Military Review

From the history of "weapons of retribution"

41



On the night of June 13 1944, the plane, which cracked like a motorcycle, swooped down within the precincts of the British capital and exploded. A survey of the terrain revealed one feature: there was no pilot in the aircraft. So the British discovered a new German means of air attack - cruise missile V-1. In those years, such devices preferred to be called "projectile aircraft."

The first projects of long-range guided missiles, equipped with wings, were proposed as early as the First World War. In the interwar period, development work on cruise missiles with rocket engine were conducted in many countries, including the Soviet Union and Germany. The fact that the Third Reich was the first to apply the new weapon, is fully explained by the funds that were invested in the project, as well as the traditionally high level of development of German industry.

The leadership of the German Air Force became interested in missile aircraft in 1939. The initiation of their development became a kind of response from the department of G. Göring to the “army” project of the A-4 ballistic missile, which later became widely known as V-2. In the middle of the summer, the Argus and Fizeleler 1941 companies proposed a cruise missile with an estimated range of 250 km, which was based on the ideas of F. Gosslau unmanned aircraft and P. Schmidt’s extremely simple pulsating jet engine. cheap fuel. The occupation of northern France made it possible to bombard London and many other cities in England with similar shells.

In January 1942, a project called for secrecy purposes FZG-76 (a flying target for training combat defense missile defense) was presented to the leadership of the Ministry aviation, and in July they reported about him to the chief of the technical service of the Luftwaffe, Field Marshal Milch. Simplicity and low cost provided the project with the status of "top priority". It was decided to take the "target" into service no later than December 1943.

Already in April, 1942 had outlined plans for the development of a cruise missile to Robert Lusser, who was engaged in various tasks on self-propelled bombs at the Fizeler factory in Kassel. Knowing this, the project coordinator, staff engineer, Bree, from the Ministry of Aviation, approved the Fizeler company as the main developer. The supplier of the control system chose the company "Ascania". Lusser was attracted to the work of the teams of the DFS, Henschel and Schwartz enterprises, who in the 1930-1937 worked in related fields.

This made it possible for the 1942 in December to test a prototype in a planning flight after being dropped from an FW-200 Condor aircraft. And in just a few days, the prototype FZG-76 made its first flight at a distance of 2,7 km with the engine running. After the 50 launches, the main characteristics of the cruise missile were determined: range - 240 km, speed - 550-600 km / h, flight height - 200 - 2000 m, weight of the combat charge - 700 kg. At the same time, the capabilities of the missile were tested to overcome the British air defense. They made several training interceptions of the new aircraft by the captured fighter "Spitfire" Mk.V. This, by the way, led to an underestimation of the enemy forces, since the speed of subsequent modifications of the English interceptors Spitfire and Tempest were much higher.



In May, 1943, an authoritative commission at the Peenemünde training ground, heard the comparative characteristics of the FZG-76 and the V-2 (V-2) ballistic missile. A show and practical shooting took place. The launch of the two V-2 was quite successful, and both FZG-76 launches ended in an explosion a few seconds after the start. However, the missile launches looked so impressive that even these accidents did not shake the German leadership’s confidence in the new weapon. The commission decided to speed up the serial production as much as possible and recommended using both types of missiles in the complex. The cruise missile was given the name Fi-103, but it became better known under the unofficial name V-1. “V” (German “fau”) meant Vergeltungswaffe, “a weapon of retribution”. The Goebbel apparatus declared that it was intended for "retaliation" for the barbaric destruction of the American-British aviation of Lübeck and Hamburg.

A program was developed for the production of projectiles from August 1943 of the year to July 1944-th, providing for the release of 24,5 thousand. V-1, bringing the 1944-th monthly assembly to May 5000 pieces. But the Ministry of Weapons was unable to ensure such a pace of work. Indeed, only for the monthly production of 3 thousand V-1 chemical industry required 2 thousand tons of low-octane gasoline and 4,5 thousand tons of explosives. Not better deal with other required materials and semi-finished products. In addition, only in September 1943 was made more 150 additions and changes to the project.

Despite this, in the spring of 1943, the accelerated formation of missile units began. At the Zintovititz test site (Usedom Island), an 155 anti-aircraft regiment was formed under the command of Colonel M. Wachtel. The name "anti-aircraft" and the encrypted names of the commander "Michael Wagner" and "Martin Wolf" were given for conspiracy considerations. The regiment consisted of four divisions, which included four fire and two auxiliary batteries (maintenance and supply).

From October 1939, British intelligence began to receive data on German developments in the field of rocket weapons. The information was stingy and scattered, but it led to the conclusion that work on ballistic and cruise missiles of immense destructive power was literally in full swing in Germany. Tests are conducted at a mysterious test site somewhere in the North Sea, launch positions are being prepared on the coast of the English Channel, and mass production is already under way at the plants.

From the history of "weapons of retribution"


The flow of information gradually increased. This was reported by the resistance groups from Poland and France, the captive generals Griuvel and Tom, the anti-fascist engineer Hans Kummerov, who worked at the Berlin Higher Technical School. 15 May The 1942 th photo reconnaissance Spitfire took the first shot of the landfill and airfield at Peenemünde. Since then, the island of Usedom has not gone out of the scrutiny of British intelligence.

The hard work of the scouts embodied the 17 of August 1943, in Operation Hydra - a strike on Peenemünde. In order to disorient the Luftwaffe, eight Mosquitoes, dropping aluminum foil over the ground, which was “blinded” by air defense radars, rushed at Berlin. Following them, 597 heavy bomber flew up only to the "mysterious island". Finding a huge cluster of aircraft over the Baltic, and following the path of the eight Mosquitoes, the Germans decided that a massive raid was expected on the capital.

