Military Review

Soviet partisans in the forests of Verdun

17



In the Central Museum of the Armed Forces is stored the silk banner of the Soviet partisan detachment "Stalingrad", which in 1944, selflessly fought against the Nazis in the east of France. This banner was presented to Soviet partisans by French and Spanish women-patriots who participated in the resistance movement in France during the Second World War.

2 February 1944, the squad "Stalingrad" received its first baptism of fire under the French Verdun. Then he represented himself from a small group of Soviet soldiers who had managed to flee, like their commander, Ponomarev, George Polikarpovich, from the fascist camps. These were N. Kozhin, V. Kuznetsov, A. Kuzmin, A. Ovchinnikov, M. Malyshev, M. Sosnin, D. Ogorodnikov, and also 17-year-old Fyodor Aksinin, who was hijacked by the Nazis to France from Ukraine, and an Armenian " Oleg ”(Hayk Ter-Tebiryan, he is Alik, Alleg), who was previously a member of the detachment of the foreign frantirers Missak Manushyan, defeated by the Nazis.

On this day, the partisans derailed a German echelon with uniforms consisting of 12 cars and a locomotive. Inspired with success, after a couple of weeks, February 18, near the small town of Constantine, they destroyed another train (21 car) with cars and implements. By this time, the detachment grew somewhat, it was joined by: A. Tsybikov, V. Ignatiev, P. Nosikov, V. Lavrentiev, G. Svichko, the Italians Arthur and Gabriel.

A bold operation could be carried out by partisans under the command of Ponomarev 23 February 1944 of the year. They disabled the German air defense post in the canton of Fren-en-Voevre (Meuse department), which was located in 20 km from the main partisan base.

Soviet partisans in the forests of Verdun


Let us dwell on this operation in more detail. On the outskirts of the village of Anemone there is a two-story log house - a German barracks. Behind it stands in an open field, surrounded by two rows of barbed wires, an air defense post - a hardware booth, on the roof of which sound absorbers are mounted. A little further observation tower with a machine gunner. In the hardware there are several operators on duty. The air defense post, the barracks and the nearest airfield are connected by telephone wires stretched on the poles.

At 2 in the morning of February 23, nine fighters of the partisan detachment crept forward to the post. With the help of forceps, we grabbed barbed wire and penetrated into the closed area. Ponomarev signaled, and Mikhail Malyshev, moving forward, threw a grenade through the window of the apparatus booth. There was a powerful explosion. With shouts, the surviving Germans jumped out of the building, but after seeing the partisans, they rushed back. Their attempt to reach the barracks by field telephone was in vain. Guerrillas prudently cut all the wires and "removed" on the watch tower. Without wasting time, M Sosnin threw another grenade into the booth. No survivors this time.

Having scattered tricolor leaflets on the territory with the inscription “ITP”, which was deciphered “International Terror of Partisans” (the partisans did this in order to prevent the threat of German reprisals against the French population), the fighters hid in the night.

Trying to confuse the tracks, George Polikarpovich led the detachment in the direction of the Belgian border not on the partisan base. After waiting a few days, when the fascists stopped searching and calmed down, the soldiers returned to the forest near Verdun again. Rumors about Ponomarev's detachment spread very quickly to the surrounding area. He became a real threat to the Germans. The detachment inflicted sudden, swift strikes on the fascists, caused him substantial damage and skillfully, without loss, left.

The Germans made every effort, trying to establish the location of the Soviet partisans. In the end, they still managed it. Then Georgy Polikarpovich decided to hastily transfer the detachment to another area. The fighters secretly left the lived-in base and set off on a difficult path. However, either the Gestapo were really professionals, or the French residents of the surrounding villages were quite satisfied with the occupational German regime, and the DeGoll appeal to fight for a free France did not touch their hearts at all, but the Gestapo agents could again attack the trail of the detachment. In one of the villages, about three hundred punishers piled on a handful of fighters. A fight started.

Ponomarev was forced to leave several people for cover, and the remnants of the detachment made a bold maneuver and managed to divert the partisans from the strike to Anu forest. For two weeks, the fighters sat there, unable to act. It was necessary to survive both multi-day hunger and cold. As a result, the Nazis considered that the detachment was destroyed. However, they were mistaken. Soon he was back to action. After moving to the Pann region, Soviet partisans 27 March 1944 of the year destroyed the mine in Piena, which worked in the interests of the Reich. The result of this operation was the fact that the local metallurgical plant, producing products for military plants in Germany, stopped receiving coal. Restoration of the mine took the Germans a lot of time and money.

