              For this, we thank the White General Skobelev, who cut this Kokand knot.
              It becomes joyful from the fact that we begin to recall our real military leaders who were happy for the good of the FATHERLAND.

              Wandering White General
              A ghost in Asia.
              Maybe I lost something
              In life by mistake?

              Silver in the hair
              Early gray hair.
              Miracles lurk in them
              That went to epics.

              Loudly with a white horse
              I gave the command to rati ...
              Admires the earth
              Skobelev article!

              This white general
              Now not in high esteem:
              He collected Russia ...
              V. Pechersky
              1. Talgat
                Talgat 2 March 2016 18: 55
                +5
                Kazakhs will not go under China, this is obvious. And Russia is not only Russian. with which the Kazakhs learned to live together for thousands of years from the time of the Kipchaks and later the Golden Horde. Russia is also a lot of peoples native to us, and our native Volga and Tuva, Altai and Tatars and Bashkirs are the same

                Everything is confused in the article - and it seems like the right things - and at the same time, statements about the "savagery" of the Kokand people are just an eructation of "Westernism"

                Also, the topic of the worlds of civilization has not been disclosed (according to Gumilev or according to McKinder, etc.) - Eurasia is always the union of the Great Steppe and Russia. Kokand and Central Asia have always been on the "border" and the farmers, the settled ancestors of the Uzbeks, have always experienced raids from the ancestors of the Kazakhs (it must be admitted) and later received the invasion of the already united Eurasia in the form of the Golden Horde.

                Their misfortunes did not end there - later Eurasia returned to them in the form of Skobelev again (Chernyaeva - and our Kazakh Chokan Valikhanov also took part) - and then in the form of Frunze

                Maybe that's why the Uzbeks are not in a hurry to join us in the Eurasian Union? Although. in their place, I would forget about the old grievances and seek an alliance with the steppe (Kazakhstan) and Russia. I am sure that their common people would be better off.
      2. lel
        lel 2 March 2016 13: 02
        +7
        Aunt's wife recently came from sowing. Kazakhstan ... its diagnosis, if not for the dictatorship of Nazarbayev, the local Bey (elite) had long torn the country to their lands and districts ...
        1. goose
          goose 2 March 2016 15: 31
          +2
          Quote: lel
          Aunt's wife recently came from sowing. Kazakhstan ... its diagnosis, if not for the dictatorship of Nazarbayev, the local Bey (elite) had long torn the country to their lands and districts ...

          I confirm - from other sources the exact same information. Southern bays would tear the country into a bunch of little Kazakhstanis.
          1. Hurray
            Hurray 4 March 2016 20: 22
            -1
            What to do is not to be avoided. Can assimilate in parts will be more convenient.
    2. Max_Bauder
      Max_Bauder 2 March 2016 15: 13
      +7
      In principle, I agree with the article. At one time, the Golden Horde also lived normally, until the inhabitants themselves ripped it off, the neighbors finished it off later. After that, the remnants of the Horde joined the Russian Empire, the Russian Empire, then the USSR. We really have no choice but to create a new Union. You can live separately, but tight, let the enemy capture it more easily by destroying one at a time. Economically, I see the degradation of the southern neighbors and the transformation of their peoples into illiterate religious fanatics or simply into impoverished uneducated people living both in the Middle Ages, and Russia after the 90s has degraded both culturally and economically. But Putin came and now Russia is reborn, gives high hopes, it is necessary to unite and help, unite in a new economic and military alliance in order to be stronger and confront the common danger in the form of Islamism and Sinanism. For the latter, like a black hole, suck in everything that has broken away. Our ancestors lived side by side for thousands of years, so together we have a common future than separate.
      1. Talgat
        Talgat 2 March 2016 18: 57
        +2
        It's like that. I support the respected Max Bauder!
    3. The master
      The master 2 March 2016 20: 19
      -1
      You can be a khan, a padishah, the ruler of the universe. But do not forget that Your crown is only the heel of the Russian Empire.
      1. Hurray
        Hurray 4 March 2016 20: 26
        0
        Dear master, there was such a large and ancient clan of Baarin among the Mongols.
    4. Stanislas
      Stanislas 4 March 2016 20: 53
      0
      Quote: Titanumide
      25 years we did not degrade but developed
      If you are 25 years old, then you are only right about yourself, but it’s more difficult with the country.
  2. ovod84
    ovod84 2 March 2016 06: 53
    0
    I will say that after joining they became a raw materials appendage, industrial goods were sent there and from there they exported cotton, which they used to buy from the United States for a lot of money. The main result was the cessation of wars, the development of medicine used to die a lot from any cholera, etc. Skobelev was a hasty military commander read and knew the koran .Ak pasha his Turks called
    1. Pig
      Pig 2 March 2016 07: 18
      10
      "" after joining, they became a raw material appendage ""
      Fergana where I lived was an industrial city ...
      oil refinery, "Urea", "Azot", "Iskozh" ... these are only those factories that are in memory ... a whole giant forest of factory pipes! the whole city rose on the factory whistle ... a huge "Silkkombinat" in Margilan ... (this is almost the same as Fergana) ...
      and they’re a raw materials appendage so don’t lie ...
      read at least the numbers how many enterprises were evacuated there during the war before writing nonsense
      1. thinker
        thinker 2 March 2016 08: 10
        +2
        I support, in the words of VIA Yalla -
        Anyone in Uchkuduke the old man will tell
        How a beautiful city in the desert arose,
        As the blue sky shot up at home
        And how surprised nature herself ...
      2. Turkestan
        Turkestan 2 March 2016 08: 35
        +4
        Offhand only in the city of Fergana. Furan compounds plant, Aviation plant, Textile plant, Oil fat plant, Gas apparatus Oil processing plant, Chemical fiber plant and several dozen plants that employed a thousand people
        1. Serg65
          Serg65 2 March 2016 10: 49
          +6
          Quote: Turkestan
          Offhand only in the city of Fergana. Furan compounds plant, Aviation plant, Textile plant, Oil fat plant, Gas apparatus Oil processing plant, Chemical fiber plant and several dozen plants that employed a thousand people

          In Soviet times, "Tashkent Aviation Production Association named after V. Chkalov" was the main manufacturer of IL-76 and IL-114, and now it produces door locks! Almost all the staff moved to Ulnovsk to the Aviastar
      3. Serg65
        Serg65 2 March 2016 10: 41
        +2
        Quote: Pig
        the whole city got up on the factory whistle ... a huge "Silkkombinat" in Margilan ..