When the Moskito reached Berlin and dropped the lighting and marking bombs, the German command ordered the night fighters to be raised into the air and the 160 daytime fighters additionally attracted. In the confusion, they attacked their own night interceptors, then joined the anti-aircraft artillery. For two hours, an “air battle” took place over Berlin without the participation of enemy aircraft. Meanwhile, almost 55 and high explosive or more 1600 and incendiary bombs fell on Peenemünde. As a result of the raid, 280 people died. 732 from the 50 landfill buildings and 80 from 18 barracks for workers, the power plant and the plant that produced 39-20 liquid oxygen were destroyed. The British lost their 40 aircraft.

Meanwhile, aerial photography of the English Channel brought more and more interesting information. In two days, from 8 to 10 in November, the number of starting positions increased from 19 to 26, and after two weeks there were already 95. Comparing several shots of the Peenemünde test site, one of the cryptographers found the same positions, but equipped with rail guides. They had a small airplane without a cabin with a straight short wing, which in English intelligence was given the name Peenemünde-20.

Almost a year before the start of the rocket attack, it became clear that of the two types of new weapons - ballistic missiles and "flying bombs" - the latter would be the most dangerous. Captured German pilots from the KG-100 squadron, which was armed with non-111 bombers, told that they experimented with the launches of winged shells. And in the report received by the head of the department of scientific and technical intelligence of the Ministry of Aviation, it was noted that this type of weapon would be used first.



The British command decided to thwart the enemy’s plans with the help of the bombing of enterprises that manufacture unmanned aircraft and launchers. From 5 December 1943, American and British aircraft began bombing launch sites and VW-1 rocket warehouses. Within six months, 52 was completely destroyed from 36 launch pads, and 96 was destroyed from 88 projectiles warehouses. In total, Allied bombers carried out more than 25 thousand sorties to rocket targets located near the coast.

But after that, the British could not breathe easy, as the German game of "cat and mouse" made them throw bombs into the sand. The Germans directed all their efforts to the construction of small concrete platforms. By June 1944, intelligence had already discovered 69 of such objects. The analytical departments of British intelligence did not even suspect that the installation of the 6-meter section of the assembly structure with guide rails required only 48 watches.

In December 1943, the British Air Defense Command received an order to develop a protection plan against the V-1. It was necessary to reorganize the existing air defense system, which during the “Battle of Britain” covered London and the industrial cities of central England. The situation was quite difficult: after all, only Tempes and Spitfires XIV could successfully fight V-1. And then they removed all the excess equipment from them, washed off the protective paint and polished the lining to shine. Only in this situation, with an increase in speed on 35 — 50 km / h, did they become a truly formidable opponent for cruise missiles.

6 June 1944-th (a few hours after the landing of the allied troops in northern France), the radio operator of the 155-th "anti-aircraft" regiment of airplanes received a coded cipher. The headquarters of the 65 Army Corps ordered Colonel Wakhtel to bring his regiment to alert on 12 June. June 10 through Ghent to the advanced warehouses was followed by the first 90 train with Fau-1 shells. Wakhtel intended to postpone missile launches to 20 numbers. He reported that he lacked fuel and many supplies, and prefabricated launchers were not fully prepared. But the command did not pay any attention to the report and issued an order for strikes on London on the night of June 13.

During the period of the systematic bombardment of London, from 13 June to 5 September, 9017 rockets were fired at the British capital, but some launches were unsuccessful. About 2 thousand V-1 exploded shortly after the start or on the flight path to the target. In the beginning, the effectiveness of the application was very high. 82% V-1 exploded within London during the first week of launches, but by the end of the month this number had dropped to 60%.



To make it difficult to fight a new weapon, the Germans alternated massive salvos from all installations and single disturbing launches in the course of one “launching” day. Few people know, but the flight altitude of cruise missiles, equal to 900-1000 m, was not chosen by chance. The missiles went below the line of defeat by heavy artillery and above the effective fire zone of small caliber artillery. At this altitude, a small-sized cruise missile was poorly detected by radars and was a difficult target for automatic and manual anti-aircraft defense and fire control devices.

Fighter pilots also required great skill and considerable courage to, often in bad weather conditions, to destroy a small-sized target. It had to be hit from behind-to-top from a distance of more than 100 m, since the 800 kg of explosives undermined the deadly threat to the attacking aircraft.

All this gave rise to unusual ways of dealing with projectiles. One of the French officers in the royal air force, captain Jean-Marie Maridor, closely led his Tempest to a flying rocket and knocked it over with a wing console. Other pilots adopted the tactics of Maridor, and the courageous 24-summer pilot, General Charles de Gaulle, presented the Order of the Legion of Honor. The brave pilot was killed 4 August 1944 g., Rammed a hollow dive-dive V-1.

A different method of destroying the V-1 without the use of small arms was also used: some Tempest pilots made the cruise missile roll over and crash into the ground with the help of its fighter jet propellers. Although these methods brought victory in the fight against "flying bombs", most of the pilots managed with standard weapons, while achieving significant success. One of the most successful was the squadron commander T. Barry, on his account were 37 destroyed cruise missiles.

V-1 prefabricated launchers were easily restored after Allied bombers raids. Therefore, despite the efforts of the Allies, in June-July of the 1944, the intensity of the V-1 raids did not noticeably decrease. On some days, the British Air Force patrolled up to 160 cruise missiles.

In order to somehow solve this problem, the Americans developed a rather extravagant Anvil plan, according to which B-17 aircraft, which served their time, served as precision weapons. In the “flying fortresses”, the upper part of the cabin was cut to facilitate the escape of the plane by two crew members, to install television equipment and a radio command and control system. After the B-17 loaded with explosives took off, the crew took the plane to the course and left the parachute bomber. Further control of the B-17 was carried out with a fighter that flew a parallel course. From the height of the 6000, the fighter pilot detected and recognized the target, after which the radio-controlled bomber was diverted into a dive. The 4 and 6 of August were thus destroyed targets, securely protected by solid reinforced concrete shelters, in the areas of Spracot, Watton and Virzen.

