Military Review

Ural Cossacks in Australia

57
The beginning of the last century was marked by tremendous changes in the lives of not only millions of Russian people, but also a break in the destinies of entire communities that had been forming in Russia for centuries. One of these communities was the Ural Cossacks, much of whom left their homes in the Ural River region and moved to other countries, mainly to Australia. Far from their homeland, they for the most part managed to preserve traditions and habits and, in spite of everything, good feelings towards abandoned native places, towards their native people. During World War II, many foreign Ural Cossacks as part of the Allied armies took part in the struggle against Japanese militarism, thereby providing modest but worthy support to the efforts of the Soviet people, who made a decisive contribution to the victory over the hated enemies of humanity.


The origins of the Ural Cossacks go into the depths of the Middle Ages. The Cossacks themselves called their military campaigns in the areas of the Volga and the Caspian against the Turks, the Persians, the Nogays themselves “fishing”. These campaigns were accompanied by the release of slaves of Russians and other Christians, which was considered a godly and worthy deed.

The bloody clashes of the Ural Cossacks with their neighbors are not explained by their ferocity or some kind of bloodthirsty. Clashes over their territory, places of permanent residence and housekeeping have always actually been the defense of their homeland. Yaik Cossacks were fishermen, hunters, sowed bread, melons and gourds, kept cattle, bred gardens, there were doctors among them, but the warriors were the basis of the community. The Yaik community was part of huge Russia, very small, sometimes restless, but very necessary.

In Soviet times, there was a stereotype that, they say, the Cossacks were colonizers for the Kazakhs. But for more than 150 years - until the beginning of the XVIII century. - Kazakhs did not meet Cossacks at all. Kazakhs appeared on the banks of the Yaik (the Ural River) later on the Cossacks. The Cossacks many times encountered Nogais, Bashkirs, Kalmyks, but never with the Kazakhs. Then, for more than 200 years, they lived side by side on their own territory. In the XIX century. these were not just neighbors, - the Cossacks came to the Kazakhs for trade and did not live among them. Since the end of the XIX century. Kazakhs began to be hired by shepherds to rich Cossacks. The Cossacks - due to their innate, aggravated sense of justice - always respected the customs and national traditions of the Kazakhs with respect.

Yaik Cossacks were almost independent in the initial period of their stories, and all relations with the Russian government were conducted through the Ambassadorial Order. The king asked for the campaigns to put at the service of the required number of Cossacks, guaranteeing them a reward. Peter I with 1721 began to do business with the Cossacks through the Military Collegium, and the lands of the Ural (Yaitsky) Cossacks then entered Astrakhan, and then - in 1744 - in the Orenburg province. Moscow by persuasion and orders all the time trying to subjugate the Cossacks. Cossacks defended their rights, but they were considered less and less. In the famous peasant uprising of the XVIII century. Cossacks took the side of Pugachev. After the suppression of the uprising, the Yaik army was completely subordinated to the Russian government, and the army itself was renamed the Urals. His ataman was no longer elected, but was appointed by officials from St. Petersburg. After 1830, the so-called. The “wardens” sometimes were not even local Cossacks.

1917 year put an end to the history of the Ural Cossacks. In 1918 - 1920 Red Army units repeatedly came to the territory of the Ural Cossack troops, and then entered Uralsk. Selected in March, 1919, the Army Ataman Vladimir Sergeyevich Tolstov for some time was able to turn the tide of military operations in favor of the Cossacks, but not for long. The arrival of the "red" was accompanied by mass executions - all the names of the dead were barely contained in the three volumes of the Book of Memory published in 2000. The poor and the rich, officers and privates, peasants, priests, Kazakhs and Russians, Bashkirs and Tatars, and others, were shot. Together with the Cossack army, the military population began to retreat. It ended with the deaths of thousands of people — the wounded, the sick with typhus, the starving ...

The exodus from Russia to Persia and China was described in detail in his memoirs by ataman V.S. Tolstov. The first edition of the book was published in Turkey, with old spelling; subsequently it was reprinted more than once. This book is the only detailed source of information about that terrible time, where the tragic events and human suffering are described by the person who witnessed and experienced it all. Subsequently, another, more detailed book “From Red Paws to an Unknown Distance” was published, in which memories of other witnesses of the tragic events were cited, as well as diaries and recordings of the same V.S. Tolstoy.

According to the data given in these books, the Ural residents from “red paws” went to an unknown distance. No one knew where fate would cast them. Some returned to Russia — the fate of most of them was tragic — others left for France. A large group led by ataman VS Tolstoy went to Australia.

As the materials of the books mentioned above testify, during the Civil War the Ural Cossacks opposed the Reds, but not for the monarchy, not for the landowners - there were no last ones here, because there was no private land ownership. Urals people defended their faith, the right to life in the Urals. Military operations, epidemics, famine in 1921 - all this destroyed the ка local Cossacks. Leaving the Reds, the Ural Cossacks and their families headed “along the Bukhara side” towards the Caspian Sea, to Persia.

Back in March 1919, having gathered a 16-strong army, the ataman Tolstov cleared a rather large territory from the Reds, for which Admiral A.V., commander of the White Army Kolchak, produced by V.S. Tolstov's lieutenant general. Ataman led his troops south to Guryev, then along the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea to Fort Aleksandrov. On the way, many people died due to cold, illness and injury. Of the 12 thousand people, only 3 thousand reached the Fort. Not wanting to surrender to the Reds, the remaining Cossacks intended to sail to Persia (Iran) by sea. But the sailors of the Caspian flotilla money "for the crossing" was taken from the Cossacks, but they did not fulfill their promises ...