        My uncle worked almost all his labor activity as a chief engineer at the Fergana and Tashlak cotton processing plants, and my cousin as the chief of an electrical shop at the Silkkombinat.
    2. cast iron
      cast iron 3 March 2016 23: 26
      +1
      What kind of "raw material appendage"? You at least open the industrial maps of the USSR and look at the production in Central Asia. Only in one city of Chirchik, in the Tashkent region, there were at least 10 large factories for various purposes. In chemistry, the production worked for the entire USSR. And this is only in one city with a population of 150 people.
  3. Yereke
    Yereke 2 March 2016 07: 33
    -13 qualifying.
    "Kazakhs from the east, they were subjected to pressure from the Dzungars" .... they forgot or rather did not want to write, or they have their own history ... and from the north, Russians set the Bashkirs against the Kazakhs and supplied the Dzhungars with guns and guns. Divide and rule .. come to your senses Bashkirs and not traitors like Yermek (Yermak is no worse, an enemy of his people, than brought up by colonists, like the 5th column as it is now in Russia), and the Tatars even helped against the Cossacks who robbed the Kazakh lands and more taking into account the solidarity with Pugachev (the Kazakhs helped him and entered his army) against the Romanov impostors, everything would have been different.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 2 March 2016 08: 23
      +3
      How would it be? Ulus from sea to sea and tribute from Moscow and China.
      1. Chisayna
        Chisayna 2 March 2016 08: 40
        0
        New-well-forgotten old.
      2. Warrior Hamilton
        Warrior Hamilton 2 March 2016 12: 50
        +1
        It seems that while some dug up the Black Sea, others expanded the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles! wassat laughing
    2. Serg65
      Serg65 2 March 2016 09: 41
      +7
      Quote: Ereke
      think better of the Bashkirs and not traitors like Yermek (Yermak, there’s no worse enemy of his people than brought up by the colonists, like the 5 convoy, as it is now in the Russian Federation), and the Tatars even helped against the Cossacks who robbed the Kazakh lands and taking into account solidarity with Pugachev ( Kazakhs helped him and entered his army) against the Romanov impostors, everything would be different.

      This is the latest Kazakh history ????
    3. Warrior Hamilton
      Warrior Hamilton 2 March 2016 11: 48
      +4
      From the book: "Notes on the Bukhara Khanate" - these are reports of Russian intelligence.
      Until 1824, the Khiva residents robbed and robbed the Kaisaks annually, but there was no statutory collection from them. After the unsuccessful experience of ours, the sending of an armed caravan [61], the Khiva citizens became bolder and began to send detachments further to the Syr Darya, and to rob even more and more impudently. Then the Chmekeites sent ambassadors and promised to deliver zakat to Khiva themselves so that the Khiva would not rob them; the case took place, and this order lasted until 1832. Then the Chmekeys (Utyatleu-biy, Kulba’s branches, and Aznabay, Gilder’s branches) went to Khiva, hoping to curry favor with the khan and, having quarreled with homodes who unequivocally made zakat, offered the khan to send the collectors again, hiding his own, as usual. Khan was just waiting for this; from that time, the Khivans traveled along the Syr Darya, to the Ak-Mechet of Tashkent [62], where Kuvan is separated from the Cheese, and ruthlessly rob our Chmekeys who winter here and migrate for the summer to the Orenburg line between Orsk and Verkhneuralsk. Prior to this, all Tashkent citizens, and partly Bukhara residents, removed Zakat from the Chumec people only when these came too close to their limits; otherwise they remained free.
      1. Warrior Hamilton
        Warrior Hamilton 2 March 2016 11: 58
        0
        Now this violence has come into use, and our so-called subjects, being on our part freed from any tax and at the same time being subjected, in our defenselessness, to all arbitrary oppression and requisitions of the Khivans, will inevitably obey them more than us and consider themselves more or less subordinate to the Khiva khan.

        Zakat, or to file when the kaisaki sent it themselves, was going only from 40 sheep - one; now they put all cattle in the rating, except for horses, and take rams, cats, horses and things, which the owner is not free to refuse; take what they want. In addition to this fortieth, Khiva citizens also take kura-bash, that is, one sheep each from a corral, from a sheepfold, from a herd. Today, Khiva residents have collected from one Chumekeys up to 3 thousand kosh, each of which costs at least 4 rubles, and up to 28 thousand sheep; so that more than 300 thousand rubles come out of money; and the entire squad of collectors, up to 400 people, is fed and dressed in addition all winter at the expense of kaisaks and returns with the looted property. These zacchi go to the steppe and in winter in one tattered dressing gown and rob the first Kirghiz they come across: they tear off a sheepskin coat and a dressing gown and tell him that this is due to zakat.
        1. Warrior Hamilton
          Warrior Hamilton 2 March 2016 12: 00
          0
          The warriors of Khoji Niyaz consisted mostly of Karakalpaks; however, there were also Turkmen. The officers of the detachment were all relatives of Khoji Niyaz. Kaisaks call the Khivans contemptuous Sart, and in the face - Oralds or Urgyanji. In Kuvan our Chumecians sow a lot of bread; the rich migrate, leaving the impoverished baygus in place, giving them a cow, several dairy sheep, and the baygush plow, sow the seeds of the owners, and the crop is divided in half. Pour bread with a bang, pits, 2-3 bags, that is, 8-12 pounds; Khivans take this bread from this bread, namely, from ten pits alone. The main tillage on Nur-Khoja and Mig-Botman [63] is at the place where the Kuvan is divided into many branches, which are connected again, and where there are many lakes. If one of the Kaisaks hide cattle or bread, then they treat him extremely cruelly; they take everything they want from him, everyone, and often still kill. And Khoja-Niyaz-biy now executed several people; by the way, several horses were stolen from him; thieves were caught and both were immediately hanged, for lack of poles and generally a forest, on reed goats. Kazi was also with Niyaz, a spiritual judge. He and the mullahs constantly explained to the kaisaks that every piece of mutton would be haraam, unclean and lead them straight to hell if they did not pay the zakat orthodox desecration, or if they defiled their flocks, paying from them to serve the Russian Christians.
          1. Warrior Hamilton
            Warrior Hamilton 2 March 2016 12: 05
            +1
            The Chmekeys, who in the barant [64] with the Altyn-Yapassians (Dzhapasians), Dyurkarins and Kipchaks, have very few horses; mostly camels and rams; and as in the northern part of the steppe only horses can be content with pasture all year round, the Czmemeks can only store hay for their rams between the Urals and Irgiz, where it is impossible to winter otherwise, or clean up the Cheese. [88] This circumstance passes them into the hands of the Khivans. Two branches of the Dyurkarintsy (Seit-kul and Chuban) and two Chumekeys (Toka and Kunyak) quarreled last year with the Khiva cripples and nailed them; therefore, these branches wintered between the Irgiz River and the sands of Muzbil and Kalmas and killed almost all their cattle. No matter how much the kaisaks cry for these oppressions and ruins, but have no means of. get rid of them; on the one hand, according to his fanaticism, instilled and supported by the Khiva mullahs in them, on the other, knowing from many years of experience that Russia will not protect them with an armed hand, therefore they are forced to submit to Khiva and endure; but their situation is miserable and disastrous. Until now, the Khiva residents had no fortifications on the Syrah; about 4 years ago they sent about 400 people to renew the ancient Jankent on the Cheese, but the kaisaks drove them away; this year, the Khivans want to put up a fortification, and Khoja-Niyaz has already indicated for this purpose a place on Mig-Botman. Kaisaki, and especially the Chumekeys and Dyurkarintsy, constantly say that they expect that the Russians will go to Khiva; they would undoubtedly take an active part in this.
            1. Warrior Hamilton
              Warrior Hamilton 2 March 2016 12: 26
              +4
              The book "Notes on the Bukhara Khanate" was published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1983 according to the documents stored in its archives. These are the scouts' notes: Demezon and Witkiewicz. Who is interested in this region, as well as Iran and Afghanistan of that time, then the memoirs of General Blaramberg (Russian general) are interesting laughing hi
            2. Zymran
              Zymran 2 March 2016 20: 20
              +1
              Quote: Warrior Hamilton
              No matter how much the kaisaks cry for these oppressions and ruins, but have no means of. get rid of them; on the one hand, according to his fanaticism, instilled and supported by the Khiva mullahs in them, on the other, knowing from many years of experience that Russia will not protect them with an armed hand, therefore they are forced to submit to Khiva and endure; but their situation is miserable and disastrous. Until now, the Khiva residents had no fortifications on the Cheese, the year before 4 they sent 400 people to renew the ancient Jankent on the Cheese, but the kaisaks drove them away; this year, the Khivans want to put up a fortification, and Khoja-Niyaz has already indicated for this purpose a place on Mig-Botman