From the second half of July, the bombing of the supply bases and factories related to the production of missiles was resumed. In less than a month, 20 made large allied strategic aviation raids into V-1 warehouses. 15000 airplanes were committed to objects of the rocket industry and 48 000 tons of bombs were dropped.

New 6-ton bombs “Tollboy” were used against the underground missile warehouse in Saint-Ezerne, the Volkswagen plant in Fallerslebene, the pilot plant in Peenemünde and the Opel plant in Rüsselheim. However, strikes against industrial facilities in Germany could not have had any serious impact on the production of cruise missiles. The pace of production has even increased. Primarily due to the fact that since July 1944, the assembly of the Fow-1 has concentrated in Nordhausen, on an underground plant invulnerable to air raids.



The missile defense system of England consisted of four zones: the outer and inner zones covered by fighters, the coastal anti-aircraft artillery zone and the barrage balloon zone. The outer zone included the airspace over the English Channel to the coast of Britain. Four to six Mustang Mk.III fighters and a Spitfire Mk.KhIV patrolled there during the day, or the 3-4 of the aircraft at night. The 15 spacecraft of the radar patrol, which were aimed at interceptors, were also located here. Their light anti-aircraft guns also fired on flying cruise missiles.

During the summer of 1944, the loss of the English population from missiles amounted to about 21400 people killed and wounded. 25511 houses were completely destroyed, and a huge number of buildings received damage of varying degrees. Only in densely populated areas of London and its suburbs suffered up to 75% of buildings. This is all that the creators of the “miracle weapon” could “be proud of”.

Left without a starting position system as a result of the Allied summer offensive, the Germans refused to launch the V-1 in England from the territory of France and redeployed the 155 th anti-aircraft missile regiment from Holland to Germany. The new targets were the cities of Antwerp, Brussels and Liege. The combat experience of launching the V-1 from carrier aircraft, first conducted on July 8, allowed strikes against Britain from various directions, bypassing the already established air defense system. About one hundred aircraft carriers from three air groups were used.

Until 14 in January, X-NUMX F-1945 was launched around the cities of England with bombers. For the crews of carrier aircraft, this was not an easy task. Night flight without landmarks over the sea at an altitude of 1200-1 m, reaching the launch line at a distance of 100-300 km from the coastline, gaining a height of several thousand meters, maintaining an accurate course during V-50 dumping presented considerable difficulties. At the same time, it is necessary to remain invisible to radar stations and night interceptors. Here you should add the threat that your own projectile represented for the crew: from 60 crews of Non-1, who did not return to their airfields, 77 died at the moments of launch of rockets.

Although Heinkels made rocket terror more mobile, they acted sporadically, and the scale of their use was relatively small. The British still managed to shoot down about half of the projectiles.

However, in February 1945, the German designers created an improved version of the V-1, with the launch range increased to 370 km. On the territory of Western Europe they managed to build three ground launch positions aimed at London. After it became known to British intelligence, two of them were destroyed. From the third launcher, located near the city of Delft, starts were made throughout March.



In February, 1945, Hitler said that the secret "miracle weapon" at the last moment will change the situation in favor of the Third Reich. This was said just two months before the fall of Berlin. The bet on rocket weapons clearly failed, but again and again there were orders to increase the production of V-1, which was reduced to 2000 copies per month. New aircraft carriers were supposed to be jet bomber "Arado" Ag-234-2. The towing and launching of the V-1 with the help of a rigid coupling was envisaged.

In the alternative, the projectile should have been mounted on a launch ramp above the rocket carrier’s fuselage. Rocket specialists, technical documentation, unique prototypes and the latest equipment were evacuated to Nordhausen, where the production of rockets continued with all their might. The last projectile fell on the territory of England 29 March 1945 th.

The Soviet military command also took into account the possibility of the use of Fau-1 by the fascists on the Eastern Front. With the beginning of the first combat launches in England, the General Headquarters ordered the artillery commander N. Voronov to take all measures to protect Leningrad and other large cities from unmanned vehicles. 19 July 1944-go were approved and sent to the Air Defense Forces "Advance directives to combat aircraft-shells". According to a specially developed plan with the allocation of the necessary forces and means in the area of ​​responsibility of the Leningrad air defense army, two sectors were created: the north-west and the south-west. But the rapid retreat on the Eastern Front, as well as the desire of the Nazi elite, at least for the last time to punish the “foggy Albion” did not make it possible to apply the V-1 against the Soviet Union.

A large spread (up to 80% of shells fell at a distance of more than 6,5 km from the target point) and the impossibility of aimed fire due to the lack of range correction and lateral demolition led the Luftwaffe to create a manned version based on V-1.

Obertshurtmbannführer SS Otto Skorzeny, a well-known saboteur, terrorist, developer and performer of various covert operations, and the best German pilot Hanna Reich became the inspirers of the project. The chief of staff of the Luftwaffe, Günter Korten, ordered the commander of the special purpose squadron KG 200, Colonel V. Baumbakh, to form a separate combat training group. Thus, inside the KG 200, a squadron of "Leonidasstaffel" was formed, which included 60 experienced pilots and test pilots of the Rechlin research center.



The plant in Danneburg redid the 175 V-1 into manned projectiles. They were removed from the system of automatic stabilization, and in place of the cylinders with compressed air equipped cockpit with controls and a minimum number of instruments, the wing was equipped with ailerons. Single and double training versions of the manned Fi-103 aircraft with a landing ski were made, and for the combat version no chassis was envisaged at all.

