Military Review

The main forge of Russian weapons

7
The main forge of Russian weapons



26 February 1712, the decree of Peter I laid the foundation for the Tula Arms Factory

В stories Russia and the Russian army of Tula and its defense plants have always played and will play a tremendous role. This city is not without reason called armory the capital of Russia, then the main forge of Russian weapons. Even though today there are larger and more important plants for the country's defense, in the Urals and Udmurtia, but the Tula gunsmiths will forever remain, perhaps, the most famous and most legendary. And most importantly - the first. After all, the decree of Peter I on the organization in Tula of state production of weapons for the new Russian army was promulgated on February 15 (26), 1712.

For more than three centuries of its history, the Tula Arms Plant, which once bore the name "Imperial Tula Arms Plant of the Main Artillery Directorate" (received it by decree of Emperor Alexander II from 13 September 1875 of the year), and after that - "Tula Emperor Peter the Great Arms Plant" ( since 28 February 1912, to commemorate the 200 anniversary, has experienced many significant events. Some of them, the brightest, and the most famous models of Tula weapons, should be remembered on the birthday of the plant.

What commanded Peter I


The decree of Peter I, which laid the foundation for the state-owned production of weapons in Tula, was called “Name, announced from the Senate. “On the determination of Prince Volkonsky’s head at the Tula factories, and on the management of these factories in terms of artificial and economic” (the punctuation of the original has been preserved). It said: “The great sovereign pointed out: according to his own great sovereign decree, at the Tula weapons factories masters make guns per year: dragon and soldier’s 15 000 fuses with knives, made of Siberian iron; and for that gun to those masters, give each ruble on 24 altyn on 2 money for a fuzea with a knife. And to be in the arms business of Mr. Prince Volkonskogo. And for the best way in that weapon case, having found a convenient place at that gun-house, build factories where you can drill and select guns and guns and sharpen knives with water. And if by that weapon business and to every plant there must be some skill for foreigners or Russian people: and to him, Mr. Prince Volkonsky, to find such people and use them for that weapon business, and to increase this skill in that settlement in that settlement guns determined to be done with a lot of increase. And a gun like a dragoon and a soldier, as well as pistols, when commanded, should be made with one caliber ”.

Thus, Peter's decree not only stipulated the creation of the first Russian state arms factory, not only determined the volume of state order for modern weapons for the new Russian army, but also for the first time in Russia! - set the task of producing weapons of a single caliber. In this sense, the Russian Tsar almost overtook Europe, where far from all countries came to the idea of ​​weapons of a single caliber at that time.

How in Tula unified machine gun Maxim


The contract for the production of Maxim's machine guns at the Tula Arms Plant was signed in March 1904, and in May its mass production began. The weapon, which was supposed to be as mobile as possible, was at that time mounted on a heavy towed carriage with large wheels and a seat for the machine gunner. In this form, Maxim's Tula machine guns got into the Russian-Japanese war, during which it became clear that they should be much lighter and more compact. As a result, in the 1909 year, the Main Artillery Directorate held a competition for the modernization of the machine gun, which won the version of the Tula gunsmiths. They replaced some of the heavy bronze parts with lighter steel parts, and most importantly, they designed a new, compact and light machine and a new broneschit. But most importantly, the Tula masters were able to develop and implement such a system for precise processing and preparation of machine gun parts, in which they became completely interchangeable. A similar result of the unification of parts of the machine gun Maxim at that time was not achieved by any weapon factory in the world.

The trilinear was born here.

The famous Mosin three-line rifle is one of those weapon models that have earned fame not only for its creator, but also for the plant that set up their production, not to mention the country they represent. Its designer - the captain (at that time) Sergey Mosin - got to work at the Tula Arms Plant in 1875, right after he graduated from the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy with a gold medal. After eight years, gaining experience, Mosin began to develop the first store rifles. And in the 1891, his three-line rifle caliber - that is, the 7,62 mm - as a result of heavy rivalry with the Belgian rifle Leon Nagant gained the upper hand in the competition for a new full-time rifle of the Russian army. She was commissioned under the name "Three-line rifle sample 1891 year."