It's been 1921 for a year already. Ataman V.S. Tolstoy with a detachment in 214 man went through the desert of Turkmenistan to Persia. Along the way there were clashes with the Turkmen, part of the squad died. After Iran, most of the Urals reached Iraq, which the British then owned. Uralis were marked out in Basra in the camp of Russian émigrés, who by that time had already accumulated quite a lot in a foreign country. From there Ataman V.S. Tolstov wrote a letter to W. Churchill asking him to help the Urals to go east. The answer was not very benevolent, but they still provided a steamer - the Ural Cossacks were going to go to Vladivostok. First they got to Istanbul, where Ataman V.S. Tolstov handed the Military banner of St. George into the hands of General Wrangel. Later, this banner was located in the Holy Trinity Church in Belgrade (the courtyard of the Russian Orthodox Church); there is also a museum of Russian glory, where the 126 banners and standards of the old Russian Army are kept.

In October, the Ural Cossacks arrived in Vladivostok, 1921, where they entered the Cossack Brigade of the Far Eastern White Army.

In November, the 1922 of the Reds occupied the entire Far East, and the Urals moved to China, mainly to Harbin. Some remained in China, part of them along with Ataman V.S. Tolstov through the Japanese port of Nagasaki in November 1923 sailed to Australia. The few who remained in Russia and returned home were shot. Among them was the father of VS. Tolstova, ataman TK Borodin. Although all of them red at first guaranteed life.

Most of the Cossacks who moved to China for a long time could not find work here. Many would like to move to the United States or to Europe, but it was cheaper to get to Australia. They mostly went there. The steamer brought them to Brisbane 4 on November 1923. Of course, they did not anticipate that many of them would stay here forever. The first "Ural settlers" experienced great difficulties with money and language. The second generation of the Urals has already mastered the language, and for the third English has become native.

At first, in Australia, the Urals worked almost exclusively on hard work - they were loaders in the port, worked on farms, chopped sugar cane. Vs Tolstov, even before the arrival of the main group of the Cossacks, was able to organize his farm, where he invited his fellow countrymen to work. A.V. gave him money for "his own business". Bolkhovitinov, a Cossack from the Don army, who knew the Urals and arrived in Australia a little earlier. He also recorded Cossack children in the local school. Later, in 1927, A.V. Bolkhovitinov opened a store in Quisland, and in 1934 he left for America.

Cossacks-Urals from the “Tolstoy farm” worked there for many years, mainly growing vegetables; some left for seasonal rural work. Locals watched with interest as the Cossacks of the Urals, lined up with a column with shovels, axes and pickles, went to work, singing Russian songs - many had wonderful voices. Soon the estate of Kordalba - this is 380 km north of Brisbane - became the center of the Russian settlement. Gradually, the Cossacks began to buy their farms, they acquired a farm, some bought houses in the city of Kordalba. A small town - one central street, several shops, three hotels - soon became almost entirely Russian. Plaques at the door of the houses said that the Karamyshevs, Piunovs, Potorochins, Tarshkovs and others live here. 45 families of Urals people settled in the city; altogether in Kordalb, there were about a hundred and fifty families of Russian émigrés.
A kind of social and cultural center of the Cossacks and other Russian, living and working in the town and its surroundings, was the farm of the Potorochins. Kazak Alexander Yulianovich and his wife Ekaterina Fyodorovna bought a small house, which became a kind of “club” of the Ural Cossacks in Australia. Hospitable owners write books, including records in Russian, bought a gramophone. On Sundays, Russians who worked nearby came to visit them. People read, listened to music, played lotto and cards. Both lonely Cossacks and family ones came, arranged for dinners in turn and enjoyed themselves as best they could, i.e. with drinks, snacks and singing. Especially often sounded a song with such ingenuous words:

They know all the Ural River,
And Ural sturgeon,
Only know very little
About the Ural Cossacks,
Our great-grandfathers and grandfathers
Since the time of Peter
There were victories on the fields,
How much was their "Hurray."

At the beginning of the 1930's. Tolstov established a “all-out village village” in Kordalb in order to maintain and preserve the commonality of the Cossacks from the Urals. Now the meetings were arranged both in the house and at picnics. There were many treats, songs sounded, dances were performed. Young Cossacks listened attentively to the stories of the elderly about past times and campaigns. 21 was especially solemnly celebrated every November in the Urals Military Festival of St. Archangel Michael. Not only Cossacks, but also all Russians who could come to Kordalb were invited to the feast. Orthodox holidays were celebrated by divine services (there was a Russian priest in Brisbane), for Christmas they arranged a Christmas tree in the Kordalb “public hall” shot for this purpose by the Cossacks.

By 1940. Many Russians left for the rather large city of Brisbane, where then it was possible to purchase land plots cheaply. There are few Russians in Kordalb, but Russians who live here in the Urals Cossacks still remember here, who to a certain extent have attached them to a kind of traditional culture both in terms of singing and playing folk music instruments, and in the field of cooking. Local residents say that numerous difficulties - lack of knowledge of the language, hard work, etc. - complicated the life of the Cossacks, but they did not give in to fate.

Since the times, the Urals have adequately manifested themselves in various industries. So, I.M. Shepherds who lost a leg in a campaign to Persia, while in China, learned handicraft business - making wicker baskets, trays, baby carriages, etc. Production was a success, and soon Shepherds opened their handicraft shop.

Uralets G.A. Mitryasov, in Australia, became a fairly well-known electrician specialist. He graduated from the Australian Institute of Engineering, went to work for an electrical engineering company, where he reached a high position and, as a consultant, several times went to New Guinea. At the same time, he was elected ataman of the Brisbane General Contractor Village, which existed before the 1980s.

Although the Ural Cossacks, who came to 1923 in Brisbane, did not live in their own separate stanitsa, dispersed in search of work throughout Australia, they still united Cossack traditions, a certain community, caring about each other, and constant mutual assistance.

