Military Review

LAW C-125 in the XXI century

47



The first anti-aircraft missile systems (SAM) - the Soviet S-25, S-75 and the American MIM-3 "Nike-Ajax", MIM-14 "Nike-Hercules" - created in the 50s - were intended mainly to combat strategic bombers at medium and high altitudes. The first generation anti-aircraft systems successfully solved the main task posed during their creation - to ensure the defeat of high-altitude high-speed targets, difficult to intercept fighter aviation and inaccessible for anti-aircraft artillery. In this case, the minimum height of the zones of destruction of the first air defense systems was 1-3 km. Such parameters of the lower boundary of the affected area allowed air attack means to break through to guarded objects, first of all, this concerned tactical and carrier-based attack aircraft, capable of flying at extremely low altitude.

The 60's armed conflicts demonstrated that Israeli and American aircraft, while avoiding C-75 missiles, launched low-altitude flights. Anticipating this state of affairs, taking into account the explosive pace of development of combat aircraft at that time, the developers of anti-aircraft systems began creating low-altitude systems in the middle of the 50's.

American low-altitude MIM-23 “Hawk” was adopted in 1960 year, four years earlier than the Soviet C-125 (more details here: Low-altitude C-125). Compared with the purely stationary C-25 and very limited in mobility C-75, the combat means of which were often deployed in capital concreted positions, while creating the low-altitude C-125 air defense missile system, more attention was paid to increasing fire performance and mobility. All equipment was housed in towed car trailers and semi-trailers. The C-125 air defense system consisted of: a missile guidance station (SNR-125), transported launchers (launchers), transport-loading vehicles with anti-aircraft missiles (TZM), interface cabin and diesel generator sets.

LAW C-125 in the XXI century


In forming the technical appearance of the new Soviet low-altitude complex, the accumulated experience of creating and operating previously created anti-aircraft systems was used. Given the need for detection, tracking and firing of targets flying at low altitudes, reflections of the radar signal from local objects created a big problem. Thanks to the introduction of a number of new technical solutions that had not been used before in the Soviet air defense systems, the designers managed to reduce the lower boundary of the affected area in the first version of the complex to 200 meters, later on the upgraded C-125X1 (C-125X1A) complex with the Neva-M1 with anti-aircraft guns guided missiles (missiles) 5B27D this figure was 25 meters.

The C-125 was the first anti-aircraft defense system of the country with solid-fuel anti-aircraft missiles. The use of solid fuel in engines Zour has a number of significant advantages over anti-aircraft missiles, fueled with liquid fuel and oxidant. It is known that the first Soviet air defense systems С-25 and С-75 with liquid-fuel rockets were very expensive to operate. Refueling of toxic fuel with a toxic and caustic oxidizing agent was a very dangerous matter. In contact with the components of the fuel and oxidant, they instantly ignite. The slightest negligence in the actions of calculations or technical malfunction could lead to fire and explosion. Unfortunately, during the operation of the first-generation Soviet complexes with liquid-propelled missiles, tragic cases of the death of military personnel as a result of explosions, fires and poisoning repeatedly occurred. Transportation of fueled liquid-propellant anti-aircraft missiles was possible only for relatively short distances, on good solid roads and with limited speed. Solid-propellant missiles are devoid of these shortcomings, the C-125 SAM system has become significantly cheaper, simpler and safer to operate, there is no need for a bulky refueling complex, the mobility and the number of missiles ready for use on the launcher have increased.



In the first versions of the C-125, launchers for two missiles were used. For the upgraded C-125M, a four-beam portable 5P73 (SM-106) was adopted, which increased the number of ready-to-use missiles in the anti-aircraft missile division (SRN) twice.

In order to increase combat effectiveness and improve service and operational properties, the complex has been repeatedly upgraded. At the same time, noise immunity was improved and the launch range increased. In the C-125М1 СРК (С-125М1А) “Neva-М1” the possibility of tracking and firing air targets was introduced in the conditions of visual visibility by the television optical sighting equipment “Carat-2”, which greatly facilitated the combat work on the jamming aircraft and increased complex survival rate.