In the spring, another group of Soviet people who escaped from the fascist camps joined the detachment: Vasily Polyakov, Sergey Larin, Victor Evplov, Anatoly Shchekin, Valentin Karpenko, Fyodor Gorovoy, Makariy Smyk, Nektor Sharukhnya, Nikolai Belichenko and others. Forces increased, and the blows at the enemy became stronger. Only from April to May in the areas of Kondrekur, Broussay, Fromesay, Spencourt, Charancy, Aransi, Pann, Baroncourt, Toul, Geneva, and others, did the partisans detonate 20 German troops with soldiers and military equipment (including airplanes), ammunition, fuel and other military materials.



G. Ponomarev, M. Sosnin, D. Ogorodnikov, M. Malyshev, F. Aksinin, S. Larin, P. Nosikov, V. Lavrentyev, V. Kuznetsov, N. Kozhin, A. especially distinguished themselves in the “war on the tracks”. Kuzmin, I.Rubtsov, Frenchman Rene. In June 1944, the partisan unit “Stalingrad” singled out a group of people in 12, from which a separate unit was created, called “Zheleznyak” (in honor of the sailor-partisan Zheleznyakov, the hero of the civil war). He was headed by Andrei Tsybikov, and after his injury, the command took Viktor Ignatiev. Zheleznyakovtsy conducted operations in the area of ​​Tula, Eruville, Pien and other cities and towns.

Ponomarev's detachment performed a variety of tasks. Once in May, Soviet partisans liberated several dozen Algerians and Senegalese, former French soldiers prepared by the Germans to be sent to Germany for hard labor, from a concentration camp near the village of Buk. They formed an international partisan battalion led by Hayk Ter-Tebiryan, who took the nickname “Ardi”. He led his battalion to the area of ​​the neighboring villages of Buk and Trond and began to act there. Ike was distinguished by great courage, courage, was a good tactician. However, it was not given to him to fight for a long time. In the summer of 1944, up to one and a half hundreds of punishers, they suddenly surrounded these villages, seized Ter-Tebiryan and other partisans, and executed them.

When 6 June 1944, the Allied forces landed in Normandy and the French people rose to armed insurrection, the Ponomarev detachment intensified strikes against the fascists, and first of all on German communications.

A very bold operation was carried out by the Stalingrad detachment at the large railway hub Meray, in the Upper Marne department. For two days Ponomarev carefully studied the object of the attack. And at dawn 8 August the whole squad came here. The commander hid him in a small forest, stretching along the railroad tracks on the east side of the station. Well disguised in the forest, the partisans were tensely awaiting the start of the operation. In the evening, Ponomarev broke up the squad into three groups and set specific tasks for them. The first group in 22 of a man headed by Sosnin was to take a position next to the water tower, opposite the barracks. If the soldiers, raised in alarm, rush to the station and the depot, the partisans will have to meet them with massive fire. The second group of 10 people under the command of Malyshev had to occupy the station building, break the connection and block all station entrances and exits. The third group, the demolition men, was headed by Ponomarev himself. The main task was assigned to it - to disable the locomotive park of the station.

Exactly at ten o'clock in the evening, the first group crossed the railroad tracks and lay down at the water tower, ready at the right moment to provide fire support. Five minutes later, the second group broke into the station building and, without firing a single shot, captured him, and the third rushed to the locomotive depot.

Approaching him, Ponomarev saw two locomotives standing under steam. Former railwayman, he quickly realized what to do. Nearby sat a group of workers. George understood: they are machinists. He approached them and said in French that the help of machinists was required. “And who are you?” Asked one of the workers. “We are Soviet partisans,” answered Ponomarev and asked who the engine was at the extreme. One of the French said that he was assigned to this machine and expressed readiness to help the Soviet fighters. "Then quickly on the engine, turn up the pressure, let's go full speed and jump!" - the commander of the partisans gave the task. The driver readily agreed. With a sharp movement of leverage, he let out a full steam. The engine jerked and rolled forward. Having driven about twenty meters, Ponomarev jumped off, followed by a Frenchman. The engine at high speed flew up to the arrow, spread it and, turning at an angle of 90 °, crashed into the sleepers. The driver of the second locomotive launched the locomotive to the first. A powerful explosion of two locomotive boilers shook the neighborhood.