During the Second World War, many Ural Cossacks from Australia participated in the Allied army in hostilities against Japan, were awarded medals and orders. There is information that their grandchildren and great-grandchildren retain in their hearts the love given to them by their ancestors and honor the traditions of the Ural Cossacks, an important part of the great Russian people, as much as they can.

In preparing the article, the following works were used:
1. A.G. Tregubov "From Gugni to Tolstova." Atamans Yaitsky Cossack troops. Optina publishing house Uralsk, 2006.
2. A.G. Tregubov. Urals in Australia. Ural Library. Publishing house "Optina". Uralsk, 2007.
3. N. Chesnokov. Punishment. Hunger "Series" Ural Library ". Publishing house "Optina", Uralsk, 2005.
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  1. Koshak
    Koshak 27 February 2016 07: 55 New
    +5
    Another little-known page in the dramatic history of the 20th century.
  2. Pig
    Pig 27 February 2016 07: 57 New
    +2
    "" during the Civil War, the Ural Cossacks opposed the Reds, but not for the monarchy, not for the landowners - there were no latter here, since there was no private land ownership ""
    what nonsense? how it was! just the lands of the Cossack army were included in a separate register and around there were the same landowners' land ownership ... and the Cossack lands were divided into public and private which were in the possession of "brownie" Cossacks! from the tsar-father the Cossacks had all their privileges and nishtyaks - for this they fought! for the king-father and for the fact that everything would be "as before"!
    the author generally writes nonsense!
    it would be better to read "Quiet Don" than the bloody murderer Tolstov, who has arms up to his shoulders in Russian blood ...
  3. oxotnuk86
    oxotnuk86 27 February 2016 08: 14 New
    -4
    In dashing years, many Cossacks left Russia. Most often, the conversation is about the Don, Kuban Cossacks about the Ural are very little and fragmentary. It will be probably interesting my grandmother when asked about nationality said: I am a Cossack. Maybe we really forget that there is a Native KAZAK.
    1. Pig
      Pig 27 February 2016 08: 18 New
      +9
      NATIONAL Cossack ...
      Cossack is an estate !!! and not a nation ... there were Tatars and Bashkirs and Buryats of the Cossack rank ... where to stick them to the national Cossacks ???
      Sholokhov wrote well about Cossack separatism, read "Quiet Don" and not all the atamans who were not finished off
      1. afdjhbn67
        afdjhbn67 27 February 2016 09: 10 New
        +9
        Quote: Pig
        NATIONAL Cossack ...

        Cossack walked off into the distance.
        On the chest was a medal:
        "For courage", "For the victory",
        "For a pleasant chat,"
        "For the scientific works"
        "For the protection of the whole environment",
        two astronaut medals,
        Warcraft player order,
        putting the TRP symbol,
        "Passage THAT",
        Pregnancy Club "Crane",
        Wardrobe DK "Hydraulics",
        "Altavista dot com",
        "Society of fungus patients",
        The captain of the game "Zarnitsa"
        "Gomel mental hospital",
        snuffbox, and flint,
        eight caps from beer,
        "Gypsy Dance Festival"
        "Crane operator, work in a helmet!"
        "Beware of the bike,"
        "Thirty-eight Years of Victory"
        Order of the RSFSR,
        secret order "Templar"
        gum liner "Lyolik-Bolik"
        "Anonymous alcoholic",
        "Club of wine connoisseurs",
        Symbol of shit punk,
        SUSE-Linux, Business Tim,
        “Tynda is a twin city”
        "The most experienced driver"
        "The best boar-maker",
        sign "Honorary diver",
        sticker "Putin-"
        Oktyabryatskaya star,
        "The heroine mother of labor"
        blood type, and Ay-Pi,
        and the pacific on the chain.
        Suddenly a Cossack slipped ...
        And medals - herak!
        And now medals are all
        rolled on the highway.
        Kids! Uncles, aunts!
        If you find anywhere:
        Order of Glory, Order of Peace,
        a button with the coat of arms of Algeria,
        bauble, can opener,
        malachite brooch,
        Red Cross, Peter's Cross
        "City of Prague", "City of Brest",
        "Regimental Nurse",
        "Childhood is a wonderful time,"
        Esperanto, CSKA,
        Forester’s personal number
        cufflinks to military uniform
        "The best turner", "Exhaust is normal",
        "Lose weight in five minutes"
        Youth club "Sohnud",
        "KGB", "Honorary Donor",
        “Elena Bonner Private Foundation”,
        "Chechen Fashion Festival",
        ticker fidoshnoj nody -
        even a medal, even a badge
        Share with the Cossack!
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 27 February 2016 09: 42 New
          +5
          Quote: afdjhbn67

          Cossack walked off into the distance.
          On the chest was a medal:

          Namesake! Well, you have dispersed. Such a poem in response to this Pig. A man cannot understand that this is our history, it cannot be deleted and that it should not be studied according to Sholokhov, although he is an excellent writer, but must be studied according to documents. Cossacks in Siberia and the Far East are well written by two authors: K. Sedykh "Dauria" and "Fatherland". V. Balyabin: "Transbaikalians", but you will not study history from them, although the books are beautifully written. In these books, both white and red get it.
          1. afdjhbn67
            afdjhbn67 27 February 2016 09: 48 New
            +1
            Quote: Amurets
            Namesake!

            Nikolai, I also read all this in my childhood, and with regards to modernity, the poem is the best illustration for this comedy in the Cossacks
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 27 February 2016 10: 18 New
              +2
              Quote: afdjhbn67

              Nikolai, I also read all this in my childhood, and with regards to modernity, the poem is the best illustration for this comedy in the Cossacks

              So this is our story, and I fully support you. From the paternal side, my ancestors from the Cossacks, I don’t know for sure from the maternal side, because my mother and her relatives never told me anything, they were afraid. I myself regard this as our story, no more .Restore to the original Cossack territories, I doubt even if I do not deny that it is possible. But I fully support the restoration of the Cossack settlement of Albazino. This is the first Russian settlement on the Amur. And as a museum complex, it has the right to exist.
              1. The comment was deleted.
              2. RUSS
                RUSS 27 February 2016 10: 28 New
                +2
                Quote: Amurets
                To revive in the original Cossack territories, I doubt though I do not deny that this is possible.