              Note that RI did not even think of protecting its subjects, or even supplying them with weapons for self-defense. Although large skirmishes constantly occurred, for example, at the same Demeson:

              "We were moving along the Muzbil plain, when a Kyrgyz of one of the villages we saw in the west rode up to us. We learned from him that at the end of October 400 Khiva horsemen came to the Syr Darya to, as he said, build a fortification in a place called But there was a clash between them and the Chumekeys, as a result of which three Kirghiz and several Khivans were killed. The Khivans were defeated and fled, leaving the Kirghiz many of their carts. This was the first news that reached us since we left The Khivans, no doubt, will soon return, if they have not already returned to avenge their shame, and the Kyrgyz feared for their villages, which were supposed to spend the winter on the banks of the Syr Darya and Kuvandarya. All days we met Kyrgyz families, whose snow and the cold was driven to the south, but frightened by the rumor of the Khivans coming to the Syr Darya and fearing to be robbed, they did not dare to advance particularly far. "
    4. goose
      goose 2 March 2016 15: 34
      +1
      Quote: Ereke
      and the Tatars even helped against the Cossacks, who robbed the Kazakh lands and even taking into account solidarity with Pugachev

      Sorry, recall how many Kazakhs remained alive during the time of Pugachev? Kazakhs were at risk of physical destruction. There was nothing to rob.
    5. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 2 March 2016 17: 41
      +2
      Ereke "the Russians set the Bashkirs against the Kazakhs and supplied the Dzhungars with guns and rifles."
      I personally read the Cossacks' reports in the Orenburg Archives about the failure to prepare the Bashkir raid on the Kazakhs. I don’t remember the details because I didn’t draw attention to this, I was interested in another topic. But, I remember this case. Maybe before spreading fantasies here you should go to Orenburg to sit in the archive?))) Regarding the supply of weapons to the Dzungars, I think that from the same play. HOW ABOUT PERTURBATION OF CHOKAN VALIKHANOV BY CHERNOV. Well, you write your story. So why lie?))) Or present evidence.))) You are not Fomenkovtsy.)))
      1. Zymran
        Zymran 2 March 2016 20: 30
        0
        Quote: Nagaibak
        Regarding the supply of weapons to the Dzungars, I think from the same play. HOW AND ABOUT PERTURBATION OF CHOKAN VALIKHANOV BY CHERNOV


        There was outrage at the actions of not Chernov, but Chernyaev.

        "So I didn't see Chokan anymore. When Aulie-Ata was taken, the atrocities of the Russian troops over Chokan's fellow believers and perhaps over his fellow tribesmen upset him. He saw that he could no longer participate in the campaign, parted with Chernyaev and left for Verny."

        Grigory Potanin.

        Quote: Nagaibak
        I personally read the Cossacks reports in the Orenburg Archives about the failure to prepare the Bashkir raid on the Kazakhs. I don’t remember the details because I didn’t focus on this, I was interested in another topic


        Well, that too. Set nomadic peoples: Kalmyks, Bashkirs and Kazakhs against each other. But they also protected from each other, too, when it was in the interests of the state.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 3 March 2016 16: 17
          0
          Zymran "There was indignation at the actions of not only Chernov, but Chernyaev."
          Certainly Chernyaev. This I hurried.)) From the passage you quoted, I realized that these were Potanin's memories. And then more is his assumptions. But Potanin said a lot of things.)))
          Regarding inciting. Kazakhs constantly attacked each other, why should they set them on someone? Although everything could be, but these are also assumptions in the main.

          From the memoirs of military foreman N.V. Agapov, the passage refers to about 1865. Completed memories in 1898.
          "Every summer I was sent to a party with fifty to the Khiva border to pacify and persecute the predatory gangs of Khiva Kirghiz and Turkmens. They invaded peaceful auls and plundered, and seized girls and young women by force, took them to their borders, stole cattle and Here is my amusement: across the field and on the loose sands, and chase the wind into the field with a face cracked from the heat and a peeling nose all summer and until autumn ... "Page 85 Notes of N.V. Agapov from a field trip life of the Orenburg Cossacks. Orenburg, 2013. -182p.
          1. Zymran
            Zymran 3 March 2016 21: 57
            0
            Quote: Nagaibak
            Certainly Chernyaev. This I hurried.)) From the passage you quoted, I realized that these were Potanin's memories. And then more is his assumptions. But Potanin said a lot of things.)))


            Well, actually, none of his contemporaries blamed him for lying, as far as I know. And later criticism is based on the fact that he is de liberalist. =)

            Quote: Nagaibak
            Regarding inciting. Kazakhs constantly attacked each other, why should they set them on someone? Although everything could be, but these are also assumptions in the main.