At the same time, several instances of four manned projectiles under the name "Reichenberg" were being built. These are the “Reichenberg I” - a double, training one, with an increased wing span, without a pulsating air-jet engine (PUVD), the “Reichenberg II” is a single-seat training one, with a PU-ATD, “Reichenberg III” with a combat weight model parts and landing skis, "Reichenberg IV" - with a warhead, PUVD, without a landing skis.

The very first test of a manned projectile "Reichenberg III", which Skorzeny and Reich observed from the ground, ended in disaster. After undocking from the aircraft carrier, the aircraft for some time maintained a given direction and height, and then suddenly went down, disappeared behind the forest and exploded. Hanna Reich, who had experience flying Me-163, carried out further tests herself.

During the research flights it turned out that the “Reichenberg” has unsatisfactory flight data. Moreover, he was particularly dangerous at landing with the released ski, which was noted by other test pilots. To carry out the previously planned departure of a manned projectile with a parachute was not possible, since the engine air intake gaped directly behind the lamp. A catapult was required.

The failing test results of Reichenberg did not stop the top of the Nazi leadership. To improve the flight performance, Porsche was given a technical assignment for the development of a disposable turbojet engine "109-005" with a power 5000 hp. Combat samples of the Reichenberg IV manned projectile began to descend from the building stocks, of which even entered the training unit. But it never came to their combat use.



During the war years, the German industry manufactured more than 20440 cruise missiles (of the planned 60000). From July 1944 th to March 1945 th only X-NUMX V-10492 was released to England. Of these, 1 hit London, 2419 "flying bombs" fell to other cities. 1112 is launched on Antwerp and 8696 on Liege. Although out of this number 3141 was hit by interceptors, 1847 - anti-aircraft artillery, 1878 pieces got into the barrage balloon cables, and 232 just didn’t fly because of low technical reliability, it became clear to the military and politicians that a new means of warfare had appeared with huge potential .

Summing up the combat use of the world's first serial V-1 cruise missiles, it can be argued that they could not meet neither the military nor the political expectations of the leadership of the Third Reich. Despite the really strong moral impact made on the population of Great Britain, especially in the first period of applying V-1, the British determination to wage war to a victorious end was not shaken.

But история V-1 did not end with the capitulation of Germany. Ballistic and cruise missiles captured at the end of the war, several tons of technical documentation, launch equipment, production technology, captured specialists and the experience gained by them — that was the most valuable trophy of the winners.

Many countries began to urgently test, modify and quickly put on armament of their armies the latest German developments in various areas of military equipment. The United States was the first to embark on this arms race. Already 9 June 1944, the fragments of unexploded V-1 were delivered by plane to the Reitfield airbase. The group of aircraft designers urgently reconstructed the components and assemblies of the cruise missile, and only seventeen days later the first real model of the projectile was ready. Serial production of rockets under the designation B-2 was assigned to the company “Republic”, and the production of a pulsating engine - the company “Ford”. Until the end of the war, the Americans made about 1200 rockets, called KUW-1 "Lun", but did not have time to use them. The development of the V-1 was the SSM-N-8 “Regulus I”, launched by the Americans in the early fifties into mass production to equip heavy cruisers and large special submarines.



The Soviet Union did not stay aside. Despite the fact that our military experts had a very low opinion of the combat capabilities of the Fau-1 projectile, by the end of 1944, the aircraft factory No. 51 began building an analogue of the German rocket based on the Fau-1 sample received from Britain and individual parts and components found on the territory of Poland. The tests of the projectile, called "10X", conducted in August 1945 year. Further consistent development of the 10X cruise missile proceeded under the direction of V.N. Chelomey.



The modifications 10XH and 16X were created, which differed from the German projectiles in high operational reliability. But at the end of 1952, it was decided to stop work on the creation of cruise missiles based on the V-1.

Sources:
Orlov A. The Secret Weapon of the Third Reich. M .: Science, 1975. C.71-76.
Khvoschin V. Projectile V-1 // Wings of the Motherland. 1995. No.5. C. 20-23.
Kozyrev V. Kozyrev M. German Projectiles // Wings of the Motherland. 2001. No.3. C. 24-26.
Gorozhanin S., Muratov M. Fizeler “Reichenberg” // Wings of the Motherland. 1994. No. 3. C.47-48.
Kuznetsov K. Jet weapons of the Second World War. M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2010. C. 159-164.
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  1. bionik
    bionik 29 February 2016 07: 08 New
    +6
    Destroyed bunker of the Wasserwerk project near the village of Sirakurt.The bunker combined the launch position and the Vau-1 missile production plant. Throughout 1944, the bunker underwent heavy bombardment: 2 tons of bombs were dropped, including 650-ton “Tallboy” bombs, as a result of which production was discontinued. The village of Sirakurt was completely destroyed and rebuilt only in 17. The bunker suffered less and has survived to this day.

    Information about marks in the photo: St. Pol / Siracourt - name of the canton / name of the village; low oblique - perspective aerial view without capturing the horizon line; GSGS - Geographical Section, General Staff later known as MI4 (MI4) 4040/72 - GSGS map set code; in this case, maps of Belgium, scale 1: 50000; pinpoint 117113 - designation of the snap point.

    The photo was taken during a departure by Lieutenant Colonel Norris E. Hartwell of the 7th reconnaissance group, who was piloting an F-5B aircraft (reconnaissance version of the R-38 Lightn fighter) with tail number 42-68213.
  2. Bongo
    Bongo 29 February 2016 07: 16 New
    +5
    I read it with great pleasure "+" good
    But here I do not agree with the author’s statement:
    Tests of the projectile, called "10X", conducted in August 1945. Further consistent development of the 10X cruise missile was led by V.N. Chelomea. Modifications 10XN and 16X were created, which differed from German aircraft-shells in high operational reliability.
    The reliability of Soviet shells was about the same as that of Germany. Another question is that Chelomei took into account only successful launches, for which he almost paid when it was opened at a meeting with Stalin.
    1. Mera joota
      Mera joota 29 February 2016 08: 56 New
      -2
      Quote: Bongo
      for which he almost paid when it was revealed at a meeting with Stalin.