                Now, at the legislative level, decisions are being made on the allocation of land to Cossack organizations for agricultural activities. Many Cossacks have already returned to the "land", plus Cossack cadet corps, Cossack sports and patriotic clubs, circles and camps are opening. In the Russian Ministry of Defense, Cossack units have been created and are being created as an example - the 205th separate motorized Cossack brigade (military unit 74814), in September 1998 the brigade was given the honorary name of the Cossack. Four separate battalions have honorary names: Donskoy, Kuban, Tersk and Astrakhan Cossacks.
                After 2 Chechen campaigns, about 1500 fighters of the brigade received state awards, and 5 servicemen were awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation
                1. Amurets
                  Amurets 27 February 2016 12: 33 New
                  +2
                  Quote: RUSS
                  Now, at the legislative level, decisions are being made on the issue of land for agricultural activities to Cossack organizations

                  I understand that this is an attempt to return to the old tribal roots. But what bothers me is how to do this on a new level.
                  1. The comment was deleted.
                  2. RUSS
                    RUSS 27 February 2016 12: 44 New
                    0
                    Quote: Amurets
                    I understand that this is an attempt to return to the old tribal roots. But what bothers me is how to do this on a new level.

                    On the ground already take-

                    Land for rent without bidding will be provided to religious organizations and Cossack societies - Law of the Trans-Baikal Territory of 13 “On Amending Article 5 of the Law of the Trans-Baikal Territory“ On the Turnover of Agricultural Land in the Trans-Baikal Territory ”

                    Agricultural land without tendering is leased to religious organizations and Cossack societies for agricultural production, preservation and development of the traditional way of life and management of Cossack societies.
                    In this case, the redemption of the leased land is not allowed.
                    2016 year.
        2. Nikolay K
          Nikolay K 27 February 2016 09: 45 New
          +2
          The current "Cossacks" are mostly mummers, because now it is impossible to restore the Cossack estate. It looks as stupid and naive as if the descendants of the knights would dress up in the armor of their distant ancestors and walk the streets now. As an estate, the Cossacks died, but this does not interfere with remembering, loving and honoring the history of their ancestors, their identity and culture. In Germany, for example, they often wear national clothes on holidays or just weekends. It's okay, it's a tribute to your ancestors and your history. So we need to remember the glorious history of the Cossacks, but without clownery and painted medals.
          1. AK64
            AK64 28 February 2016 23: 03 New
            -2
            The current "Cossacks" are mostly mummers, because now it is impossible to restore the Cossack estate.


            Cossacks are not an "estate". Cossacks are an ethnos. Or, in the Soviet way, nationality. And the Cossacks differ from the Russians even anthropologically.
        3. Avantageur
          Avantageur 27 February 2016 11: 49 New
          0
          Quote: afdjhbn67
          sign "Honorary diver",
          sticker "Putin-", stop
          Oktyabryatskaya star,
          "The heroine mother of labor"

          sign "Honorary diver",
          Iron Cross Grade 2,
          Oktyabryatskaya star,
          "The heroine is the mother of labor" ...

        4. Mefodi5124
          Mefodi5124 5 March 2016 10: 59 New
          0
          Not bad at all, my grandfather was an Ural Cossack
      2. AK64
        AK64 28 February 2016 22: 59 New
        0
        First, don’t have to scream like that
        Secondly, learn to use Google, it is useful.
        Thirdly, there was no such class, "Cossacks": Cossacks were written according to the class "peasants" (Google will help you!)
        Fourthly, under the tsar, the Cossacks were written "nationality". That is, in the Soviet way it is precisely "nationality".

        And fifthly: fortunately, we are pretty indifferent to a screech
  4. Pig
    Pig 27 February 2016 08: 15 New
    0
    "" all the names of the deceased barely fit into the three volumes of the "Memory Books" published in 2000 ""
    it is a pity that no one has compiled a "Book of Memory" about the workers and peasants killed by the Tolstoyans - even 30 volumes would not be enough there! villages herachili people ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. RUSS
      RUSS 27 February 2016 09: 48 New
      -7
      Quote: Pig
      Book of Memory "about the workers and peasants killed by the Tolstoyans

      Few of you chopped red!
      1. Pig
        Pig 27 February 2016 09: 59 New
        +2
        where are the red ones? and now the whole population quietly hates you, all of you crooks and grabbers now and in the Civil have robbed everyone!
        the Tsapkov gang is the personification of the "Cossacks"
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. RUSS
          RUSS 27 February 2016 10: 19 New
          0
          Quote: Pig
          and now the whole population quietly hates you, all of you are crooks and grabbers now

          Do not speak for everyone.
          Quote: Pig
          all of you kurkuli and grabbers now

          The Cossacks are reviving slowly but surely, the Cossacks have always been warriors and never when kurkuli and grabbers, but now there are mummers, but the time will come and all this "husk" will fall off from the Cossacks with which it has nothing in common.
          Quote: Pig
          the Tsapkov gang is the personification of the "Cossacks"