In 1900, at the World Exhibition in Paris, it was such a rifle, and not specially made, but taken from the regular party, won the Grand Prix. In the ranks in their homeland, the three-lane, modernized in 1930, remained until the middle of the 1970's. For almost a century of service, it has earned the fame of one of the most long-lived, reliable and simple in design and maintenance of weapon systems in the world.


Mosin rifle. Photo: tehnika-molodezhi.com

To defend - so their own!

October 29 1941 advanced units of the Wehrmacht approached the outskirts of Tula - so began an unprecedented forty-three-day defense of this city, which became one of the most heroic pages in the history of the Great Patriotic War. By this time, a substantial part of the Tula Arms Plant had already been evacuated: the transfer of people and equipment to the east began half a month before (and in November the plant, which had settled in a new place in the city of Mednogorsk, Orenburg Region, had given the first production). Only a little more weapon capacity remained in the city than was required to maintain a weapon that had already been released. But the Tula militia, which constituted a substantial part of the defense forces, did not have enough weapons. And then the Tula Arms Factory launched the production of a submachine gun created by one of the local gunsmiths - Sergey Korovin, the author of the famous "general" small-caliber TC pistol ("Tula Korovin"). It was an amazing machine: very light, it almost entirely consisted of stamped parts, which greatly accelerated and simplified the process of its production. The militia quickly appreciated such a feature as a low rate of fire. The thirty-one shop PPK released twice as slowly as PCA - its 76 cartridges, and therefore shot much more closely.

Forge of Legends


The Tula Arms Factory was famous not only for the Mosin rifle, the Maxim machine gun and the Korovin submachine gun. Among other famous models of weapons that were created here and played a special role in the Great Patriotic War, was, for example, the Tokarev self-loading rifle of the 1938 / 40 type. It was created by designer gunsmith Fedor Tokarev, who developed another Tula legend - TT, that is, “Tula Tokarev”, the main pistol of the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War. SVT became one of the most famous self-loading rifles of the Second World War, losing the palm in the number of copies produced only by the American M1 "Garand", but kept the lead in the nomination "the most rapid-fire".

In Tula, ShKAS was also developed and produced - aviation rapid-fire machine gun Shpitalnoy-Komaritsky caliber 7,62 mm. This was the first example of such weapons in the USSR - and the main weapon of all Soviet fighters of the Great Patriotic War. Tula gunsmiths also created and assembled another example of aviation weapons - the 20-mm ShVAK air gun. This abbreviation stands for “Shpitalny-Vladimirov Large-caliber Aviation”: it was originally a 12-millimeter machine gun, but when it became clear that the caliber could be increased without affecting the operation of the system, it was converted to a gun.
Author:
Originator:
http://rusplt.ru/wins/glavnaya-kuznitsa-russkogo-oruzhiya-21465.html
7 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. cap
    cap 28 February 2016 06: 48
    +5
    TOZ is one of the brands in Russia.
    My first acquaintance with the Tula-Tula gingerbread.
    The second pistol is "TT".
    And the first and second for life.

    I know for myself.
    TOZ-34R from Ukraine to the Far East, 15 years - not a single misfire.
    Thanks to Sergey for the article.
    Tula for a great weapon.
  2. Koshak
    Koshak 28 February 2016 07: 06
    +5
    Tula defense
    Music: Anatoly Novikov Lyrics: V. Guryan

    Tula forged weapons for centuries,
    She herself looked like a gun -
    The ringing of war metal is heard
    In the ancient names of its streets:

    Chorus:

    Kurkovaya street, Shtykovaya street,
    And gunpowder and cartridge,
    Muzzle, Barrel, Arsenal -
    Any street - defense!

    The evil hordes tried to break through
    To the heart of Russia, to dear Moscow.
    Covering the capital with his chest
    We went to the militia one after another:

    Chorus.

