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Russian Vikings

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Russian Vikings



Who were the hlynovsky ushkuynik and how they founded Vyatka

By the 835 anniversary of the beginning of the Russian development of the Vyatka land in Kirov, a monument to Khlynovsky ushkuynik was established who founded the capital of this region. “Russian Planet” decided to tell who the ushkuyniki were, what role they played in stories and for which the Moscow princes ordered to make any mention of them out of the chronicles.

Nightmare of the knight-dogs


The first ushkuyniki appeared in the IX – XI centuries in the Novgorod Republic. So they began to call professional warriors who united in armed squads.

- Some researchers call ushkuynikov the first Russian special forces that served the Novgorod Republic, protecting it from external threats. Others - the Russian version of the Vikings, who adopted, as a result of close contacts, their style of behavior, in fact - pirates who were guided exclusively by their own interests and worked for profit. Still others see in the uskuynik of the discoverers and explorers of the new lands, the forerunners of Ermak with his Cossack detachments. The fourth are professional mercenaries financed by Novgorod merchants to collect tribute in the territories under their control and protect trade caravans, says historian Anatoly Lysenko to the RP correspondent. - In my opinion, the most reasonable point of view is that the ears were a passionate part of the inhabitants of Novgorod the Great, which, depending on the circumstances, could act in various roles.

Ushkuyniki got their nickname by the name of the ships on which they sailed - ushkuyev. These were light, maneuverable and high-speed vessels that could be controlled both by oars and by sails. Their name, according to one of the versions, comes from the Pomeranian word "Oshkuy" - the polar bear. On a high nose, Ushkuev adorned the head of this particular animal carved out of wood. Up to 30 man could fit in one rook. On these ships, ushkuyniki and made their rapid campaigns, many of which have changed the course of history.

- If you list the most impressive actions of the uskuks of the early period of their existence, they were the ones who forced the Kingdom of Sweden in 1323 to sign the Orekhovsky peace treaty with the Novgorod Republic. A century and a half earlier, in 1187, when united with the Karelians, the Sigtun, the ancient capital of Sweden, was so thoroughly plundered that the city could not fully recover from the destruction. So they avenged the Swedes, who first attacked Novgorod. Pay attention: some researchers believe that the squads of ushkuynik were very small. “But could they take cities if that were the case?” - continues the story of Anatoly Lysenko. “The ushkuyniki have dreamed for centuries in terrible dreams to all Scandinavian neighbors of Veliky Novgorod, on whose lands they raided with enviable consistency. By the way, it is believed that one of their leaders was Posadnik Vasily Buslaev, the main character of the Novgorod epic epic.

In 1348, the Swedish king Magnus decided to break the peace of Orekhov and again attacked the Novgorod Republic. He even managed to take the fortress Oreshek. And then, in response, the uskuyniki invaded the Swedish province of Halogaland and captured the well-fortified fortress Bjarkey. This struck the Swedish king so much that he immediately stopped the war, and in his will wrote: “I order my children, my brothers, and the whole land of Sweden: do not attack Russia if you cross the kisses; We have no luck in this ... "

By the middle of the XVI century, largely due to the efforts of ushkuynik, serious military actions in the north of Russia had virtually ceased. Attempts to organize a new crusade Livonian Order no longer made, as well as Sweden, Lithuania and Norway. And then the Novgorod soldiers left without business found a new enemy for themselves - the Golden Horde.

“In 1360, the ushkuynik along the Volga river reached in their boats to the Horde city of Zhukotin, which was located near modern Chistopol, and killed almost all of its inhabitants,” says Anatoly Lysenko. - This campaign of them led to the delight of St. Dionysius of Suzdal, but he, as one would expect, caused the heated resentment of the Golden Horde. Khizr Khan, who ruled at that time, demanded that the Grand Duke Dmitry of Suzdal be grabbed and extradited to him. And when on their way home they “drank up zipuns” in Kostroma, the Russian princes seized the winners, tied them up and sent them to the Horde, where they were sold into slavery. Of course, such an outcome did not suit their comrades who remained at large. They organized several new campaigns, forcing the Horde khans to regret their decision. And after 14 years, the usbukis captured the very capital of the Golden Horde, the city of Saray. And in the same year they founded the city of Khlynov, which later became Vyatka, and then - Kirov.


Ushkunik. Painting N. K. Roerich.