          Tsapki are not Cossacks, they are from "nonresident" living in the Cossack village.
          1. Pig
            Pig 27 February 2016 10: 46 New
            +1
            I myself live 30 km from Orenburg in a Cossack village and I know how they treat you ... "Cossacks" do not "reborn" in our country and cannot "reborn" anywhere because all "true Cossacks" have left for Australia and other places. all who stayed for a long time already "turned out" ... here in the Orenburg province a Cossack from the Russians is easy to recognize - they are all Old Believers, if not an Old Believer means not a Cossack

            so it’s easy to calculate which of the Cossacks and who clung to
            90% stick on
            Cossacks is a subspecies of Svidomo and has some roots! Cossack = Svidomo
            "" Few of you reds chopped! "" Compare with the comments of Svidomo on the censor, let's say ... find 10 differences between the way of thinking Svidomo and Cossacks - there is no difference
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. RUSS
              RUSS 27 February 2016 10: 51 New
              0
              Quote: Pig
              Cossacks is a subspecies of Svidomo and has some roots! Cossack = Svidomo

              I haven’t read such nonsense for a long time.
              Quote: Pig
              compare with the comments Svidomo on the censor

              UkrosMI do not watch and do not read.
              Quote: Pig
              find 10 differences between the way of thinking of Svidomo and Cossacks - no difference

              Achinea complete.
              Quote: Pig
              so it’s easy to figure out which of the Cossacks and who clung to it, smeared 90%

              Cossacks are not a nation, therefore many come to Cossacks to whom it is close by faith or in spirit and this is normal. The Cossacks also had Kalmyks-Buddhists in the army, and by the way there are not a few Muslims, especially from the Bashkirs.
              1. Pig
                Pig 27 February 2016 11: 24 New
                +2
                There are no Cossacks for a long time, my friend - the Bolsheviks destroyed the estate system in Russia and the Cossacks as an estate, and all those who now call themselves "Cossacks" are ordinary mummers in great-great-grandfather's trousers with stripes ... well, that's like you;)
                and your head is full of nonsense about the "exploits of the Cossacks" (although our Cossacks were always and everywhere famous primarily as robbers and marauders) and that "the Cossacks are the salt of the earth" and all the rest are "kerzhaks" and "red bastards" ...
                Svidomism is in all its glory! "Cossacks" came from Malorosia and its roots are the same as those of the Svidomites
                1. RUSS
                  RUSS 27 February 2016 11: 47 New
                  0
                  Quote: Pig
                  now "Cossacks" are ordinary mummers in great-great-grandfather's trousers with stripes ... well, like you;)

                  This is your opinion, I have a different opinion on this.
                  Quote: Pig
                  and your head is full of nonsense about the "exploits of the Cossacks" (although our Cossacks were always and everywhere famous primarily as robbers and marauders)

                  You just need to read historical literature at least for the period from the First World War to the Great Patriotic War. By the way, you wrote about Tsapkov, so I advise you to read about the "Attack at Kushchevskaya on August 2, 1942." and you will be surprised that the exploits of the Cossacks were even in the Second World War!
                  Quote: Pig
                  "Cossacks" came from Malorosia and his roots are the same as those of the Svidomites

                  Far from Little Russia.
                  1. Pig
                    Pig 27 February 2016 11: 59 New
                    +1
                    "" This is your opinion I have on this matter is different ""
                    you never confirm your opinion with facts
                    "The attack at Kushchevskaya on August 2, 1942."
                    Well, yes, well, yes ... I explained to you there were no longer any Cossacks! the Cossacks ended in the Civil and the Soviet "Cossack" units it was and were dressed up in them any person could absolutely get
                    you better tell us about the SS "Cossack Legion" there really were real, terry Cossacks
                    1. The comment was deleted.
                    2. RUSS
                      RUSS 27 February 2016 12: 19 New
                      0
                      Quote: Pig
                      Well, yes, well, yes ... I explained to you there were no longer any Cossacks! the Cossacks ended in the Civil and the Soviet "Cossack" units it was and were dressed up in them any person could absolutely get

                      Cossack units of the Red Army - the military units of the Ground Forces of the RSFSR (1918-1922) and the USSR (1922-1955), formed from Cossacks.With the outbreak of World War II, Cossack units, both regular, in the Red Army, and volunteer, took an active part in the hostilities against Nazi invaders. [9] In most cases, the newly formed Cossack units, volunteer Cossack hundreds were poorly armed, as a rule, they came to units Cossacks with edged weapons and collective farm horses.
                      From Kuban and Tersk Cossacks Plastun divisions were also formed. Of the Cossacks, 262 cavalry received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, 7 cavalry corps and 17 cavalry divisions received the guard ranks.
                      Quote: Pig
                      you better tell us about the SS "Cossack Legion"

                      There were traitors, they suffered a well-deserved punishment, like many other traitors, for example, from the Red Army.
                      1. Pig
                        Pig 27 February 2016 13: 45 New
                        +2
                        listen to RUSS you seem to be against the "red" and you are quoting clippings from the BES)))
                        You still agreed on Comrade Stalin's speech where he says "about the merits of the Soviet Cossacks" ...
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                      3. RUSS
                        RUSS 27 February 2016 13: 52 New
                        0
                        Quote: Pig
                        listen to RUSS you seem to be against the "red" and you are quoting clippings from the BES)))

                        What would you have no doubt.
                        Quote: Pig
                        You still agreed on Comrade Stalin's speech where he says "about the merits of the Soviet Cossacks" ...