Ponomarev rushed to the third locomotive. Rising into the booth, he instructed the driver to bring the locomotive for the passing arrow, and then at a speed to send it to the train with fuel. At high speed locomotive crashed into a tank with aviation gas. There was another deafening explosion. The tank drowned in bright flames and clouds of smoke. Then lit up the second, third. Flamed the entire composition. The fire spread to other ways, where there were cars with ammunition and equipment.



Without losing precious time, the partisans blew up the turntable and rendered depot machining equipment in disrepair. The main task was completed. But it was still too early to leave. A group of Sosnin started a battle with German soldiers who jumped out of the barracks. Ponomarev and his group hurried to her rescue. After completing the operation, the partisans quickly moved away towards the forest. Frightened by a commotion at the station, in the morning the fascist command pulled hundreds of soldiers and officers to Meray station and drove up artillery. For nearly an hour and a half, they fired at an empty forest, and then began to comb it. But at that time the partisans had already left.

Not a single operation was carried out by the Stalingrad detachment. By order of the military-political headquarters of the Soviet partisan detachments, the Ponomarev troops cut the way for the German units, which, under pressure from the French internal forces and allied forces, retreated to the borders of Germany, blew up power lines, disrupting the supply of military-industrial facilities with electricity, ambushed, captured soldiers and officers, incapacitated enemy military equipment.

In early September, Ponomarevs attacked the railway station in Shumbley and blew up the water tower, holding down the movement of railway transport. In the village of Tinekur, Soviet soldiers defeated an enemy convoy, captured several soldiers with weapons.

For a relatively short period - February - September 1944 of the year - the guerrilla unit "Stalingrad" conducted 72 combat operations, including destroyed 25 trains with military equipment and materials, fuel and manpower of the enemy, disabled 30 locomotives and more 320 different cars .

For courage, courage, shown in the battles with the Nazis, the French awarded George Ponomarev with the Order "Military Cross with a Bronze Star." The order on awarding 23 No. 3 in March 1945 of the year, signed by the commander of the military district Colonel Granval, emphasized: “Selfless to fanaticism, a man of amazing courage, Ponomarev inflicted huge losses on the enemy, captured many soldiers and officers captive and thereby made a significant contribution to the liberation of France. "

And in the certification (an extract from the order on “Fighting France”), issued and signed by “Laurent” and “Marcel”, then representing the 21 inter-district Military Committee of the FTP, said that for the courageous and competent leadership of the Stalingrad squad in the battles, Frantirer Lieutenant G. Ponomarev earned the gratitude of the French nation. The French awards were also received by other partisans from the Stalingrad unit. So the Soviet people, being thousands of kilometers away from their native country, helped our army and brought the Victory over Nazi Germany closer.

In conclusion, I would like to note that the Stalingrad detachment was not the only one in France. According to French data, around 60 detachments formed by Soviet citizens who had escaped from fascist concentration camps acted on their territory. And in Europe as a whole, Soviet and international units fought over the 30000 of our compatriots, who managed to escape from the German prison.



Sources:
L. Bychkov. Partisan movement during World War II in 1941 — 1945. M .: Thought, 1965. C. 392-395.
Panov V. French "Stalingrad" // Century. 15 May 2012.
G. Nechaev. Two of the Stalingrad Detachment // Ulyanovskaya Pravda. 10 May 2012.
Nechaev G. In the forests of Lorraine // Militaryhistorical magazine. 1974. No. 1. S. 86-89.
Kokorin M., Struchkov A. On the combat activities of Soviet patriots in France in 1943-1944 // Questions of history. 1960. No. 3. S. 97-101.
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  1. Pitot
    Pitot 3 March 2016 07: 00
    15
    Yes, there were heroes. Eternal Glory to them! Only whose memory is short. Probably have to remind again.
    1. Litsvin
      Litsvin 3 March 2016 13: 53
      +2
      "+" Of course you need to remind me! First of all, Hollywood directors and actors of Jewish nationality DO NOT WITHOUT THE DIRECT PARTICIPATION OF WHICH THE WHOLE WORLD KNOWS THAT HITLER HAS BEEN WINNED BY AN AMERICOS soldier and, besides, passed the rite of "circumcision".
      Interestingly, when a democratic American soldier "defeated" Hitler for 4 long years, what did the Great Soviet Union do all these 4 years, putting from 27 to 30 million people on the Altar of Victory (US losses in Europe and the Pacific are about 450 thousand) and "grind" on the Eastern Front to 85% of the most combat-ready German units ???