      Well, they say Khrushchev saved him, a relative.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 29 February 2016 09: 10 New
        10
        Quote: Mera Joota
        Well, they say Khrushchev saved him, a relative.

        I do not know anything about the kinship of Khrushchev and Chelomey request But after the curtailment of work on aircraft-projectiles, Chelomey was not destined for a long time. In KB Chelomey worked the son of N.S. Khrushchev. In general, Chelomey had a largely adventurous character, trying to crush as many “tasty” topics as possible, he did not bring many to the end. There was a saying among military missilemen: "Yangel works for us, Korolev works for TASS, and Chelomei works for the toilet."
        1. avt
          avt 29 February 2016 10: 22 New
          +2
          Quote: Bongo
          . In general, Chelomey possessed in many ways an adventurous character warehouse,

          Rather, very harsh to cruelty to others.
          Quote: Bongo
          But after curtailing the work on aircraft-shells Chelomey for a long time remained no destiny.

          Well, something like that. So far, the naval forces have not become interested in the subject of cruise missiles and, to some extent, have really saved the design bureau.
          Quote: Bongo
          , trying to crush as many "tasty" topics as possible,

          Quote: Bongo
          : "Yangel works for us, Korolev works for TASS, and Chelomey works for the toilet."

          Yeah, but how did the King get the same "Diamond"? And instead of the detachment of civilian cosmonauts, which Chelomey had planned, Feoktistov flew? , let's give it credit, Chelomey flushed into this very toilet bowl, not giving funding for them, sometimes simply transferring them to others. By the way, how many of Chelomey's design bureaus have done for the same fleet? Or the type of scale is not the same? If in the “council of generals” it came to outright hostility, but at least the same classic between the King and Glushko, then the cunning Barmin got mixed up, then what do you want what would happen if Chelomey collided with the King! “Two geniuses and not the fact that, as an engineer, Chelomey is worse, of enormous potential and one polarity clashed.” But behind the King, the admin resource turned out to be more important and he managed to use it much better than the sometimes arrogant Chelomey.
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 29 February 2016 13: 53 New
            +2
            Quote: avt
            Well, something like that. So far, the naval forces have not become interested in the subject of cruise missiles and, to some extent, have really saved the design bureau.

            Still, a wing-opening machine was created in the Chelomei design bureau, I won’t say that it is the first in the world, I don’t know, but in the USSR it was definitely the first missile to use this P-5 cruise missile.
            1. avt
              avt 29 February 2016 15: 49 New
              +1
              Quote: Amurets
              Still, a wing-opening machine was created in the Chelomei design bureau, I won’t say that it is the first in the world, I don’t know, but in the USSR it was definitely the first missile to use this P-5 cruise missile.

              Yes to the question of the contribution of Chelomei
              Quote: Bongo
              Korolev at TASS,

              Let's be honest - 500 and today the ONLY mass-produced in the USSR / Russia heavy carrier on which in the USSR was thrown to the moon and beyond. Note - not the royal 7th, which is certainly an OUTSTANDING design for a century, not H-1, , Tsar rocket ", namely 500-ka.
          2. 5234
            5234 2 March 2016 00: 44 New
            0
            Brilliant answer!)
            Bravo!)
    2. 5234
      5234 2 March 2016 00: 46 New
      0
      You are at that meeting, in what capacity were present, sorry?)))
  3. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 29 February 2016 07: 47 New
    +4
    During a raid on Peenemuende, Dr. Walter Thiel, a special engine engineer, engineer Vauteru died ... these were serious losses for the Germans, since the intensity of research work immediately decreased.

    As for the damage to London, it was very significant, at least from the propagandist point of view.
    1. Alex
      Alex 29 February 2016 16: 16 New
      +1
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      As for the damage to London, it was very significant, at least from the propagandist point of view.

      To be objective, only from this point of view.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 29 February 2016 07: 54 New
    +1
    In February 1945, Hitler announced that the secret "miracle weapon" at the last moment would change the situation in favor of the Third Reich...It didn’t grow together .. yes and could not .. Thank you ..
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 29 February 2016 08: 30 New
      -5
      Quote: parusnik
      In February 1945, Hitler announced that the secret "miracle weapon" at the last moment would change the situation in favor of the Third Reich...It didn’t grow together .. yes and could not .. Thank you ..

      Why couldn’t it? It could.
      Just as I could. After all, a new generation of German jet aircraft,
      for example, they flew 200 km / h faster than Allied piston planes. If they had appeared a year earlier and much would have been different. The A-bomb is a muddy story. Was there? Or not. A strange situation with two DIFFERENT by design bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We know far from everything.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 29 February 2016 09: 01 New
        +7
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        The A-bomb is a muddy story. Was there? Or not. A strange situation with two DIFFERENT in design bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We know far from everything.

        Excuse me, but what exactly is it muddy? The design of a "cannon-type" uranium atomic bomb lies on the surface. With a simpler, I would even say - a primitive scheme, it is much more reliable and easier to implement. But its serious disadvantage is its low efficiency and significant weight and dimensions. Plutonium is a product of processing of the same uranium-235. An implosive plutonium bomb has a high efficiency and can be much more compact than a uranium bomb. But at the same time, its design is much more complicated and requires the use of much more high-tech components.
        1. aiw
          aiw 29 February 2016 11: 06 New
          +4
          I’ll fix it a bit - the cannon structure is certainly easier than implosive, but it does not lie on the surface, large-scale calculations were required to determine the critical mass and estimate the explosion efficiency.