            It was. Kalmyks on the Bashkirs, Kazakhs on the Kalmyks and on the Bashkirs and Bashkirs on both. At least:

            "The Kalmyks, who have long been subjects to her imperial majesty, are also Bashkirs, and to that now the third Kirgis people of Kaisats have arrived, and one of the other very disagreeing, and henceforth it is always necessary to keep them in that, and if the Kalmyks show any disgust, it will be great for them to convert the Kirghis ..., but on the contrary, if the Kirghis Kaisaks do what they do, send the Kalmyk and the Bashkirians to them and humble each other tacos and lead the Russian troops to better obedience without moving. "

            Google the rest yourself.
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 4 March 2016 11: 14
              0
              Zymran "" before the Kalmyks, long subjects to her imperial majesty, also the Bashkirs, and to that now the third people of the Kirghis Kaisats have arrived, and one of the other very disagreeing, and in the future it is always necessary to keep them in that, and if the Kalmyks show any disgust, then to convert the Kirghis people to them ... but on the contrary, if the Kirghis Kaisaks do what they do, then send the Kalmyk and Bashkirians to them and humble each other tacos and lead the Russian troops to the best obedience without moving. "
              This is from what report and to whom? If it does not, discard the link. Regarding Potanin, his words can be interpreted as your heart desires.
      2. Zymran
        Zymran 2 March 2016 20: 31
        0
        I don’t know about the supply of weapons to the Dzungars. The Volga Kalmyks of the Republic of Ingushetia were precisely supplied with gunpowder and artillery.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 3 March 2016 16: 18
          0
          [quote = Zymran] Volga Kalmyks of RI subjects were precisely supplied with gunpowder and artillery.
          Zumran where you can read about it?
          1. Zymran
            Zymran 3 March 2016 22: 04
            0
            http://kalmyki.narod.ru/projects/kalmykia2005/html/shovunov/1_2_2.htm

            The Kalmyk army was provided by the Russian administration. For example, in the articles of the 1697 treaty signed by BM Golitsyn and the Kalmyk ruler Ayuka, it was stated: "The Russians should give him (Ayuka - K. Sh.) Cannons, and also give him 20 pounds of gunpowder and 10 pounds of lead annually." In a similar document for 1707, the types of artillery weapons issued to the Kalmyks are even more concretized. In particular, it was written: "to give 2 semi-gal-lankas and 3 mangers (majzhera - K. Sh.) To them nuclei and bombs, gunners and grenade launchers, and 20 poods of gunpowder, as well as give him 20 poods of gunpowder and 10 poods annually lead. " By a decree of the Supreme Privy Council of January 17, 1728, the following list of firearms and materials was legalized for Kalmykia: guns, gunpowder, lead, and for a certain fee - steel, iron and copper. There is also specific information when the Kalmyk army used cannons in battle. In one of the clashes between the Kalmyks and the Kazakhs in the early 20s of the 1725th century. the owner of Labzha, the son of the baptized Taisha Nazarov, reported that "they fired at them from their cannons." On the same occasion, Bakunin wrote: "And Dorji Nazarov's own guns were the smallest, which they carry without machines on camels." In 1736, the Kalmyks also used cannons in a battle with a detachment of Karakalpaks. In the future, the Kalmyks' needs for ammunition and materials increased significantly. On the eve of the campaign of the Kalmyk army in 100 in the Kuban, Donduk-Ombo asked the Russian military leadership to provide him with 100 poods of gunpowder, 30 poods of lead, XNUMX poods of iron.
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 4 March 2016 11: 41
              0
              Thanks for the link. I didn’t know that the Kalmyks had little pussies.
              Regarding inciting.
              1. It is doubtful that the emperor would give his subordinates such instructions.
              2. I am not saying that there was nothing at all. But ... in the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, the Orenburg Cossack army numbered 4-5 thousand people. It covered the borders ... look at the map. Perhaps the local bosses had to dare to intrigue, to set off as you write. But, it all depends on the time and conditions and the immediate superior.
              3. You describe in such a way that you set you up against peoples and all the time. I do not think so. There were no monolithic Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Kalmyks. Someone was united, someone hostile. Of course, representatives of the Russian administration played on this.
              4. The allied or subordinate khan is one thing. They interceded for him, sent Cossack detachments to the steppe to help, etc. Who was hostile, clearly intrigued against them, etc.
              And I didn’t sleep directly against statements like Russia, and all the time I was spoiling the Kazakhs, arming the Dzungars, etc. It’s known who helped pour the cannons to them, so you shouldn’t think up. I wrote about this.
    6. Bredovich705
      Bredovich705 2 March 2016 18: 27
      +1
      This is you a new Kazakh story, written far from your homeland, miscalculated !!!
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 2 March 2016 07: 35
    +5
    Indeed, the Big Game continues ... The United States and the West go to the Central Asian republics until their hands really reach ... They have not really figured out what to do with this region .. but the process is going on ..
    1. Sirocco
      Sirocco 2 March 2016 11: 39
      +1
      Quote: parusnik
      Indeed, the Big Game continues ..
      It does not just continue, but is reinforced by new foci of instability, with old holes.
      In addition, the British nested in Afghanistan, beckoned with their patronage, set against Russians, and delivered weapons.
      Déjà vu just like yesterday and today, England on the white horse of incitement.

      Fourth, we must not forget the economic factor. Central Asia was an important market for Russian industry goods. A region rich in cotton (in the future and other resources) was important as a supplier of raw materials.
      It is the same today, therefore, they put sticks in the wheels of the silk road, again the same England and the USA with the EU.
      The garrison of Tashkent reached 30 thousand people with 50 guns. There were only about 2 thousand Russians with 12 guns. But in the fight against poorly trained, poorly disciplined and worse armed forces, this did not matter much.

      As in the case of the Armed Forces, in the Donbass.
      In addition, his situation was worsened by the most severe tax policy in relation to the population. The income of the khan and feudal lords fell, and they crushed the population with taxes. In 1874, an uprising began, which swept most of the khanate.

      Again, as in Ukraine, only the difference is big, there the people turned out to be wiser, and not like the Ukrainians who declared and are declaring that they are outside politics. The people of Ukraine have fallen low, alas.
      The backward feudal khanates, mutually weakening each other in constant wars, with poorly trained and armed, undisciplined troops, were doomed to defeat.

      More than one century has passed, and there are no changes in this.
      The time that has passed since the collapse of the USSR shows that living together in a single, powerful empire empire is much better, more profitable and safer than in individual "khanates" and "independent" republics.

      Here, as it were, to put it mildly, it is easier to beat Hurt and father.
      But the Western principle, divide and conquer, plus devour without resistance, is still relevant and valid. An interesting situation, the EU, with the help of the United States, is being pulled into small parts of the state, although they themselves have united (EU), why would this be?
      The second way is the gradual absorption of the Middle Kingdom and Sinization.