      Cinema is the greatest propaganda tool. And unfortunately, we didn't use it. We do not have our own Hollywood ... That frank obscenity that our modern home-grown directors shoot about the war (obscenity that begins with a contrived plot, untrue from a historical point of view, and ends with an unreliable military uniform on actors and T-72 tanks "disguised "under" Tigers "in 1941 (!!!) with HUGE FAT CROSSES ON PLYWOOD SQUARE TOWERS) it is difficult to call" kin ". The same Americans, if they lie, they lie beautifully, on a stage scale - and their technique is real during the war, and the uniform on the soldiers corresponds to the time, and the special effects are at the highest level, and the characters are mowed down like real historical heroes. In general, we completely lost the "film battle for World War II".

      Our only modern film, which is filmed more or less at the level, is "Brest Fortress".
  2. qwert
    qwert 3 March 2016 07: 02
    13
    I remember the film "Eternal Call", when the Norwegians told about the Russian Ivan, who fell into the hands of the Norwegian partisans, whose struggle consisted in putting up leaflets. And then the Russian began to blow up bridges, shoot motorcyclists, disable cars for the Nazis, etc., which greatly surprised the Norwegians. Here he is a different mentality and a different pre-war upbringing.
    1. avt
      avt 3 March 2016 09: 30
      11
      Quote: qwert
      I remember the film "Eternal Call", when the Norwegians told about the Russian Ivan, who fell into the hands of the Norwegian partisans, whose struggle consisted in putting up leaflets.

      If you dig deeper, then in general an interesting picture turns out - the first to Paris, for example. entered the division of "Free France" for the most part of .... Spaniards who left Franco. wassat So everybody was partisans there - the Spanish internationalists, the escaped prisoners, but mostly the indigenous population, only then the legends told about these ubiquitous, all-punishing MAKIs. But if you look at the German chronicle, the Germans are quite calmly drinking coffee loosely, huddled in flocks on the streets not only of Paris, but also of other smaller towns. But with what ecstasy these patriots shaved their heads for their women for "contact with the invaders." laughing
      1. shrimp
        shrimp 3 March 2016 12: 42
        +1
        in the French it was called to get cancer.
      2. Alexey M
        Alexey M 3 March 2016 16: 48
        +3
        If you dig deeper, you get an interesting picture - the first to Paris, for example. the Free French division entered the bulk of ... the Spaniards who left Franco. wassat So everything was partisan there
        Partisan all and sundry except ...... the French
      3. moskowit
        moskowit 3 March 2016 20: 01
        0
        This topic is very well covered by Vadim Kozhinov (unfortunately departed) in his book "The Great War of Russia"
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 3 March 2016 07: 37
    +3
    Not broken in spirit .. Thanks to the author ..
  4. magician
    magician 3 March 2016 07: 47
    +5
    Thank you for the article!
  5. Irbenwolf
    Irbenwolf 3 March 2016 08: 07
    +5
    About this film would be shot for the West. They would be surprised.
  6. Litsvin
    Litsvin 3 March 2016 08: 51
    18
    Yes, in the "former USSR" we would have enough plots for "war films" for Hollywood for 200 years. And then Hollywood directors of Jewish nationality are filming all sorts of obscene nonsense, which has nothing to do with a real story like "Saving Private Rain", "Fury" or "about a Jewish partisan detachment in the Belarusian Polesie" etc., where valiant American warriors save the world from natsykov. At the same time, either American actors of Jewish nationality are starring in the main role, or the plot will twist in such a way where "without the Jews" the war would definitely not have been won. And where are we "the Slavs of the USSR", who won this war. We would have won it even without our "sworn friends" the Americans and the British, who, in fact, sponsored and brought Hitler to power to attack the USSR.