Pirate state


Historian Nikolai Kostomarov wrote: “There is nothing in Russian history darker than the fate of Vyatka and its land. The beginning of this colony the Vyatka Land chronicler refers to the 1174 year and contradicts itself somewhat: in one place it says that the inhabitants of Novgorod set off on their own will and separated from Veliky Novgorod, and in another - that they set off with the consent of Veliky Novgorod. Most likely the first, because this colony did not recognize the authorities of Novgorod, was hostile to Novgorod several times, never interacted with it and felt against itself — according to the same local chronicle — the anger of its metropolis. ”

- If you do not forget that Khlynov was founded by ushkuynik, then there is no mystery in this. Novgorod, who used their services for many centuries, of course, could not like that they decided to separate and live independently, - historian Viktor Khokhrin tells the RP. - Especially since the free Khlynov grew very quickly. Ushkuyniki arranged everything to his liking in it: many researchers call the state they created as the Vyatka Veche Republic. In fact, the orders in Khlynov were the same as in Veliky Novgorod. It had its own Chamber, but there were no posadnik and princes. In order to preserve independence, the small state periodically united with one or the other princes, but did not submit to them, which categorically did not suit either Novgorod the Great or Moscow.

Having received their own state, they did not abandon their previous habits, did not settle down on the spot and continued to go hiking. So, in 1471, they made another raid on the capital of the Golden Horde - the city of Sarai - led by voivode Kostya Yuriev. This is even stated in the Typographical Chronicle. After the plundering of the capital, the economic power of the Sarai horde was finally undermined, and the Moscow princes finally stopped paying tribute to the khans.

Ancestors of the Don Cossacks

The Moscow princes put an end to the existence of the Vyatka Veche Republic. In 1489, the Grand Duke Ivan III, who had earlier dealt with Veliky Novgorod, sent an 64-thousandth army led by the boyars Daniel Shchenya and Grigory Morozov to capture Vyatka. They besieged the city. Vyatichi tried to bribe the governor, but all they managed to achieve with generous gifts was to tighten the surrender. True, this also turned out to be not useless - part of the inhabitants during this time managed to escape. But the rest waited no less severe punishment than before the inhabitants of Novgorod. Some were executed, the rest were settled in other cities of the Moscow principality. Even the name of the city Khlynov disappeared from all documents for several decades.

Part of the survivors of the defeat of ushkuynikov went to live on the Don and the Volga. Soon there formed the Volga Cossacks, whose customs strikingly reminded ushkuynik customs, and the desire for free life and river trips was no less than theirs. And linguists see similar features in the dialect of Novgorod, Vyatichi and Don Cossacks. By the way, the very word "Cossack" was first mentioned in chronicles in the fatal 1489 year for Khlynov.

“The historian Vadim Teplitsyn cites another weighty argument — the leaders of ushkuyns were called vatamans,” says Anatoly Lysenko. - This word reminded him of the English word waterman, which can be translated as "rower", "a man living by the water." It is difficult to say how justified is the parallel with the English word, but it is difficult to refute the similarity with the Cossack "chieftain".

In the annals there are quite a few references to ushkuynik - the winners, the princes of Moscow, ordered all records of them to be obliterated by their chronicles. Therefore, much more information about these warriors can be found in the epos “About the Kulikovo Field” and “Standing on the River Ugra”.
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http://rusplt.ru/society/russkie-vikingi-21600.html
36 comments
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  1. PKK
    PKK 28 February 2016 07: 03
    -4
    The deeper into History, the more accurate the information is given by historians, not noticing archeological findings. In those days there was a single Civilization throughout the Earth, except for certain conflicts of course. Success to historians.
    1. Riv
      Riv 28 February 2016 13: 04
      0
      What??? And where did everything go? Probably the Jews are to blame ...
      1. edge
        edge 28 February 2016 16: 22
        +6
        Quote: Riv
        What??? And where did everything go? Probably the Jews are to blame ...

        let’s take a closer look: they forgot about pre-Christian Russia, they dubbed ushkuyniks, they mixed the oprichniks with shit ..... and what happened after Stalin’s death, his name and Beria’s name are still being washed up in slops ... and think what you want.
        1. Riv
          Riv 28 February 2016 20: 01
          +4
          I think we need fewer dots and more capital letters. Then the guardsmen will stop imagining.
      2. tomket
        tomket 29 February 2016 15: 23
        +1
        Quote: Riv
        Probably the Jews are to blame ...