                        And why not?
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                  3. RUSS
                    RUSS 27 February 2016 12: 20 New
                    0
                    Quote: Pig
                    and the Soviet "Cossack" units were disguised

                    And this incidentally is an insult to WWII veterans!
                    1. Pig
                      Pig 27 February 2016 13: 48 New
                      -2
                      "And this is an insult to the veterans of the Great Patriotic War!"
                      Well, write to the Prosecutor General’s Gene if they find a corpus delicti)))
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                    3. RUSS
                      RUSS 27 February 2016 13: 55 New
                      0
                      Quote: Pig
                      Well, write to the Prosecutor General’s Gene if they find a corpus delicti)))

                      Of course, there is no corpus delicti in this, but the insult by the "disguised Cossacks" of WWII veterans will remain on your conscience.
            3. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 27 February 2016 15: 53 New
              +2
              Pig "and your head is full of nonsense about the" exploits of the Cossacks "(although our Cossacks were always and everywhere famous primarily as robbers and marauders) and that" the Cossacks are the salt of the earth "and all the other" kerzhaks "and" red bastards ".. ...
              Svidomism is in all its glory! "Cossacks" came from Malorosia and his roots are the same as those of the Svidomites. "
              Not ... well, they also took it in vain in one fell swoop and cheated everyone.))) Cossack feats were ... why weren't they? But, the Cossacks were good when they were used for their intended purpose. Well, and rob, so who did not rob it? For example, I respect the Cossacks and believe that in Russian history, especially military, they brought a lot of useful things. But, at the same time, there were negative points.
              1. Pig
                Pig 27 February 2016 16: 18 New
                +1
                I don’t deny the Cossacks! ))) and feats were ... I just live in the Cossack side and am familiar with the way of thinking of these people) they are almost all like RUSS ... and it was the tail of the Soviet Power that pinched them, otherwise we would see you and "Cossack" (not in vain did the enemies hoped for her so much?) and "m.s.k.a.l.e., go to the knives"!
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                2. RUSS
                  RUSS 27 February 2016 16: 27 New
                  0
                  Quote: Pig
                  ... and it still pinched them the Soviet Power tail

                  Pinched but not pinched!
                  Quote: Pig
                  then we would see you and "Cossack

                  A sick imagination of a couple of Cossack unfortunate leaders, no one really took this idea seriously.
                  Quote: Pig
                  and "m.s.k.a.l.u. to knives"!

                  Only now this does not need to be attributed to the Cossacks, it is good to drive the blizzard!
            4. AK64
              AK64 28 February 2016 23: 10 New
              0
              There are no Cossacks for a long time, my friend - the Bolsheviks destroyed the estate system in Russia and the Cossacks as an estate, and all those who now call themselves "Cossacks" are ordinary mummers in great-great-grandfather's trousers with stripes ... well, that's like you;)


              I will repeat for you: use Google and make sure that there was no such class - the Cossacks. According to the class, the Cossacks were written "peasants".
              (Once upon a time, long ago, under Alexei Mikhailovich, there was a section "border Cossacks" in the service class - but this is not at all the same)
              But the Cossacks were written "nationality".

              Cossacks are naturally an ethnic group, and differ from Russians in anthropology, in genes, in language, and in mentality.

              Your hatred of the Cossacks has a simple reason: your ancestors stole someone else's property - and you hate those whom your ancestors robbed. This is called cognitive dissonance.
          2. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 27 February 2016 15: 49 New
            0
            = RUSS "There were also Kalmyks-Buddhists among the troops, and by the way there were quite a few Muslims, especially from the Bashkirs."
            Rather, from the Tatars. Bashkirs were not in the Cossacks. There was the Bashkir-Meshcheryak army on the rights of the Cossack troops, but this is another song, and Nicholas 1 dismissed this army in the 1830s and 40s.
            1. Pig
              Pig 27 February 2016 15: 56 New
              +2
              "" There was a Bashkir-Meshcheryak army ""
              Meshcheryaks or Mishars are the same Tatars ... there were Bashkir and Tatar Cossack cantons ...
            2. RUSS
              RUSS 27 February 2016 16: 22 New
              0
              Quote: Nagaibak
              Rather, from the Tatars. Bashkirs were not in the Cossacks.

              In 1862, out of 81 Ural Cossacks there were: Russians (actually also Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russified Tatars, Mordovians, etc.) - 998 70 (331%), Bashkir - 6095 (7,4%), Tatars - 4168 (5,1%), Kalmyks - 1184 (1,4%), the rest (Kazakhs, Karakalpaks) accounted for a small part - 220 people. (0,3%) [31]. Thus, the share of Muslims in the army in the middle of the nineteenth century. reached 12,8%.
              1. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 27 February 2016 17: 21 New
                0
                "At the end of 1862, the ethnic composition of the military population
                The Ural Cossack army was as follows: Russians - 86%, Bashkirs - 7%,
                Tatars - 5%, Kalmyks - 1,4% and Karakalpaks - 0,6%. After
                Bashkirs were withdrawn from the Ural army, the share of Russians here
                increased to 92,5%, Tatars to 5,5%, Kalmyks to 1,5%. According to the data for 1876
                in the army: Russians - 93%, Tatars - 5,5%, Kalmyks - 1,5%. "
                This is according to the book of Borodin Ural Cossack army. By the way, you did not indicate that the Bashkirs had withdrawn from the army at the same time apparently and disbanded the Bashkir-Meshcheryak army. Until 1865, the Bashkirs still served. Then I made a mistake indicating that they were withdrawn from the troops by Nicholas 1. There were no Bashkirs in the Cossack troops in the 20th century. And where did you get your numbers from? Why is there no link?)))
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        3. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 27 February 2016 16: 19 New
          0
          The pigs "have long since" become obsessed "... here in the Orenburg province a Cossack from the Russians is easy to recognize - they are all Old Believers, if not an Old Believer means not a Cossack."
          Division 1 always had more Old Believers in its composition than other departments. They are very close to the Urals. And in the 2nd and 3rd divisions, there were fewer Old Believers and there were more ascribed soldiers.
  5. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 27 February 2016 10: 58 New
    +3
    RUSS
    "Few of you Reds were chopped up!"
    I don’t understand this DEBILISM at all))) By moronism, I mean pitting people. What do you mean a little chopped up?))) I probably have relatives in civilian clothes in leather jackets and caps with stars on their foreheads.)))
    But seriously .... Red-white. There are no more red or white ...- the couch warriors are already good at fighting.))) Especially the White Guards touch me.))) Well, okay if there is noble blood or at least merchant blood.))) But in reality there were no one ... ... and they called ... no way - but everyone in the counts marks.)))
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    2. RUSS
      RUSS 27 February 2016 11: 23 New
      -1
      Quote: Nagaibak
      I generally do not understand this moronity)))

      What specifically do not understand? Can clarify?
      Quote: Nagaibak
      By moronism, I mean pitting people. What do you mean a little chopped

      Bleed the dogs.
      Quote: Nagaibak
      What do you mean a little chopped?)))