          Pu239 is obtained from U238, enrichment of natural uranium is required only to start a chain reaction as a neutron source for transmutation.

          And so everything is true ;-) These conspiracy theorists have already gotten with stories about how the gloomy German genius almost made nuclear weapons. Germany could not, in principle, make nuclear weapons during the 2MB - there was neither an industrial nor a scientific base.
          1. Alex
            Alex 29 February 2016 16: 23 New
            +5
            Quote: aiw
            Pu239 is obtained from U238, enrichment of natural uranium is required only to start a chain reaction as a neutron source for transmutation.

            I will allow myself a little clarification. Here it is rather not about enrichment (although in fact, of course, the fraction of "weapons-grade" uranium becomes richer in uranium-235), but about the separation of isotopes. For the U-238 - Np-239 - Pu-239 chain, the purest possible "heavy" uranium is needed, since the "light" only interferes with the absorption of the necessary neutrons by the necessary nuclei.

            Fermi, when he carried out calculations on both ways of obtaining fissile materials, once said: "Yes, it's just some kind of malignancy of nature!" He meant that whatever one may say, but the isotopes will have to be separated: at least for the cannon scheme, at least for the implosive one.
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 29 February 2016 12: 02 New
        +1
        "In February 1945, Hitler declared that the secret" miracle weapon "at the last moment
        will change the situation in favor of the Third Reich. "////

        Most likely, the SS men responsible for the A-project and its delivery (V-2),
        in recent months, Hitler was simply fooled by reporting "successes and just about."
        And the allocated money was exported to Latin America, where they planned to escape.
        under the guise of the end of the war.
  5. bionik
    bionik 29 February 2016 08: 28 New
    +2
    Aerial photo of the destroyed launch pad and the Vau-1 rocket depots in the French village of Beauvoir. The village was subjected to intense bombing of American aircraft at least 9 times.
  6. Gray 43
    Gray 43 29 February 2016 08: 36 New
    +2
    Thanks to the author for the article! It’s good that Hitler didn’t have time to complete the work on uranium fission, otherwise the consequences of missile attacks would be much more serious
    1. Aitvaras
      Aitvaras 29 February 2016 09: 34 New
      0
      Recently, there was an interesting National Geographic show about how British commandos and Norwegian resistance destroyed a heavy water plant in Norway in 1942. French resistance successfully blocked the development of nuclear weapons in the Curie laboratory in Paris. British aircraft bombed precisely some factories in Germany for the production of these weapons. So the grounds for the plot in the motion picture of the 17th moments of spring and the activities of Stirlitz were very weighty.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  7. kav669
    kav669 29 February 2016 10: 13 New
    0
    The Germans have a good idea, and the Japanese have a flying submarine!
  8. Yereke
    Yereke 29 February 2016 11: 50 New
    -2
    they almost didn’t have enough time ... it would be better to hammer the Anglo-Saxons, without attacking the USSR, the USSR would also help, then the USA would also be demolished
  9. qwert
    qwert 29 February 2016 12: 03 New
    +2
    Quote: aiw
    And so everything is true ;-) These conspiracy theorists have already gotten with stories about how the gloomy German genius almost made nuclear weapons. Germany could not, in principle, make nuclear weapons during the 2MB - there was neither an industrial nor a scientific base.

    The first American bomb, apart from the first charge detonated at the test site, was from French uranium. In general, on the eve of the war, the French had the most uranium. More precisely, they had more uranium than all states combined. And when Hitler hit France, the Anglo-Saxons quietly loaded all the tons in Algeria and sent them to America in order to save Hitler. Well, perhaps they promised to return it after the war, but it did not grow together. And without French uranium, the creation of an American bomb, according to experts, would drag on for another couple of years. But if they had not stole, then perhaps uranium would have come to the Germans, and then in 1945, perhaps, there would have been not Hiroshima, but London.
    1. aiw
      aiw 29 February 2016 13: 41 New
      +1
      Read eg. Groves "Now we can talk about it." The uranium was transported to America and stored on the quay at the initiative of either the French or the Belgians, whom Curie asked for it. A representative of a uranium mining company had been knocking thresholds in America for a year until they paid attention to him.

      And even if the uranium got to the Germans, they would not be able to create a bomb. The Germans, by the way, had uranium, and there were several experimental reactors, but they were very far from creating a bomb. Well, in principle, German industry and science did not have the resources to implement a nuclear project during WWII.
      1. Captain nemo
        Captain nemo 29 February 2016 15: 32 New
        -3
        Quote: aiw
        but they were very far from creating a bomb.

        It depends on which frame of reference you have chosen for yourself (I emphasize that not me). If in time, then yes, they still had to work on which they had to spend some time. And if in space, then alas, from the literature that fell into my hands of the early 80s, until 1943 they went "ahead of the rest of the planet", and then they failed. What do you think because of what?
        Oddly enough, but the "conspiracy of the generals of the Wehrmacht" left its mark on the "atomic project of Germany." In November 1942, a plane was blown up, taking off from Hitler's headquarters in Vinnitsa, to Berlin with the Minister of War Industry, I don't remember his last name. In his place, Adolf Hitler appointed his architect Albert Speer, so he then closed the "atomic project of Germany", transferring it from the military to civilians with a cut in funding, and the freed up funds were directed to the production of conventional weapons, including promising ones, such as jet aircraft, V-1, V-2, etc.
        1. aiw
          aiw 29 February 2016 15: 56 New
          +3
          It was not a failure, it was a lag. Until 1943, the atomic project was a purely abstract, fundamental task, for which modestly modest means were allocated all over the world (except Germany).