      We ourselves in the Far East do not assimilate to China, however much we personally fall into this trap.
      The third way is active participation in the reconstruction of the new Russian Empire (Soyuz-2),

      So the EU and the USA are afraid of this, therefore they scream so much into all the pipes, they themselves knew the power in unity.
  5. pts-m
    pts-m 2 March 2016 07: 51
    +3
    Interesting. Well, these Central Asian republics cannot keep their peoples from migrating to Russia. After all, they had everything. Both industry and self esteem. Now then where did it all go.
    1. Pig
      Pig 2 March 2016 08: 01
      +8
      "" Now where did it all go ""
      nowhere ... what are you really? they are the proud descendants of Amur-Timur ... and they go to Russia to work haggling because everyone in Russia drank and chipped and there is no one to sweep the streets ... (from the stories of guest workers)
    2. Turkestan
      Turkestan 2 March 2016 10: 59
      +3
      Everything is very simple. After the collapse of the Union, the MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT Uzbekistan was not ready to manage large enterprises in Uzbekistan. In other matters, this misfortune of all Union republics
  6. Lindon
    Lindon 2 March 2016 09: 02
    -3
    Quote: Floock
    The robot plant in Kapchagai was changed to a casino,


    What is a robot plant in Kapchagai? Che smoked? There were no robot plants in the USSR.
    1. Kanatbek
      Kanatbek 2 March 2016 09: 31
      +8
      The construction of the Robot factory was started next to the porcelain factory, but only the walls and roof were completed. The lining of the building and the installation of equipment were not done in time.
    2. Serg65
      Serg65 2 March 2016 10: 24
      +9
      Quote: Lindon
      What is a robot plant in Kapchagai? Che smoked? There were no robot plants in the USSR.

      My dear Lindon, you need to know the history of your homeland and preferably not from modern textbooks. The construction of the Kapchagai plant "Robot" began in the distant 80s of the last century. He was supposed to produce numerical control and industrial robots!
    3. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 2 March 2016 17: 33
      -1
      Would google at least, or something.))))
      "What robot plant on Kapchagai? Che smoked? There were no robot plants in the USSR"

      "The first Soviet robot in a more or less classical sense - as a device that automatically does some relatively complex work, was created in 1966 at the Voronezh Institute ENIKmash - it was an automatic manipulator for transferring and stacking metal sheets.
      In 1968, industrial robots with CNC (numerical control) began to be developed. The industrial robot UM-1 with an analog-transformer CNC system was the first domestic robot to be mass-produced; its production was mastered in 1972-1973.
      In 1972-1975. in the Department of Biocybernetics of the Institute of Cybernetics. VM Glushkov, the first autonomous transport robot "TAIR" in the USSR was created. The robot demonstrated purposeful movement in a natural environment, avoiding obstacles, etc. and was controlled by a hardware-implemented neural network.

      From 1969 to 1979, the number of complex mechanized and automated sections, workshops and industries in the USSR increased from 22,4 to 83,5 thousand, and complex mechanized and automated enterprises - from 1,9 to 6,1 thousand.
      In 1965, the Petrodvorets watch factory was the first in the world to introduce assembly-line assembly of mechanisms. However, after some time, again the first in the world and abandoned it. Instead of a conveyor, rows of robots were lined up in the workshop, which for the first time in the history of the watch industry assembled watch mechanisms, and not according to the conveyor belt, but according to the so-called post scheme - which provided greater flexibility and productivity with a lower reject rate. The robotization of the Petrodvorets watch factory was awarded the State Prize in 1979, one of the first in the field of robotics.
      By 1990, the USSR had developed more than 200 models and modifications of industrial robots, the creation of which was attended by 50 research and development organizations of various ministries and departments.
      And here everyone can watch a popular science film from 1986 about industrial robots in the USSR. "
      You will find the film yourself. I know the factory in Kumertau was in Bashkiria. And it seems like in Kharkov, but both finished.
      From VIKI "Now the Kumertau branch of the Ufa State Aviation Technical University (KF USATU) is located at this address. Mechanical engineering was represented by the Iskra industrial (military) robot plant (production of roller mills, bakery equipment, etc.) - now bankrupt."
    4. cast iron
      cast iron 3 March 2016 23: 29
      0
      It was you who were not in the USSR, ignoramus.
  7. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 2 March 2016 09: 44
    0
    And the map in an article from a high school history textbook?
    The third way is active participation in the reconstruction of the new Russian Empire (Soyuz-2), where the Turks will be a full and prosperous part of multinational Russian civilization.

    I recognize Samsonov! Or maybe put another way, the third way is active participation in the re-creation of the new Great Tartary ("everything returns to normal"), where the Russians will be a full and prosperous part of the multinational Turkic civilization. laughing
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 2 March 2016 17: 35
      +2
      Mangel Olys "of the new Great Tataria (" everything is returning to normal ").
      If only not for Tartaria.)))
      1. Mangel olys
        Mangel olys 2 March 2016 19: 21
        +1
        That's right, Andrew! good drinks
      2. Arbogast
        Arbogast 3 March 2016 08: 41
        +1
        Quotation: blooded man
        We ought to share you with China, they will teach you a little how to love your homeland.
        You blaspheme sit, come on have shared us with China .. No.
        Quote: KIBL
        and some will never understand, because they were born oligophrenics, this is about the Baltics
        This is what I can’t understand. There are a lot of Russians in the Baltic States and they still don’t move to Mother Russia request Really it is better to them with the Baltic oligophrenics, than with native Russians .. repeat
        Quote: Nagaibak
        If only not for Tartaria.)))
        It is entirely possible that Tataria will grow out of today's Russia. Slavic Ugro-Finns (Great Russians) will be replaced by Turkic ugrophins (Tatars) ..
        1. MARK
          MARK 3 March 2016 20: 31
          -1
          Quote: Arbogast
          It is entirely possible that Tataria will grow out of today's Russia. Slavic Ugro-Finns (Great Russians) will be replaced by Turkic ugrophins (Tatars) ..

          We tried, but it didn’t work out .. (Mongol-Tatar yoke)))) Our genes are stronger! fellow There a wide soul is laid (which is how we differ from everyone ..)))
  8. Griboedoff
    Griboedoff 2 March 2016 10: 49
    +2
    It was no longer possible to endure archaic and savagery on its borders, it was necessary to civilize Central Asia

    On the one hand, of course, archaism is difficult to deny. But "wildness" is too much.
    Such phrases in me personally cause a sharp antipathy, for they remind Anglo-Saxon "civilization" and arrogance towards peoples. This kind of writing, for the sake of justifying dubious actions, it seems to me, is useless. From time immemorial, a strong state absorbed the weak, while it itself could resist disintegration. If this was done without senseless atrocities and genocide, then thank God. And, perhaps, for the common people, joining Russia was rather a blessing.
    1. cast iron
      cast iron 3 March 2016 23: 30
      0
      "Wildness" in the context of the existence of Asian half-states with the slave trade on the border with the Empire, which constantly annoyed the border areas with raids and banditry.
  9. karbine
    karbine 2 March 2016 11: 02
    -2
    Quote: Samsonov Alexander
    The economy in the Central Asian region cannot independently develop and maintain a decent standard of living. Some exceptions were Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan - due to the oil and gas sector and a smarter government policy. However, they are doomed to a rapid deterioration of the economic, and then the socio-political situation, after the collapse of energy prices.