    These Hollywood "blockbusters" about the war are complete nonsense. Recently I watched the film "Rage" - such nonsense, completely divorced from the historical truth, can only be removed by our ENEMIES. Especially me, a Soviet officer of the "former USSR Navy", whose grandfather fought in the tank forces, touched a fragment of the "Tiger" duel with four four American "Shermans". In fact, in such a situation, as shown in the plot, they would not even have had time to leave the road - there would have been four "bonfires" and remained on fire. It would take "Tiger" no more than 4 minute to do this, it would not even have to drive from the spot. For some reason, this film did not show D. Eisenhauea's order prohibiting commanders from engaging in a battle with the Panzerwaffe without having a FIVE-TIME superiority in tanks. Warriors, damn it ... If we fought like this, then on our land for 70 years as any German "Hans" would have lived.
    Glory to the Great Soviet Warriors-Conquerors !!! Now it remains to find your own directors to make a good film based on the historical facts set out in the article. Here, in the article, the truth is written, underpinned by specific documents and museum "artifacts", about Soviet partisans who heroically fought in France, in contrast to the American film with a plot far from the historical truth about "ferocious-Jewish-thugs-partisa
    1. shrimp
      shrimp 3 March 2016 12: 43
      +1
      heroes what do you want from ov
  7. ovod84
    ovod84 3 March 2016 09: 06
    +9
    I can give another example of how ours fought abroad. Description of the General Staff of the People's Liberation Army and partisan detachments of Macedonia at M. S. Batyrov No. 154, Skople, December 19, 1944
    Comrade Magomed Batyrov, a prisoner of war, escaped from the camp in Thessaloniki 8.VIII. 43 g. And joined the 13th regiment of the PLA of Greece (ELAS).
    April 28 comrade Batyrov, together with a group of Red Army soldiers, former prisoners of war and partisans of ELAS, expressed a desire to move to the 2nd Macedonian Non-Profit Brigade.
    Comrade Batyrov joined the 2nd brigade 6.V. 44 g. And was appointed platoon commander of the Russian company. From 1.VI to 17.VII. 44, he was in this position and took an active part in the battles, in which he showed activity, composure, determination and dedication. A disciplined and courageous fighter, he was an example for the rest of the fighters.
    The specified comrade was wounded in the arm in the battles of Radna. Of the battles that the team was leading at that time and in which Comrade Comrade took part Batyrov, it is necessary to mention: 17.V - nine-hour battle at the Kavadartsev, 19.V - at the village. Radnya, 24.V - for the Vitoliste mine, 7.VI - at s. Konopiste, in the implementation of sabotage on communications and telephone lines, the battles of Nikodin, Bakle, Radobil, 27-28. VI - at s. Radnya (where he was wounded), 7 and 8.VII - at the villages of Drenova and Dradnya.
    For the activity shown in battles, comrade Batyrov, like all fighters of the Russian company, received thanks, as well as personal thanks for the battle in the village. Vitoliste.
    Head of department (personnel) lieutenant colonel (signature is illegible). ”
    Everywhere the Russian company, in which Magomed Batyrov fought, showed courage and heroism.
    In the battle for the village of Rogia on June 27 and 28, the enemy took advantageous positions. With strong fire, he did not allow our soldiers to move forward. A Russian company advanced in battle. The river shared the fighters with the enemy. Crossed the river. Overcoming a strong current and a flurry of fire, Magomed led the rest of the soldiers. Feeling a sharp, burning pain in his hand, he realized that he was wounded. But the Dagestani did not even stop the bloody wound. He continued to run, dragging the others along. And only after the battle did he turn into a partisan infirmary with wild pain. The arm bone was fragmented.
  8. ovod84
    ovod84 3 March 2016 11: 05
    +7
    Here is another story. we all know the feat of Poletaev, but few people know about Hasan Kamalov. In 1939, like all his peers, he was drafted into the army, and in 1941 he graduated from the artillery school. He met the commander of an artillery platoon with the rank of lieutenant. For the courage shown in the battles for the liberation of the Bug River, the commander of the 1st platoon of the 389th division of the 950th regiment, Hasan-Huseyn Kamalov received a thankful telegram from the Supreme Commander Joseph Stalin.

    After being seriously wounded, he was in the hospital and was demobilized. I came home, but as soon as I felt better, I asked to go back to the front. And then came the funeral: "On July 16, 1944, he died near the village of Porvance, Volyn region." 22 years after the war, the news of the hero reached us. It turned out that the seriously wounded Hasan was captured, was able to escape and join the partisan detachment in Italy. He fought in the Tarzan brigade as part of the Green Banner division.