        Not Jews, but Freemasons, led by Jacques Molay and the Templars)
        1. Pomeranian
          Pomeranian 1 March 2016 22: 38
          0
          Quote: tomket
          Not Jews, but Freemasons, led by Jacques Molay and the Templars)

          Jacques de Molay could not read and write. What is a Masonic conspiracy?
  2. semirek
    semirek 28 February 2016 07: 59
    +3
    A very interesting article. I heard about ushkuiniks for a long time, but did not Ivan the 4th the Terrible crushed Veliky Novgorod under him, although starting to sweep away the layer of Soviet "dust" from historical layers, you find a lot of new, unknown, as in the case of the name of the city of Kirov - we mean Vyatka , it's time to bring Russian history in line with the truth.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 28 February 2016 08: 21
      0
      Quote: semirek
      A very interesting article. I heard about ushkuyniki for a long time, but didn’t Ivan the Terrible push Veliky Novgorod under him,

      No! I watched a book about the Grand Dukes, the ruler of Russia. Ivan 3 is also indicated there.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 28 February 2016 08: 10
    +5
    In 1369, with ushkuyniki, robberies were carried out along the Kama River, in 1370 along the Volga River, in 1371 Yaroslavl and Kostroma were looted. In 1374, the ushkuyns made a trip on 90 ears, and Vyatka was plundered, the Bulgar was taken, after which part of the ushkuyniks went south and the other east. Pleshcheyev and captured the city of Kostroma, then they took Nizhny Novgorod and went down to Astrakhan, robbing everyone along the way, but in Astrakhan the army of the Golden Horde killed them all. In 1375, ushkuyniki again robbed on Vyatka, Kama and the Volga. Zhukotin was taken, as well as Kazan.
    1. tacet
      tacet 28 February 2016 18: 02
      +3
      Please, kindly the source from which you took the information about the capture of the Lower in 1375.
      In the Nizhny Novgorod sources there is no mention of this event. In 1375 there is a record of the work of Theophanes the Greek (1378) on the painting of the Spassky Cathedral (not preserved to this day). Of the hostilities, the nearest date is 1377 - The defeat of the troops of Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod from the Tatar prince Arab Shah (Arapsh) on the river . Drunk.
  4. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 28 February 2016 08: 21
    +3
    I would not envy you, Polina will meet these robbers, as a woman in a dense forest.
    The historian Vadim Teplitsyn makes one more compelling argument - the leaders of the ushkuyniks were called “atamans,” says Anatoly Lysenko. - This word reminded him of the English word waterman, which can be translated as "rower", "man living by the water." It is difficult to say how justified the parallel with the English word is, but it is difficult to refute the resemblance to the Cossack “chieftain”.

    Well, just fantastic! Here for some reason I remembered "American country". I understand, Polina, that one should idealize, glorify, etc. etc., but on more real examples and what kind of links to some incomprehensible chronicles. I can tell you that the Typographical Chronicles assert that the king of Nigeria Igwe Kenneth Nnaji Oniemaeke Oriza III gave his daughter in marriage to Ivan the Terrible and as a result, A.S. Pushkin was born in due time. Refute this.
    1. Villon
      Villon 28 February 2016 13: 48
      0
      Quote: Mangel Olys
      I can tell you that the Typographical annals state that the King of Nigeria, Igwe Kenneth Nnadji Oniemeeke Orizu III, gave his daughter in marriage to Ivan the Terrible and, as a result, A.S. Pushkin was born in due time. Refute it.

      What does this have to do with ear buds?
  5. Cartalon
    Cartalon 28 February 2016 08: 36
    +4
    They were robbers, although a couple of times they gave Moscow a good tooth, but basically they robbed everything they could.
    1. edge
      edge 28 February 2016 16: 31
      +1
      Quote: Cartalon
      They were robbers, although a couple of times they gave Moscow a good tooth, but basically they robbed everything they could.

      gave? in fact the Vikings at 70 percent consisted of the inhabitants of the Russian north. Even during the time of Peter, the Swedes spoke Russian, despite 100 years of trying to extinct it. Well, and about how much they show off in Britain (probably shaved for this they hate us deeply), again it’s worth recalling the original name of Britain — the tin islands (Slavic lands), and is it because they destroy the Irish because they have a memory that is preserved, and the character is similar to Russian.
      1. Volzhanin
        Volzhanin 28 February 2016 18: 17
        0
        And the Scots, oddly enough, too smile
        1. SlavaP
          SlavaP 29 February 2016 00: 00
          +3
          And here more slowly - I lived in Ireland for a long time and still maintain close contacts with my Irish friends. I will tell you DEFINITELY - Russians and Irish as if twins separated in childhood (without irony!).
  6. Korsar4
    Korsar4 28 February 2016 09: 12
    +3
    The Vyatka guys are grasping: seven are not afraid of one. This, of course, is a joke. And so - legends, but were based on. And Vaska Buslaev. There was always a free people who could not sit at home. Stepan Razin also did not appear on his own.
  7. flSergius
    flSergius 28 February 2016 10: 47
    +2
    Some researchers call ushkuynikov the first Russian special forces ... Others - the Russian version of the Vikings ... Still others see in the ear-guards the discoverers and conquerors of new lands .... Fourth - professional mercenaries