    What. We will not be unfounded and look at the report of Credit Suisse for 2014. (no fresher yet) according to the level of well-being of the adult population (over 20 years old) of the countries of the world. http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=C26E382
    4-E868-56E0-CCA04D4BB9B9ADD5
    For 100% we will accept a similar indicator of the Russian Federation. Dynamics of this indicator in relation to 2013 the Russian Federation amounted to: - 40,1%.
    So, Russia is 100,0% (-40,1%). What do we see next?
    Turkmenistan 383% (+ 10,6%). I haven’t heard anything about her lately.
    Kazakhstan 47,7% (-4,5%).
    Kyrgyzstan 41,8% (-9,5%). I note that Pakistan's figure is 38,0% (+ 1,0%). Why is Pakistan worse than Kyrgyzstan? And Iran has 31,2% (-12,2%). So, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan have quite good indicators for those places. Even rather outstanding.
    Tajikistan 22,9% (-15,7%). These let us down. Not Bangladesh with Myanmar and Nepal, of course, but not enough.
    Well? All clear? Incapable? Hell no. We look further:
    Moldova 26,5% (-16,9%). For comparison, Romania is 113,4% (-13,9%).
    Belarus 13,2% (-28,8%).
    Ukraine 12,3% (-39,5%). For comparison, Poland is 207,8 (-12,1%).
    So who is not competent? Ah, Samsonov?
    And what is going on in the post-Soviet space?
    Estonia 302,8% (-13,1%). Yes Yes. These are just the ones that, according to some media reports, will soon bite their teeth.
    Lithuania 193,0% (-0,3%). For the record, China is those that allegedly "work for a bowl of rice", 192,0% (+ 5,5%).
    Latvia 178,9% (+ 0,2%).
    Georgia 158,9% (-14,7%). By comparison, Turkey is 164,4% (-5,1%).
    Azerbaijan 152,1% (-15,7%).
    Mongolia (it was called the 16th republic) 132,6% (+ 9,8%).
    Armenia 45,6% (-10,2%).
    I will not give figures of countries west of Poland. For obvious reasons.
    1. Aleks76
      Aleks76 2 March 2016 12: 09
      0
      According to experts, Credit Suisse is going to completely close mainly offices in Africa and Central Asia. According to the Swiss newspaper Tages Anzeiger, such countries will include Angola, Congo, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan crying
    2. karbine
      karbine 2 March 2016 13: 09
      0
      We can add that the data on Uzbekistan could not be found even in the archives of Credit Suisse for the 21st century.
      In Turkmenistan, it would be more correct to write this: 383,0% (+ 10,6%).
    3. lel
      lel 2 March 2016 13: 22
      +1
      funny .... so who and how does he think ... that is. whoever took loans more (got into debt bondage) lives richer .... ridiculous ...
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. karbine
        karbine 2 March 2016 14: 25
        +1
        Quote: lel
        funny .... so who and how does he think ... that is. whoever took loans more (got into debt bondage) lives richer .... ridiculous ...

        Funny, your dad has a son. Who thinks that the one who got the loans "lives richer". And the fact that loans are taken into account by someone in the level of wealth for the asset.
        But the consolidated sovereign debt is really not taken into account here (Credit Suisse only takes into account personal finances). It is taken into account and "scattered" to the entire population in its statistics by the Allianz group. Here are the data for 2014 (there are no more recent ones yet). https://www.allianz.com/v_1443702256000/media/economic_research/publications/spe
        cials / en / AGWR2015_ENG.pdf
        The number of countries in their statistics, unfortunately, is significantly less. If we take the level of accumulated wealth of a resident of the Russian Federation in 2014. for 100%, then taking into account the dynamics in relation to 2013 The situation will be as follows:
        Russia 100,0% (-50,1%).
        Estonia 1222,4% (+ 86,3%).
        Latvia 951,0% (+ 162,6%).
        Lithuania 748,3% (+ 11,0%).
        Ukraine 115,0% (-28,0%). For comparison, Poland is 686,7% (+ 4,0%).
        Kazakhstan 45,0% (-20,1%).
        For your information:
        India 102,1% (+ 23,1%).
        China 886,0% (+ 35,6%).
  10. Nikita Gromov
    Nikita Gromov 2 March 2016 11: 55
    +1
    "... under the leadership of M. D. Skobelev, the Kokand Khanate was abolished. Instead, the Fergana Region was formed as part of the Turkestan General Government."
    That was the basis of the strength and unity of the state and administrative structure of the Russian Empire - to absorb and integrate all the peoples and nationalities that are part of Russia, with the same administrative and territorial status for all. The Bolsheviks, having come to power, on the basis of the Leninist-Bolshevik "national policy" (more precisely, international), split Russia into numerous, artificially and spontaneously created by them, national-territorial republics and autonomies, without asking about it from the peoples living in these territories, and even with the right to secede from the country.
    Such a violent autonomous-national vivisection on the living body of the country turned out to be not only a bomb planted under the integral monolith of a single state and detonated in 1991, but also constantly growing today, thanks to such federalization, "dragon teeth" in the form of interethnic, interreligious and separatist conflicts and clashes.
    1. cast iron
      cast iron 3 March 2016 23: 33
      -1
      Remind me how the territorial division of the Empire fell apart like a house of cards in 1917? And at the same time, the Bolsheviks were not needed - everything fell apart exactly on the national territories. Before repeating the anti-Soviet statements of the capitalist Putin, it is boring at least sometimes to think with your head.
  11. Serg65
    Serg65 2 March 2016 12: 02
    +3
    1825 year, Pishpek fortress, the fortress had a typical development for late medieval adobe fortifications, it was surrounded by two rows wide to high walls, cut by loopholes and embrasures, corner towers and gates, a moat passed along the outer contour of the walls. In terms of plan, the fortress had an irregular quadrangle; residential buildings, barracks, shops, and huts of merchants were located behind the first fortress walls. Inside the citadel, which occupied the eastern part of the fortification, was the house of the commandant of the fortress and other chiefs. It also housed guard services, weapons depots, the treasury and various utility rooms - food depots, a slaughterhouse, as well as a well.
    1913 year, the whole industry of Pishpek consisted of two breweries and three tanneries, a fruit water workshop and 11 mills and creameries. All of them were of a handicraft type.
    1940 year, in the years of the prewar five-year plans in Frunze, a large food and light industry was created, the foundation was laid for the development of a heavy industry - mechanical engineering and metal processing. In 1940, there were 42 leading state enterprises. and cooperative industry, which produced products for 10,2 million rubles. (at 1927 prices). The power network of the city was 5,3 thousand kW (in 1926 - only 120). During Vel. Fatherland. the war in Frunze was evacuated 28 industrial. enterprises from temporarily occupied areas of the country. Quickly expanding their work, they became an important factor in the further development of industry and the strengthening of all-round assistance to the front. Of the total industry produced in the republic. Frunze production accounted for 55,9%, more than 40% accounted for military orders. Its gross volume in 1945 increased 2,7 times compared to 1940.
    1991 year, in the city there were 285 various industrial enterprises covering more than 30 industries, some of them were the only ones in the Union.
    2015, the city-forming enterprise of Bishkek is the Dordoi market. The factories are bare walls.
  12. Serg65
    Serg65 2 March 2016 13: 12
    +2
    Monument to General Chernyaev MG
  13. Serg65
    Serg65 2 March 2016 13: 13
    +2
    Mass grave of soldiers killed during the capture of Tashkent 15-16 June 1865
  14. Serg65
    Serg65 2 March 2016 13: 20
    +2
    Grave K.P. von Kaufman
  15. Serg65
    Serg65 2 March 2016 13: 21
    +1
    Monument K.P. von Kaufman and the conquerors of Central Asia
  16. Serg65
    Serg65 2 March 2016 13: 23
    +2
    Monument to Russian soldiers who died during the first unsuccessful assault on Tashkent by General Chernyaev in October 1864.
  17. Serg65
    Serg65 2 March 2016 13: 24
    +1
    Monument to the conquerors of Turkestan.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 2 March 2016 13: 25
      +5
      All these monuments were destroyed by the Red comrades in 1919, as remnants of the Tsarist autocracy.
      1. Warrior Hamilton
        Warrior Hamilton 2 March 2016 13: 48
        +1
        The newest history is, first of all, "The War on Monuments" ... No body, no case!
      2. cast iron
        cast iron 3 March 2016 23: 35
        0
        the red comrades built a red world, without kings, lords, and capitalist masters. At the same time, the international was glorified, in which there was no place for monuments to the conquerors of national suburbs.
  18. bionik
    bionik 2 March 2016 13: 48
    +2
    When I read the article, I immediately remembered the paintings of the remarkable Russian artist Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin, "Turkestan Series".
  19. Lindon
    Lindon 2 March 2016 14: 13
    +3
    Quote: Serg65
    Quote: Lindon
    What is a robot plant in Kapchagai? Che smoked? There were no robot plants in the USSR.