The C-125 SAM system in the course of numerous local conflicts demonstrated high combat effectiveness and reliability, becoming, along with the C-75, one of the most frequently used anti-aircraft systems in combat. A number of third world countries, in view of low cost and relatively low operating costs, preferred the Soviet C-125 air defense systems, abandoning other, more long-range complexes. ZRK C-125 of various modifications were in service in: Algeria, Angola, Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, GDR, Egypt, Zambia, India, Iraq, Yemen, Cambodia, DPRK, Cuba, Laos, Libya, Mali, Mozambique, Peru Poland, Romania, Syria, Tanzania, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Yugoslavia. Around 400, the C-125 air defense system of various modifications in the Pechora export version was delivered to foreign customers and used in a number of armed conflicts and local wars. In the "tropical" version, the complex had a special paint coating to repel insects.

According to the American data, at the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the USSR Air Defense Forces had a deployed and “in storage” about 250 СРК-125, about a third of them were relatively “fresh” C-125М1 “Neva-М1” with TV optical channel and remote radar simulators "backup". Despite the fact that these complexes still had a very significant resource and modernization potential, in the middle of the 90-s their mass write-off began. Our then military-political leadership, by ordering the "disposal" and sending "for storage" of hundreds of air defense missile systems, left the most important defense facilities, industrial and administrative centers.

In the USSR, air defense systems armed with C-125 complexes, as a rule, were part of air defense brigades of mixed composition together with C-75 and C-200 air defense systems, ensuring the defeat of low-altitude penetrating targets. This was particularly relevant in coastal - border areas, where C-125, in addition to airborne ones, could ensure the destruction of ground and surface targets, including anti-aircraft missiles with a "special" warhead.

After the collapse of the USSR, a certain amount of C-125 air defense systems remained in the territories of the former Soviet republics. Most of all, in this respect, Ukraine was lucky (more details here: State of air defense of Ukraine).

In 1991, the 8 Air Defense Forces ZRV units, included 18 anti-aircraft missile regiments and anti-aircraft missile brigades, which included 132 srn. Separate Ukraine got around 40 enough "fresh" SAM C-125 with a large stock of missiles, spare parts and components. Taking advantage of this, the Ukrainian authorities began to actively trade in the Soviet legacy at dumping prices. Georgia repaired C-125 in Ukraine, but in the 2008 conflict of the year, these complexes were not used because of the inability of the Georgians to control them. Repeatedly reported on the supply of C-125 and their individual elements in the African countries, including in those where there were active hostilities. So Uganda bought four C-125 and 300 missiles in Ukraine in 2008 in Ukraine. Subsequently, these anti-aircraft systems were in the warring South Sudan. Another known customer of the Ukrainian C-125 air defense system was Angola, which received a consignment of Ukrainian complexes under the contract concluded in 2010 year.

In Ukraine itself, the C-125 air defense system was on combat duty until 2005. In April, 2015, reports of the intention of the Ukrainian MO to adopt the upgraded C-125-2 “Pechora-2D” anti-aircraft missile system, created on the basis of the C-125М1 late modification.


The Pechora-125D С-2-2Д modernized in Ukraine


During the modernization of the air defense system to the level of C-125-2D “Pechora-2D”, all the fixed assets of the complex were completed. This modernization option was developed in Kiev at the enterprise NPP "Aerotekhnika-MLT", was tested in 2010 year and was originally intended for export. According to the developers, the ZRK resource was increased by 15 years, the problems of increasing the reliability, mobility, complex survivability and resistance to radio-electronic interference were solved.


Antenna post ZRK C-125-2D “Pechora-2D”


When the C-125-2D “Pechora-2D” air defense system was shown to the leadership of Ukraine, it was said that this complex was designed for solving air defense tasks in the ATO zone. To do this, all the components of the C-125-2-DMS (including the antenna post and launchers) will be placed on a mobile base, but there is no real evidence of this information yet. It seems that, despite the loud propaganda statements on television, the upgraded C-125, if deployed for combat duty, will be used for target air defense - outside the combat zone. Adoption of modernized models in Ukraine, originally intended for export, is a strictly necessary measure. This is due to the desire to somehow cover the gaps in air defense, formed due to the limiting wear of Ukrainian C-300PT / PS.