    According to the testimony of Italian partisans and the commander of the Tarzan brigade, Bertoli Tomaso, Kamalov was a man of amazing courage and courage. As an experienced officer, he was introduced to the brigade headquarters, he was called Captain Russo. All 13 partisans who died along with Hasan Kamalov were awarded the highest military decoration of Italy - the Gold Medal. The Italians immortalized the memory of the heroes. The monument was erected on the place where they died, near the Gremello fortress, and symbolizes the unity of countries in the fight against fascism.

    And in the city of Pontallo in 1945, the pantheon chapel, a museum of fame was opened. There, in the crypt, the remains of thirteen heroes are buried, and the Kamalov Gold Medal was transferred to the museum of the city of Bergamo for eternal storage.
  9. qwert
    qwert 3 March 2016 11: 17
    +3
    Quote: Litsvin
    Yes, in the "former USSR" the plots for "films about the war" would be enough for Hollywood for 200 years. Otherwise, Hollywood directors are filming all sorts of obscene nonsense

    It is impossible to argue with this. Reading articles on VO this thought comes often. Yes, that is Hollywood. Our domestic what filth they remove. There are books of participants in those events. Why should I suck out any muck from a finger that has nothing to do with real events.
  10. Gomunkul
    Gomunkul 3 March 2016 11: 18
    +4
    When 6 June 1944, the Allied forces landed in Normandy and the French people rose to armed insurrection, the Ponomarev detachment intensified strikes against the fascists, and first of all on German communications.
    It turns out that if the allies had not landed in France on June 6, 1944, the freedom-loving French people would not have risen to fight for the liberation of their country. laughing
    1. Litsvin
      Litsvin 3 March 2016 13: 21
      +4
      There is an answer to your question. It is enough to know the figures of "the so-called resistance in European countries". The total number of "Patrizans" from the south of France to the north of Norway, from Holland to Greece and Poland "(with the exception of Yugoslavia) in different years of the war was from 0,7 to 4,5% of the number of partisans on the territory of the occupied USSR. “democratic resistance.” What kind of French can we talk about?
      All the contempt for "the French as warriors" can be reflected in one illustrative episode. Before signing the surrender of Nazi Germany, Field Marshal Keitel, seeing the French military delegation entering the hall, exclaimed: "How," these "also defeated us !!! ???"
      What French "warriors" we all know from the history of the capture of France in 1940 - how they quickly capitulated. But when the USSR "broke Hitler's neck" in the East, thereby creating conditions for the liberation of Europe and, in particular, France, the French also "clinging" to the glory of the WINNERS and "os-in-bo-di-li !!!!!!!" (damn liberators) France. And then these "French liberators", who betrayed their nation in 1940, shamefully fled to Tunisia, left French women, old people and children at the mercy of the Germans, all they could do in 1944 was to shave their bald French women who were forced to provide services to the Germans of a sexual nature in order to survive and feed their children. Therefore, excuse me, but "I can take off my hat only in front of some REAL French military men - D" Artanyan, Athos, Aramis and Porthos ". The "French military" have nothing to do with the Great Victory of 1945. I still cannot understand Stalin, who agreed to rank the "French" among the victorious countries and allowed them to join the post-war division of Europe - suffice it to recall the same French sector of the occupation of Germany, which later poured into the FRG. If we take historical justice, then the Yugoslav army and partisans created much more problems for the Germans and caused much more damage to the Wehrmacht than "in-s-i, in-m-e-s-t-e in-z-i-t-a- I s-r-a-w-a-y-a-a-a-a-I France ". Why then did Yugoslavia not participate in the division of Germany?
      1. Barkun
        Barkun 21 December 2016 19: 37
        0
        No, comrade. The intensity of emotions is understandable, of course, but "Normadia-Neman" is eternal glory. People are different and, good, traditionally fewer.
  11. ovod84
    ovod84 3 March 2016 12: 01
    +2
    Fran
    tsuzs were more pleasant with the Germans than with the French themselves their women thought they couldn’t protect them from the Germans, it’s not men, the Germans left their women climbed the Yankees as strong, as it was said in one French film about occupation
  12. jakub
    jakub 3 March 2016 16: 22
    +2
    Yes, they didn’t fight against Germany, but against all of Europe, Hungarians, French, Spaniards, Czechs, we all had