    We are in battle, and in the work of the guards,
    Our valiant work is famous everywhere.
    In the new workshops, young craftsmen
    Forged new glory to the people.

    Chorus.

    I have to tell some diplomats
    May the gentlemen certainly take into account -
    Today, every Soviet soldier
    We build with iron, as always:

    Chorus.

    PS: how are you now?
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 28 February 2016 08: 25
    +4
    “This is a pistol of unknown, inimitable skill - our admiral pulled it from a robber ataman in Candelabria from a belt.”
    The sovereign glanced at the pistol and could not look enough.
    He laughed terribly.
    “Ah, ah, ah,” he says, “how it is so ... how it can even be done so subtly!” - And he turns to Platov in Russian and says: - Well, if I had at least one such master in Russia, I would be very happy and proud of it, and I would immediately make that master. And Platov said these words in at that very moment he lowered his right hand into his big trousers and drags a gun screwdriver from there. The British say: "This does not open," and he, not paying attention, well, pick the lock. He turned once, turned two - the lock and pulled out. Platov shows the emperor a dog, and there, on the very bend, a Russian inscription was made: "Ivan Moskvin in the city of Tula."
  4. Severok
    Severok 28 February 2016 10: 14
    +5
    Made a hunting license, smoothbore. I went shopping, and there are four of them in Murmansk, and there is nothing to choose from! Everywhere Izhi, disguised by the letter combination "MR" (does it resemble anything? With the number so 39 or 40 ...). So these guns do not fit into the hand, neither the 27th, nor the 43rd, and even the 18th with a new forend in the left hand, like a paddle blade! I didn't even look at pump-action and semi-automatic gears - not mine and heavy for running hunting. Then MC 20-01 turned up in the ad, first looked at the photo, then read about it ... I liked it. I failed to realize that announcement, I waited 2.5 weeks more. Well, I implemented the following. I got it. First I went and looked. Tula-made, 20-gauge, chamber for 70, three magazines for two cartridges, manual reloading, very beautiful - asks for a hand! Izhevsk people are so far away.
    So, when I executed it in LRO, one pensioner executed the sale of TOZ 34, a vertical. To say that it is similar to Izh 27 - to lie. They look different in demand and demand Tula weapons are very large, therefore, has popular recognition, the best quality mark. And the buyer was waiting for his gun, and Izhi lay and will lie both on the shelves and according to the announcements, happily ever after, until the factory workers reached the same level as Tulaki.

    I have the honor.
  5. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 28 February 2016 12: 03
    +3
    from 1990 to 1995 he lived in Tula ... I still remember when late in the evening and even at night I could hear how rapid-fire naval guns were fired at the range ... and Tula was not only the famous TOZ, but also other design bureaus and the Tula machine plant and plant The stamp ... Lenin was not right when he said that "The value of Tula for the Republic is enormous!" ... yes ... that was exactly the phrase and nothing more, because in the turbid 90s they just didn’t add what they say then a comma and defamatory words about Tula and Tula ... there was no such thing, but I still buy gingerbread ..)))
  6. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 29 February 2016 09: 32
    0
    Exactly .... sugar is crushed)))
  7. carbine
    carbine 29 February 2016 18: 12
    -1
    Quote: Sergey Antonov
    As a result, in 1909, the Main Artillery Directorate held a competition for the modernization of the machine gun, which won the version of the Tula gunsmiths.

    Well yes. Get in the way was "modernization". The machine gun was ruined. It was then called arr. 1910 The Bolsheviks corrected it later, only 20 years later, replacing it with arr. 10 / 30g.
    Quote: Sergey Antonov
    The famous three-line Mosin rifle is one of those weapon models that have earned fame not only for their creator, but also for the factory that launched their release, not to mention the country they represent.