          After the launch of the Manhattan project, America rushed forward because it had invested enormous resources in this business, and Germany was weaving as it was. In addition to resources, America had personnel, including emigrant scientists. And then the creation of the bomb took several years.

          Germany didn’t have a share of American resources for the atomic project, there were no scientists either - too many left due to Hitler’s domestic policy. All that was enough for German scientists to do heavy water reactors to determine the dispersion cross-sections. Germany, in principle, could neither have created an industry for enriching uranium / producing plutonium (the war had eaten too much), nor could have made the necessary calculations to create a bomb (there were no personnel).
          1. Captain nemo
            Captain nemo 29 February 2016 21: 09 New
            0
            Quote: aiw
            After the launch of the Manhattan project, America rushed forward because it had invested enormous resources in this business, and Germany was weaving as it was. In addition to resources, America had personnel, including emigrant scientists. And then the creation of the bomb took several years.

            She did not tear forward to 1943.

            Germany didn’t have a share of American resources for the atomic project, there were no scientists either - too many left due to Hitler’s domestic policy.

            Many remained, and they were not against A Hitler.
            It was not a failure, it was a lag. , for which modestly modest means were allocated all over the world (except Germany).

            Until 1943, the atomic project was a purely abstract, fundamental task.

            I can just as well declare that "there has never been a big bang."
            1. aiw
              aiw 29 February 2016 21: 26 New
              +1
              > She did not tear forward until 1943.

              The Manhattan project just began in 1943.

              > Many remained, and they were not against Hitler.

              Of the really big scientists, more have left. E.g. Fermi, Bohr, Einstein.

              > With the same success, I can say that "there was never a big bang."

              You can say anything, but from the fact that you state it it will not become a fact. I repeat, until 1943, apart from Germany, nobody seriously worked on the atomic bomb. But Germany, in principle, could not create an atomic bomb during WW2. No way. These are the facts.
              1. Captain nemo
                Captain nemo 1 March 2016 00: 54 New
                -3
                [quote = aiw] The Manhattan project just began in 1943. [/ quote]
                And before that, where were they when Germany went ahead of them in the matter of the atomic bomb?
                [Quote]
                Of the really big scientists, more have left. E.g. Fermi, Bohr, Einstein. [/ Quote]
                So what, what’s more important here is which of those who left and remained was smarter than the others. Or did you still have Einstein smarter than others at that time?
                [quote] You can declare anything, but from the fact that you declare it it will not become a fact. [/ quote]
                You misunderstood me - there was a big bang, and if someone claims that he was not there, he will lie to you.
                [quote = aiw] I repeat, until 1943 no one worked seriously on the atomic bomb except Germany.
                [Quote]
                Damn, what a garden, but I’ve been poor all this time thinking that everything is accurate to the turn.
                [quote] Germany no one seriously worked on the atomic bomb. But Germany, in principle, could not create an atomic bomb during WW2. No way. These are the facts [/ quote]
                Your conjectures about moving yourself into the past are not facts, but your conjectures.
                When you open the mechanism of your movements into the past, then they can become facts.
                And so do you know VV Putin, and V Lenin possessed in the 20s the Atomic bomb, which he, knowing in advance about the birth of VV Putin, planted in his "statehood" and under all Russians to boot.
                And what is the result of what he said?
                Zilch, and only!
                1. aiw
                  aiw 1 March 2016 10: 49 New
                  +1
                  > And before that, where were they when Germany on the issue of the atomic bomb went ahead of them?

                  Bypassed? Truth? Do you think Fermi has launched the world's first full-fledged nuclear reactor in Germany? And in what year was it?

                  According to scientists - in Germany at that time was the so-called. Aryan physics. A vivid example of what happens when politics climbs into science. Another example is Lysenkoism. What are the big scientists in Germany at that time, and the big scientists in America. From memory, without a wiki - and then compare the lists.

                  In terms of resources, for example, the construction of electromagnetic isotope separation plants required a huge amount of copper, which was a static material during WW2. Even the Americans, who did not have such supply problems as the Germans, decided to use national silver reserves instead of copper - it is still gathering dust, and copper is very necessary for war. Do you know one of the reasons for the refusal of the tank electrotransmission proposed by Porsche? Copper consumption.

                  If the Germans tried to put together the resources necessary for the successful implementation of the atomic project, they simply would not have anything to fight on two fronts. And still they would not have time ...

                  Here are the historical facts:

                  1) America and Germany almost simultaneously began work (1939).

                  2) America has invested more in the development of nuclear weapons than Germany, in principle, could have all R&D combined --- $ 2 billion, this is ~ 8 billion Reichsmarks or for example 12% of German state revenues for 1942, including indemnities from the occupied territories (see wiki). Or 40 (FORTY !!!) Bismarck-type battleships. Consider interruptions in the supply of strategic materials, the bombing of the allies (for example, they built an isotope separation plant and bombed it), etc. etc..

                  3) The first test of American nuclear weapons occurred after the surrender of Germany.

                  And how could Germany create nuclear weapons if the pace of its development due to economic constraints was a priori lower than that of the Americans, and they had less time to develop than the Americans?
            2. Alex
              Alex 29 February 2016 21: 51 New
              +4
              Quote: Captain Nemo
              Many remained, and they were not against A Hitler.

              Is this Gan left without assistants (Lisa Meitner is a prime example)? Walter Bothe, who did not count his employees as people, but at the same time managed to make an error in the calculations (neither more nor less than an order of magnitude) and at the same time not double-check, whether the graphite was really cleaned from boron? However, already post factum they started a rumor that he was deliberately mistaken. However, the result is still the same. Or the pure theorist Fritz Strassman, who did not really calculate either the critical mass of uranium or the parameters of the reactor?