      That’s what it means.
      Quote: Nagaibak
      I probably have relatives in civilian clothes in leather jackets and caps with stars on their foreheads.)))

      No.


      Quote: Nagaibak
      Especially I am touched by the White Guards.))) Well, well, if there is noble blood, or at least merchant.)

      There were not so many nobles in the White Army, but only a few merchants ....
      Quote: Nagaibak
      .))) But in reality there was nobody .... and they called ... nothing, but everyone marks in the counts.)))


      It’s not clear who you wrote in the counts, but you yourself wrote down as a whistleblower laughing
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 27 February 2016 15: 43 New
        +2
        = РУСС "What specifically do not you understand? Can you clarify?"
        1. I have already explained. About above.)))
        = RUSS
        2. "That's what it means."
        Yes, no does not mean.))) Not the Red Cossacks chopped, but in fact the Red Cossacks chopped. The Cossacks suffered such a blow that it can no longer recover for so many years. I don’t see anything joyful either. People who are not distant and stupid can enjoy fratricide.
        3. What happened happened. To tell the truth, the Cossacks at the beginning of the 20th century did not really consider themselves Russians in general. Russians for them were "stinking Muscovy" or "Muscovy kosopuzaya" That’s if it’s true.))) I can give more examples of Cossack names of both Russia and the Russian people.))) The people did not particularly like them either.))) Especially in the steppes, immigrants of all kinds at knives with them were even before any revolutions there.
        RUSS "There were not so many noblemen in the White Army, but only a few merchants .."
        4.There were few people at all))) Denikin at 18m -4 thousand pioneers. With Dutov, about 600 people took to the Turgai campaign.)))
        1. Pig
          Pig 27 February 2016 15: 57 New
          +1
          "stinking Muscovy" or "Muscovy kosopuzaya"
          svidomye in all its glory ...
  • Amurets
    Amurets 27 February 2016 08: 23 New
    +6
    If the author started from the depths of centuries, it was necessary to recall the Pugachev Uprising. For this reason, the Yaitsky Cossacks, after the defeat of the uprising, were deprived of the Cossack rank and sent to hard labor in the Gazimur and Nerchinsky factories. In the early 1850s, when the development began Amur region, it took a lot of service people in this region. And then N.N. Muravyov, not yet Amur and not yet a count, but already the Governor-General of Siberia asked Tsar Nicholas 1 to return the Cossack ranks to the peasants of Transbaikalia. And already in the winter of 1855 along the Upper Amur Cossack settlements appeared. So from the former descendants of the Yaitsky Cossacks TWO, even small, but Cossack troops, the Amur and Ussuriysk began to arise. Here is our story. Thanks to the author for recalling the Cossacks under the sky of the Southern Cross. I hope that there will be a continuation. By the way, us in the press was that the Chinese in the mid-1950s began to oppress the Cossack communities, consisting of emigrated Trans-Baikal, Amur and Ussuri white Cossacks, in the province of Kheilujiang. and communities from the PRC emigrated to Australia. But I don’t know the exact details, since I did not study the history of the Cossacks on the Amur and Ussuri in detail. The facts simply deposited themselves from the history of the development of the Amur region.
  • Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 27 February 2016 08: 53 New
    +7
    scattered Destiny! but I believe Syznov We will be reborn! from the Volga Free bow! for the article - thanks!
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 27 February 2016 10: 46 New
      +2
      Quote: Volga Cossack
      for the article - thanks!

      Join us!
    2. The comment was deleted.
  • vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 27 February 2016 10: 35 New
    +5
    Cossacks were the pillar of the Russian Empire, not even the current one. The increment of the Russian land, their work. All Russian borders were kept under surveillance. Most of them did not fit into the new government. They did not become worse from this and did not detract from their merits to Russia. This is our history, the history of Russia. And every living person contributed. Let's respect the history of our country.
  • Pig
    Pig 27 February 2016 10: 59 New
    0
    "" not for the landlords - the latter were not here, since there was no private land ownership ""
    the phrase is very pale - because a lie and a person "in the subject" could not write like that ...
    author exactly "" LB Aristova Institute of Oriental Studies RAS ""? Where is the link to the original? a painfully illiterate and one-sided little article like RUSS or some other Svidomo "Cossack" wrote ...
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    2. RUSS
      RUSS 27 February 2016 12: 37 New
      +1
      Quote: Pig
      the phrase is very pale - because a lie and a person "in the subject" could not write like that

      Judging by your jargon, you are definitely in the subject.
      Quote: Pig
      too illiterate and one-sided little article like RUSS or some other Svidomo "Cossack" wrote ...