    I think everyone is right, because speaking of the past, we must always remember that our ancestors then first of all survived, then there was no such national community as now and there was no single idea for everyone. It was a dashing time! Therefore, the prince pays — we will fight for him, he does not pay — we will fight for ourselves in order to defend our main base (city-state), it became hungry — we would plunder the district tillers (and what, what the Orthodox? I’m hunting!), There’s nothing to rob - we’ll go to search new lands.
  8. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 28 February 2016 11: 14
    -7
    Vyatka land, like all the land on which the Moscow state was built, is Finno-Ugric land. And the Finno-Ugric tribes were assimilated and Russified! And Novgorod was one of the centers of Finno - Scandia. And the article itself is just a collection of legends and fables!
  9. Bayun
    Bayun 28 February 2016 12: 15
    +6
    Hydronyms (Volga, Kama, Vyatka, etc.) are by no means "Finno-Ugric" but Sanskrit. Forget the tales of the "wild" lands of small nations. In 10-15 centuries there was the same ONE country as it is now. And the "pioneers" like Ermak, Dezhnev and Khabarov walked the KNOWN paths. There was no "discovery" and "conquest" of Siberia, there was a banal transfer of power to Moscow. I suppose how they know how to rewrite history, no one needs to prove.

    For lovers of evidence, I recommend the Venetian and Arabic chronicles of those times. There are completely "documentary" maps of a single state, Great Tartary.
    1. Chisayna
      Chisayna 28 February 2016 17: 56
      +2
      And why then traces of the "Known Ways" were not preserved in Siberia, and in the mounds traces of completely non-Russian culture are found.
  10. Borus017
    Borus017 28 February 2016 12: 51
    0
    The Venetian and Arabian chronicles are well known, but they are not always confirmed archaeologically and sometimes contradict each other. Rather, they resemble the collection "one grandmother said" - that is. "written down from the words." The fact that trade contacts penetrated Eurasia "from ocean to ocean" is fully confirmed by archaeological evidence (coins, jewelry, products). There were also borrowings of cultures, but about Great Tartary - as far as I know, to any rigorous proof (I will be glad to read the refutation).
    1. Villon
      Villon 28 February 2016 14: 53
      +3
      Quote: Borus017
      The Venetian and Arabian chronicles are well known, but they are not always confirmed archaeologically and sometimes contradict each other. Rather, they resemble the collection "one grandmother said" - that is. "written down from the words."

      Dear Borus, to deny the Venetian and Arab chronicles on the grounds that they resemble a collection "one grandma said", "not always confirmed archaeologically" and "at times contradict each other", is methodologically incorrect and is a gross bias. Because absolutely all chronicles have such characteristics.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 28 February 2016 17: 17
        +2
        On those maps, one-legged headless people were painted, and before that they were firmly convinced that the Indian Ocean was not connected with the Atlantic.
  11. baudolino
    baudolino 28 February 2016 12: 59
    +2
    Similar gangs were the norm for those times. Some were able to create their own states, some of these states were destroyed.
  12. Vadim42
    Vadim42 28 February 2016 15: 09
    0
    We have a strange story, a bunch of ushkuniki as they want and tearing the golden horde. Where is the great army of the Golden Horde, which Moscow pays tribute to. And Moscow is tearing the earplugs but cannot cope with the Golden Horde. Those who do not remember (know) the past will not find the future.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 28 February 2016 15: 24
      +3
      It’s one thing to swim in the river, rob, another thing to wage war, paying tribute after the onset of the great war in the horde (1359) became just a cut-off from raids, like the commemoration that the Moscow kings paid to the Crimean khans, but not every year the yield was paid, but of course he was regularly going to the princely treasury.
  13. RoTTor
    RoTTor 28 February 2016 17: 23
    +2
    This is not an article on a historical topic, and not a very qualified attempt on some real basis, which was excessively arbitrary, to mold a myth.
    And that is not original, but something in the style of the fantastic exploits of ancient ukrov or Zaporizhzhya Cossacks.
    The real story is more interesting, its knowledge and understanding is more useful for understanding today's life.
    Article - "minus"
  14. engineer
    engineer 28 February 2016 18: 27
    +1
    somehow I watched a program in which famous historians participated and they clearly came to the conclusion: history. as a science. does not exist. historiography has some right. but only based on archeology. which is science.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 28 February 2016 19: 05
      +3
      Among whom are those historians famous?
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 29 February 2016 04: 55
        0
        And he wrote a book on history correctly, "Echo of Moscow" asserts a historian. And that's all, "the process has begun" We have a Historian, or even a star, such as Bunich.
  15. maxgod84
    maxgod84 28 February 2016 18: 48
    -2
    WE ARE VIVID !!!!!!! 11
  16. Kombrig
    Kombrig 28 February 2016 22: 32
    +1
    “I order my children, my brothers, and the whole Swedish land: do not attack Russia if you kissed the cross in this; we have no luck in this ... "