              She did not tear forward to 1943.
              That is, Fermi in 1941 did not develop the theory of a chain reaction in a uranium-graphite reactor, but taught the table of logarithms for memory. And he launched the FIRST nuclear reactor in the world just not when Botte, either by his mistake, or by his "sabotage", took the entire German nuclear program overnight in the direction of heavy water? And, well, yes, this is so, on his own initiative he decided to make a new type of microwave oven, the government did not give him funds, did not allocate materials and did not provide space (Chicago Stadium, by the way, just for a minute).

              I can just as well declare that "there has never been a big bang."
              Please state your health at least on every corner, for this they don’t put you in jail.
              1. aiw
                aiw 29 February 2016 22: 07 New
                +1
                Damn, yes, I lied ;-( The Uranium Committee in the USA began to work since 1939 .... damned sclerosis ;-(
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Alex
        Alex 29 February 2016 16: 34 New
        +6
        Quote: aiw
        Uranus was exported to America and stored on the pier at the initiative of either the French or the Belgians, whom Curie asked for.
        There the story was something like this. The most powerful supplier of uranium concentrate at that time was Belgium, or rather, its African colony, the Belgian Congo colony. Uranium itself then, like many other elements, was on the list of "promising and promising," but "temporarily ownerless." In the summer of 1940, a large batch of uranium for France was received and almost fully paid, but only half of it was withdrawn: the French company burst out. Then the second part was taken out first to England, and from there to the USA.
        By the way, Oppenheimer's South African company was the second uranium ore mining productivity (it was a by-product in the development of diamonds and gold). Surname familiar, is not it? So all the tales about the exclusivity of European uranium and its catastrophic shortage in the USA can only be told on the alternative history website.

        Well, in principle, German industry and science did not have the resources to implement a nuclear project during WWII.
        Absolutely.
  10. alex86
    alex86 29 February 2016 20: 59 New
    +2
    This device is still produced in Kazan at the ENIKS enterprise, and is used as a target for air defense. It is called E95M
    It simulates subsonic maneuvering targets such as a cruise missile, a planning bomb, and UAVs. The launch of the target is carried out with a towed ground launcher.
    The target after launch provides: reaching the specified altitude, horizontal flight, performing specified maneuvers in the vertical and horizontal planes, as well as landing both by radio commands from the ground and according to the program. The flight target is controlled from a ground-based mobile control station.
    In emergency situations, a forced termination of the target’s flight is provided both by the signals of the on-board systems and by the radio command. Landing of the target is carried out by parachute on a flat unprepared site.
    The use of the company's own pulsed air-jet engine provides a low cost and ease of operation of the target.

    TECH SPECS
    Range of flight speeds, km / h 200 ... 300
    Range of flight heights, m 100 ... 3000
    Flight Duration, 0,5 hour
    Flight modes
    Manual
    Automatic with the ability to switch to manual
    Powerplant Pulsating WFD M135
    Take-off Weight, kg 75
    Wing span, m 2,9
    The length of the fuselage, m 2,35
    Start Method With Pneumatic Catapult
    Parachute landing method
    Intensity of IR radiation, kW / sr 0,6
    Special load
    Luneberg lens
    Corner reflector
    False thermal target
    Smoke tracer
    ERP with a Luneberg lens, sq. M 7,5
    ERP with a corner reflector, sq.m 1 ... 1,5
    Without means of increasing EPR, sq.m 0,15
    Overload during maneuvers, units +6 ... -1
  11. alex86
    alex86 29 February 2016 21: 10 New
    0
    PuVRD M135
    TECH SPECS
    Engine Type Jet Engine
    Maximum traction, kGs 20
    Fuel gasoline
    This is he at the stand, as you understand
  12. alex86
    alex86 29 February 2016 21: 21 New
    +1
    And this is Fau-1 in a museum in Paris
    1. aiw
      aiw 29 February 2016 21: 27 New
      0
      In which museum? ;-)
      1. alex86
        alex86 29 February 2016 21: 50 New
        0
        Disabled House, Musee des Plans-Reliefs, entrance from Grenelle street
        1. aiw
          aiw 29 February 2016 22: 03 New
          0
          I thought so. There was, but I didn’t remember something .... there are wonderful 1МВ wunderwaffles, such as cunningly twisted mortar mortars with a bunch of guidance systems.

          And the black man did not let the museum go to the toilet without tickets ;-)
          1. Alex
            Alex 29 February 2016 22: 10 New
            +2
            Quote: aiw
            I thought so. There was, but I didn’t remember something .... there are wonderful 1МВ wunderwaffles, such as cunningly twisted mortar mortars with a bunch of guidance systems.
            You’re happy ... But I’ve only been driving for one day (or rather, a flight, sorry for the pun), but I had enough time for the Sorbonne, but my chemist’s soul completely came off there.

            And the black man did not let the museum go to the toilet without tickets ;-)
            Bad person...
            1. aiw
              aiw 1 March 2016 11: 07 New
              0
              I was there only 3 days.

              None of the cities in the world left such mixed feelings. Paris is a city of contrasts! In terms of the mess, the French surpass us many times, but in terms of greed, in general, probably out of competition ;-) But it’s beautiful and romantic ...
          2. alex86
            alex86 29 February 2016 22: 26 New
            0
            There are a lot of things on 2MB, and even on the Middle Ages ...
            1. Alex
              Alex 29 February 2016 23: 05 New
              +1
              Quote: alex86
              There are a lot of things on 2MB, and even on the Middle Ages ...

              So guys, stop envy feeding for the night, I go to the first lesson lol wink
    2. The comment was deleted.
  13. alex86
    alex86 29 February 2016 21: 25 New
    +2
    And this is a view of the nozzle and the gas steering wheels of the V-2 (the aforementioned V-1 in the background)