    My dear Lindon, you need to know the history of your homeland and preferably not from modern textbooks. The construction of the Kapchagai plant "Robot" began in the distant 80s of the last century. He was supposed to produce numerical control and industrial robots!


    Here it is not necessary to fill in the boy. There was no factory.
    What we built, built, and did not build, we know.
    Quote: Kanatbek
    The construction of the Robot factory was started next to the porcelain factory, but only the walls and roof were completed. The lining of the building and the installation of equipment were not done in time.


    I ask again - which plant?
    Lining the building - we know how it was laced.
    There was no factory - there was an ordinary unfinished building.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 3 March 2016 09: 59
      +1
      Quote: Lindon
      Here it is not necessary to fill in the boy

      Thank you for the boy, I haven’t been called like that for a long time what . But as I understand it, your ake and ana did not teach you respect for strangers?
      Quote: Lindon
      I ask again - which plant?
      Lining the building - we know how it was laced.

      How did you manage without bringing an almost finished plant to launch? Do not shout to the whole world!
      Okay, let's go the other way ... PO Box # 182 "Kirov Plant" located on Makataev Street produced torpedoes, deep underwater magnetic mines AMD-500, AMD-1000, bomb and mortars, which operated on the principle of “scattering ”Mines and exported them to 12 COUNTRIES !!! What's with him now?
      PO Box No. 4178 "Experimental Plant" Etalon "" on the street. Kunaev, produced guidance and night vision devices for artillery and aviation. What's with him now? The "Piston" defense plant, and about 200 more enterprises producing dual-use products were simply liquidated. And not only in Almaty, it is the Serebryansk plant of inorganic production, the Ural Research Institute "Gidropribor" (its products participated in the survey of the sunken nuclear submarine K-278 "Komsomolets"), the Ural plant "Metallist", the Petropavlovsk PZTM named after. Lenin (complexes "Scud", "Tochka", "Oka"). Among other things, the Kyrgyz factories were not spared this sad fate.
      1. Lindon
        Lindon 3 March 2016 15: 06
        0
        Quote: Serg65

        Thank you for the boy, I haven’t been called like that for a long time what . But as I understand it, your ake and ana did not teach you respect for strangers?


        I wrote you in a personal. You have no respect, but I answer the same with disrespect.
        Why are you trying to unfinished unfinished buildings for the plant? The USSR threw it as thousands of other factories across the country to stand in the form of unfinished facilities.

        Quote: Serg65
        PO Box No. 4178 "Experimental Plant" Etalon "" on the street. Kunaev, produced guidance and night vision devices for artillery and aviation. What's with him now? The "Piston" defense plant, and about 200 more enterprises producing dual-use products were simply liquidated. And not only in Almaty, it is the Serebryansk plant of inorganic production, the Ural Research Institute "Gidropribor" (its products participated in the survey of the sunken nuclear submarine K-278 "Komsomolets"), the Ural plant "Metallist", the Petropavlovsk PZTM named after. Lenin (complexes "Scud", "Tochka", "Oka"). Among other things, the Kyrgyz factories were not spared this sad fate.


        The factories that you listed upset you are not all closed and continue to work.
        Yes, and in Kyrgyz you do not own the information.
        Write in Russian without errors and no pain.
      2. Lindon
        Lindon 3 March 2016 15: 21
        +1
        Quote: Serg65

        How did you manage without bringing an almost finished plant to launch? Do not shout to the whole world!


        List of closed high-tech enterprises in Russia:

        AZLK (1930 – 2010)
        RED PROLETARY PLANT (1857 - 2010)
        IZHEVSK MOTORCYCLIC FACTORY (1928 - 2009)
        IRBIT MOTORCYCLE FACTORY (1941)
        OJSC "COCHETMASH" (1948 – 2009)
        VORONEZH EXCAVATOR PLANT
        PAVLOVSK TOOL WORKS (1820 – 2011)
        MTZ "RUBIN" (1932 – 2003)
        RECORD (1957 – 1996)
        LIPETSK TRACTOR PLANT (1943 – 2009)
        ALTAI TRACTOR PLANT (Rubtsovsk) (1942 – 2010)
        SHIPBUILDING PLANT AVANGARD (Petrozavodsk) (1939 – 2010)
        HC DALZAVOD OJSC (VLADIVOSTOK) (1895 – 2009)
        VEGA Software (BERDSK, NOVOSIBIRSK REGION) (1946 – 1999)
        SARATOV AVIATION FACTORY (SAZ) (1931 – 2010)
        FSUE OMSK TRANSPORT ENGINEERING PLANT (1896 – 2009)
        CHELYABINSKI WATCH “LIGHTNING” PLANT (1947 – 2009)
        UGLICH WATCH “CHAYKA” FACTORY (1938 – 2009)
        PENZA WATCH FACTORY (ZARYA LLC) (1935 – 1999)
        SECOND MOSCOW WATCH FACTORY "GLORY" (1924 – 2006)
        CHISTOPOL WATCH VOSTOK FACTORY (1941 – 2010)
        Moscow Machine-Tool Plant them. Sergo Ordzhonikidze (1932 – 2007)
        Machine Tool Plant "Sverdlov" (1868 – 2005)
        STANKOMASH, Chelyabinsk (1935 – 2009)
        Ryazan Machine-Tool Plant (1949 – 2008)
        Kronstadt Marine Plant (1858 – 2005)
        CJSC Kuzbasasselement (1942 – 2008)
        Irkutsk plant of radio receivers (1945 – 2007)
        TSENTROLIT Precision Casting Plant (1963 – 2009)
        Khor BIOHIM (Khabarovsk Territory) (1982 – 1997)
        Tomsk Instrument Plant (1961 – 2007)
        Sivinit (Krasnoyarsk) (197? –2004)
        Krasnoyarsk Plant of Televisions (1952 – 2003)
        Oryol plant control computers to them. K.N. Rudneva (1968 – 2006)
        Orenburg Hardware Factory (1943 – 2009)
        Khabarovsk plant "EVGO" (2000 – 2009)
        Ulyanovsk Radio Lamp Plant (1959 – 2003)
        Sibelectrostal, Krasnoyarsk (1952 – 2008)
        Usolye-Siberian Chemical-Pharmaceutical Plant (USHFZ), Irkutsk Region (1970 – 20 ??), etc. …………… ..
  20. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 2 March 2016 14: 47
    0
    Thanks to the author for the article!
  21. yver
    yver 2 March 2016 15: 25
    0
    Thanks to the author. And to the heroes of the article "WELCOME TO RUSSIA" Yes, I was not mistaken, not to join Russia, but to join.
    1. TORE-BATU
      TORE-BATU 2 March 2016 17: 19
      +1
      Manage and do not wait for entry !!! If we are together, then only by combining on equal terms. And what should I do in Russia? I am well at home in Kazakhstan. I visited you in Moscau, some Asians and Caucasians. And there is nothing to look at Kazakhstan from high, there are no younger and older brothers, all on an equal footing !!! And the article is so-so, pulled out of the book of some great-power chauvinist, a one-sided look.
      1. miru mir
        miru mir 2 March 2016 22: 40
        +1
        Quote: TORE-BATU
        Yes, and what should I do in Russia

        Why do you write Russia with a little?
      2. co-creator
        co-creator 3 March 2016 05: 19
        0
        Quote: TORE-BATU
        I visited you in Moscau, some Asians and Caucasians.

        So you were not in Moscow.
      3. lel
        lel 3 March 2016 09: 54
        +3
        equally? Yes, you were equal to Papua New Guinea when joining Russia ... it was your development ... you fended off the Russian army of Kruchelev with bows and flintlocks ... ambition, where did it come from? ... Russia brought you to the people and you’ll never be independent ... and if not with Russia, then you will lie under the United States or China and work for a handout, but you will never be equal to them ...
      4. cast iron
        cast iron 3 March 2016 23: 38
        +1
        Yes, no problem - return all the factories built during the USSR and enter "on equal terms"))))
      5. The comment was deleted.
  22. Kibl
    Kibl 2 March 2016 18: 20
    0
    That Central Asia, that the Baltic states are just like little children. They just broke away from the tit of Mamkina (Russia) immediately went into the abrasion, snot, screaming, loose stools. As a result, broken toys and a mess in the whole house and head! Well, they can’t be without a mother and they don’t understand yet about the youngster, and some will never understand, because they were born oligophrenics, this is about the Baltic states.
  23. The master
    The master 2 March 2016 19: 57
    0
    You can be a khan, a padishah, the ruler of the universe. But do not forget that Your crown is only the heel of the Russian Empire.
    1. Arbogast
      Arbogast 2 March 2016 20: 14
      0
      Quote: Barin
      But do not forget that Your crown is only the heel of the Russian Empire.
      Like the Russian Empire, got a heel in the temple in 1917 repeat and have long rested in the Bose crying
      Quote: yver
      Yes, I was not mistaken, not to join Russia, but to join.
      If we "enter" then we will enter Russia, up to the Ural Mountains .. bully
      1. co-creator
        co-creator 3 March 2016 05: 20
        -2
        Quote: Arbogast
        If we "enter" then we will enter Russia, up to the Ural Mountains ..

        We ought to share you with China, they will teach you a little how to love your homeland.
      2. cast iron
        cast iron 3 March 2016 23: 40
        +1
        By the Ural Mountains? Yes, most likely sowing Kazakhstan will enter. The rest will wipe off)))
  24. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 2 March 2016 21: 31
    0
    Great and glorious deeds, great and glorious ancestors. Who are we ourselves? Measuring the length will add nothing to the meaning of the dispute. We need each other - yes! Why are they still not together - a question for the local "bailies".
  25. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 3 March 2016 10: 58
    0
    "Some exceptions were Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan -
    due to the oil and gas sector and a smarter government policy.
    However, they are doomed to a rapid deterioration of the economic,
    and then the socio-political situation, after the collapse of energy prices "////

    Russia has today an oil and gas economy due to
    which is in a severe economic crisis.

    And Russia (or rather, "Samsonov") calls on Central Asia:
    "come to us with your oil and gas resources, join
    to our crisis, together we will drown more fun! " belay
    1. Lindon
      Lindon 3 March 2016 15: 10
      0
      Quote: voyaka uh
      "Some exceptions were Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan -
      due to the oil and gas sector and a smarter government policy.
      However, they are doomed to a rapid deterioration of the economic,
      and then the socio-political situation, after the collapse of energy prices "////

      Russia has today an oil and gas economy due to
      which is in a severe economic crisis.

      And Russia (or rather, "Samsonov") calls on Central Asia:
      "come to us with your oil and gas resources, join
      to our crisis, together we will drown more fun! " belay


      Samsonov, funny, tomorrow he will offer Israel to join - there is also gas. wassat
  26. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 4 March 2016 17: 16
    -1
    Quote: Möbius
    , Russia brought CIVILIZATION to Central Asia, which, however, differed in its centuries-old history, for example, from the Naglo-Saxons, who, by the way, played their card in the then "containment of Russia".

    Well, if we are like angels carrying the light of civilization, and if our enemies are partners in the Great Game, then the "Nazguls of Mordor" ... Unfortunately, both Russia and Great Britain pursued approximately the same colonial policy, for both were the same the same empires. In the USSR, the situation was radically different - there, at the expense of the resources of European Russia and the Slavs, the development of small-town outskirts proceeded. Unfortunately, the fact.

    Quote: Nagaibak
    Regarding the supply of the Dzungar with weapons, I think that from the same play
    Dzungar weapons supplied, it is a fact unfortunately.
    1. Hurray
      Hurray 4 March 2016 20: 47
      0
      Why "Unfortunately?
  27. Ivan the Fool
    Ivan the Fool 12 March 2016 15: 28
    0
    Now the reverse process, especially west of the Kremlin ...........!
  28. Verdi
    Verdi 13 May 2020 20: 10
    0
    Monument to General Chernyaev MG