      Write and you if you can? And it’s only ordinary hollow and insults.
      1. Pig
        Pig 27 February 2016 13: 41 New
        0
        Well, then I guessed with authorship ...) svidomye such predictable)))
        it’s not good to spread your nonsense under the authorship of others ...
        I specifically checked, Lyudmila Aristova didn’t write anything like that, because there’s no link ...
        those. article - written by someone unknown and the name of Aristova (there is such an employee at the Institute of Oriental Studies) was used to "give weight" to this writing ...
        those. before us is a wonderful example of informational misinformation where everything is turned upside down ...
        and why do it, let everyone decide for himself
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        2. RUSS
          RUSS 27 February 2016 14: 07 New
          0
          Quote: Pig
          Well, then I guessed with authorship ...) svidomye such predictable)))

          Paranoia?
          Quote: Pig
          those. we have a wonderful example of informational misinformation where everything is turned upside down

          Where is the distortion? An interesting and informative article, what's wrong again?
          Quote: Pig
          I specifically checked, Lyudmila Aristova didn’t write anything like that, because there’s no link ...
          1. Pig
            Pig 27 February 2016 14: 28 New
            -1
            paranoia is not paranoia but fact is a fact - LB Aristova never wrote such a nonsense ...
            The next time you sign your patchwork (and this is not the first time;)) know the names of serious people - this:
            1. A.G. Tregubov "From Gugni to Tolstova." Atamans Yaitsky Cossack troops. Optina publishing house Uralsk, 2006.
            2. A.G. Tregubov. Urals in Australia. Ural Library. Publishing house "Optina". Uralsk, 2007.
            3. N. Chesnokov. Punishment. Hunger "Series" Ural Library ". Publishing house "Optina", Uralsk, 2005.
            this is funny ... memoirs of runaway whiteguards ... is that all that was in your library? remember russ serious people don’t write serious articles on three propaganda brochures ...
            "" Where is the distortion? "
            I wrote to you where) here: "" "" not for the landlords - there were no last ones here, since there was no private land ownership "" - and explained that this phrase burns all your writings))
            Do you understand that an educated person, and even more so from the Institute of Oriental Studies, could not write like that?)))
            1. RUSS
              RUSS 27 February 2016 14: 55 New
              +1
              Quote: Pig
              paranoia is not paranoia but fact is a fact - LB Aristova never wrote such nonsense ... the next time you sign your patch (this is not the first time;))

              This is not my article. fool , and I offended the author in vain as the article is interesting.
              Quote: Pig
              I wrote to you where) here: "" "" not for the landlords - there were no last ones here, since there was no private land ownership "" - and explained that this phrase burns all your writings))

              The main land of the landowners was in the central provinces of European Russia and Ukraine; in Siberia and the Urals there were practically no landowners.
              The landowners-Cossacks, quantitatively did not have one percent of the total number of Cossacks.
              1. Pig
                Pig 27 February 2016 15: 21 New
                +1
                "" there were practically no landowners in Siberia and the Urals ""
                you at least teach the history of Russia ... it’s not for you to sign articles by foreign names)))
                in Siberia yes - it wasn’t; but about the Urals - teach that you would not be dishonored
                "" Omesthikov-Cossacks, quantitatively there was not even one percent "" another masterpiece ...
                they were NOT at all because landowners could only belong to the nobility class i.e. Nobles ...
                you call yourself a Cossack and you don’t even understand what it is about)))
                1. RUSS
                  RUSS 27 February 2016 15: 51 New
                  0
                  Quote: Pig
                  you at least teach the history of Russia ... it's not for you to sign articles by strangers

                  Man, how much longer can you say that the article is not mine, huh?
                  Quote: Pig
                  "" Omesthikov-Cossacks, quantitatively there was not even one percent "" another masterpiece ... they were NOT AT ALL because landowners could only be those belonging to the nobility, ie. Nobles

                  Have you heard anything about the Don nobility of the Cossacks?
                  Or that in 1798, Emperor Paul I introduced the Cossacks army ranks with the assignment of officers of the noble rank. The Cossack received personal nobility after being promoted to the first officer rank, or having advanced in the civil service to the rank of IX class (titular adviser), or having been awarded the order established for officials and officers. Cossacks acquired hereditary nobility having risen to the rank of full state councilor in civilian service or to the rank of colonel in military service, or if he was awarded the Order of St. George, Order of St. Vladimir or some other order of the first degree. These were "serving nobles." If the Cossack, for special merits, was awarded a large estate, he became "the local nobleman. Don Ataman M.I. Platov and gene. F.P. Denisov, having received estates, was elevated to count dignity. They became "titled nobles." There is a tradition that Tsar Ivan the Terrible awarded Yermak Timofeyevich for conquering Siberia with the title of Prince of Siberia.
                  1. Pig
                    Pig 27 February 2016 16: 07 New
                    0
                    for the reasons listed by you, any person in the Empire could have received the nobility ... but this is already a TRANSITION TO ANOTHER CONDITION, i.e. a person from the "Cossack" estate passed into the more privileged "noble" estate, whom he positioned himself to be - it is absolutely not important that he passed around as a "nobleman" and not a "Cossack" ...
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              2. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 27 February 2016 16: 14 New
                +1
                РУСС "Landowners-Cossacks, quantitatively there was not even one percent of the total number of Cossacks."
                In OKV in 1875 there were about 70 Cossack hereditary noblemen with plots from 329 acres to 1988. On average, they had from 500 to 800 acres of land.
                For example, army foreman Shangarey Yagofarovich Dashkin had 446 acres of land. And Lieutenant Colonel Ivan Andreevich Avdeev had 733 dess.
                p. 645 A.V. Ganin, V.G. Semenov Officer corps of the Orenburg Cossack army 1891-1945. Moscow 2007.
                The average per capita put on the troops 12-30 acres in my opinion.)) Maybe there was no percentage, but the nobles of the landowners were.)))
            2. The comment was deleted.
  • Crown
    Crown 27 February 2016 15: 54 New
    +2
    Where I live, the battles of the chieftain Dutov with the Red Hungarians took place. (Bashkiria)
  • Neophyte
    Neophyte 27 February 2016 18: 18 New
    +1
    Thanks to the author for the article on the heroes of Russia’s patriots! Unfortunately, the descendants are not all, of course, but a negligible part of the scum-changers. They are dreaming of a split in Russia. Today, according to REN-TV, people from Yekaterinburg were shown at a rally demanding separation from Russia supposedly Siberia is not Russia? And such examples can be given in many areas?