    Interestingly, the author doesn’t skip anywhere when he describes the next sucks with such words? After all, a sloppy thing. It is recognized by everyone and everywhere. But scoops do not care. They have their own parallel reality.
    Quote: Sergey Antonov
    as a result of fierce rivalry with the Belgian rifle Leon Nagan prevailed in the competition for a new full-time rifle of the Russian army. It was taken into service under the name "Three-Line Rifle Model 1891."

    What nonsense. The Nagant rifle won. And Mosin, on the instructions of the command, adapted it to the Russian conditions of production and operation. As a result of joint efforts, the Nagan rifle was spoiled hopelessly. No one had a worse rifle in Europe.
    Quote: Sergey Antonov
    In 1900, at the World Exhibition in Paris, it was precisely such a rifle, not specially made, but taken from a regular batch, that received the Grand Prix.

    How can you evaluate a rifle at an exhibition? This is not a greyhound puppy.
    I remember that somewhere around the same place, and at the same time, the Russian 203-mm naval gun received the Grand Prix (just a *** e forest). Apparently these "pri" gave only sludge.
    Quote: Sergey Antonov
    In the ranks at home, the three-ruler, modernized in 1930, remained until the mid-1970s.

    This is what is called the word "nightmare". In the USSR, it was bad with the designers of the rifle.
    Quote: Sergey Antonov
    the author of the famous "general" small-caliber pistol TK ("Tula Korovina")

    This TC is famous (in fact, a slightly strengthened pre-revolutionary civil Browning) was only because it was not easy to shoot from it. Only in the mouth, eye or ear. When fired at point-blank range at the skull, there could be options. After all, civilian weapons were redone.
    Quote: Sergey Antonov
    It was an amazing machine: very light, it almost entirely consisted of stamped parts, which greatly accelerated and simplified the process of its production.

    But what about this arsenal of vandervaflu not accepted? Or was he also on the cartridges of the shopping mall? Or wasn’t he really that good?
    Quote: Sergey Antonov
    Forge of Legends

    Oh, yes. Oh, right to the point. With the rifleman in Russia and the USSR, it was always bad. But with the legends, very good. Actually, they were the only ones.
    1. carbine
      carbine 29 February 2016 18: 13
      0
      Quote: Sergey Antonov
      Tokarev self-loading rifle of the 1938/40 model.

      I’m embarrassed to ask, isn’t that the one that was never taught to shoot? And tormented, immediately after the Second World War removed from production? It? Oh well. Very legendary product.
      Quote: Sergey Antonov
      gunsmith designer Fedor Tokarev, who also developed another Tula legend - TT, that is, Tula Tokareva

      And this legendary? But it's just ... some shame (Schwonder house).
      Quote: Sergey Antonov
      SVT became one of the most famous self-loading rifles of the Second World War, losing the lead in the number of copies produced only to the American M1 Garand, but which retained its leadership in the nomination “the most rapid-fire”

      Even if I tensed myself up, I still couldn’t write so big. To compare SVT with Garand, while finding some positive aspects at SVT, it’s just above the roof.
      Quote: Sergey Antonov
      In Tula, the ShKAS was also developed and manufactured - the 7,62 mm Shpitalnoy-Komaritsky airborne machine gun.

      And ShKAS. For a snack. The author apparently decided to finish it off completely.
      Quote: Sergey Antonov
      originally it was a 12 mm machine gun, but when it became clear that the caliber could be increased without affecting the operation of the system, it was converted into a cannon.

      Let the author try to explain how it is possible to turn a machine gun "without damage" into a cannon? What kind of "machine gun" was that? Well, what kind of "gun" it turned out, it is already known.
      PS. There is nothing to be proud of, there is no "glorious story". Something was produced somehow, but all of a very low level. Actually, these are rather not even factory products, but the fruits of the labors of artisans. Those. it will be right, "Tula arms craft workshops". Well, something like this. Then everything falls into place. And the low level of production gets its logical explanation.
      PPP. I am not familiar with the hunting and sporting weapons of TOZ, so I can’t assess it.