    It seemed to me alone that the will of the Swedish king, in style, is very reminiscent of the will of the Russian princes? And if you replace Sweden with some sort of inheritance, and Russia will be very similar to another country))))
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 28 February 2016 23: 30
      0
      Well, if the testament in the presentation of the Novgorod chronicler is given something or something strange
    2. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 1 March 2016 14: 03
      0
      Bismarck's testament seems ....
  17. skeptic31
    skeptic31 29 February 2016 00: 38
    +2
    A very strange and free interpretation of history. Again, something about a terrible reprisal with the inhabitants of Veliky Novgorod and Vyatka. And all at the level of rumors. Meanwhile, the main craft of ushkuynikov was by no means a struggle with the Tatars, as the author shows, but just the opposite. Their main business was surprise attacks on Russian cities and villages. Where they slaughtered everyone who dared to resist. After that they robbed, fleecing to the last thread, took in full of young girls and boys, as well as children, who were then sold ... to the Tatars. Such were the "Orthodox" earflaps. It was for these deeds that they were sent to the Don. Here the author is right. It was they who at that time constituted the main force of the nascent Cossacks, which in many ways allowed significantly reducing the number of raids of Tatars and Bashkirs on Russian lands. On the other hand, it was the descendants of the Ushkuyniks who gave rise to the Old Believer movement in the Upper Don, as well as future Cossack uprisings. Ushkuyniki not in vain became Old Believers. And those and others, as a rule, tried to live apart, not counting others for their own.
  18. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 29 February 2016 04: 40
    +1
    “The historian Vadim Teplitsyn gives another compelling argument - the leaders of the ushkuyniks were called vatamans,” says Anatoly Lysenko. “This word reminded him of the English word waterman, which can be translated as“ rower ”,“ a man living by the water. ”It is difficult to say how justified the parallel with the English word, but the similarity with the Cossack "chieftain" is difficult to refute. "

    Well, where is England? They also taught us Russian. It turns out "vatamanami" - "rower", "a man who lives by the water" were all earhooks? Rave. But if we remember the words "mob" and "lure, lure", then we get "Compiler, leader of the mob." And you need to collect, lure into the mob as many ushers as possible, for bigger things.
  19. Velizariy
    Velizariy 29 February 2016 16: 59
    -2
    And the most important thing in this vy ... re, called the article, is highlighted that, again, Moscow is a "negative character"! And she is still to blame for all the troubles of the Russian people ... Again they sow doubts in people that Moscow is the center of our state by right!
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 29 February 2016 22: 38
      +1
      By what right is that? Moscow had no rights whatsoever, except as a khan’s will, and rightfully Tver or Suzdal with Nizhny.
  20. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 4 March 2016 20: 32
    0
    The article is average, but it raises the topic rarely covered in our literature.

    Quote: hert
    Even in the time of Peter, the Swedes spoke Russian,

    Not the Swedes, but the Russian Orthodox inhabitants of Ingermanland, only subjects of the Swedish crown (this is exactly where St. Petersburg is founded). The traditional heirs of the Novgorod Republic. Yes, they were. Unfortunately, in the initial period of the Great Northern War, Peter's troops (especially Sheremetyev’s cavalry) removed most of them as prisoners of war and sold them to Asia or converted them to their serfs.

    Quote: Vadim42
    We have a strange story, a bunch of ushkuniki as they want and tearing the golden horde. Where is the great army of the Golden Horde, which Moscow pays tribute to. And Moscow is tearing the earplugs but cannot cope with the Golden Horde. Those who do not remember (know) the past will not find the future.

    They correctly said that they acted like pirates, by surprise. Namely, in field battles with the Horde, the ushkuins were beaten. The same thing happened with the European Vikings — when they came across a professional cavalry army — they were defeated.

    Quote: skeptic31
    . Their main business was surprise attacks on Russian cities and villages. Where they slaughtered everyone who dared to resist. Then they robbed, fleecing to the last thread, took in full young girls and boys, as well as children, who were then sold ... to the Tatars. Such were the "Orthodox" earflaps
    Wow, we have a rich history of such examples ...