At the international exhibition of weapons and military equipment MILEX-9 held in Minsk from 12 to 2014 in July of July, the Belarusian version of the C-2014-CNMX-125ТM Pechora-125TM modernization was demonstrated.


Belarusian С-125-2ТМ «Pechora-2ТМ»


If you believe advertising information, thanks to the use of missile guidance methods and the principles of processing radar signals, a modern optical-electronic system and a number of other improvements have increased the probability of hitting the target with one rocket, implemented dual-channelity on the target, increased noise immunity, expanded the boundaries of the affected area. According to information published in the media, contracts for the modernization of the C-125-2TM option “Pechora-2TM” were concluded with Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan.

Apparently, the modernization programs of the C-125 air defense system in Ukraine and Belarus became more active after the commercial success of the Pechora-2000M developed by Defense Systems OJSC in 125 in the year of the highly modernized C-2-2M Russian air defense system.



All components of the C-125-2М “Pechora-2М” air defense missile system are located on a mobile chassis. Due to the replacement of the majority of the element base with a solid-state one, the reliability of the complex increased, and operating costs decreased. The use of new equipment and other principles of radar information processing allowed to multiply the noise immunity of the upgraded air defense system. Pechora-2M has the ability to interface with surveillance radars and higher-level gearboxes via telecode channels. EFFECT: effective shooting at cruise missiles and simultaneous use of two stations of guidance at various targets. Now it is possible to use the teleoptic channel not only during the day, but also at night. For the upgraded anti-aircraft complexes delivered to foreign customers, a radio protection complex (CRTD) against anti-radar missiles (PLR) has been introduced.



The specialists of the ICB Fakel, which is part of the Concern ADO Almaz-Antey from 2002, carried out a set of works on modernizing the anti-aircraft missile system, the new version of the missile was designated as 5B27DE. Due to the use of a more efficient fuel formulation in the starting and accelerating engines, the boundary of the affected area has increased in range and height. The use of a solid-state miniature element base has significantly reduced the weight of on-board equipment items and freed up internal volumes. The mass of the warhead increased 1,5 times, which increased the probability of hitting the target.



With a very low price, the capabilities of the upgraded C-125-2М “Pechora-2M” air defense system increased several times, which made the complex attractive for poor customers from the Third World countries and the CIS republics. It was reported on concluded contracts for the supply or modernization of existing customers C-125 with Armenia, Egypt, Syria, Libya, Myanmar, Vietnam, Venezuela, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Ethiopia.


Satellite image of Google earth: Tajik S-125-2М “Pechora-2M” in the suburb of Dushanbe


One of the first foreign operators of C-125 Pechora was Egypt. In the 60-70s, the 44 C-125 and 1808 B-601P missiles were delivered from the USSR to this country from the USSR. For a long time, the Pechora C-125, along with the Volga C-75М, formed the basis of this country's air defense systems. As in the case of the C-75 air defense system, a large part of the low-altitude C-125 was deployed along the Suez Canal.


Satellite image of Google earth: Egyptian C-125 SEC near the Suez Canal


In the first half of the 80-x there is a need for repair and modernization of the Egyptian Pechora air defense system. If with the C-75 air defense system Egypt was helped by China, which began to repair equipment and production of missiles at local production facilities, then for organizing work on C-125, French and Israeli contractors had to be involved. As a result, it was possible to carry out only a “small” modernization and to organize a medium restoration repair of the low-altitude C-125 SAM systems available in Egypt. In 90-s, the situation with the Egyptian C-125 became even more acute, it was aggravated by the fact that mainly heavily worn complexes of the first modifications were used in Egypt, the elemental base of which consisted mostly of electrovacuum appliances, whose production was discontinued long ago, and the large part of the existing missiles came into disrepair. The first agreement on the modernization of the Egyptian anti-aircraft complexes was concluded in 1999 year with the Russian-Belarusian consortium Defense Systems. In 2008, Egypt became the first recipient of the radically updated C-125-2М Pechora-2М.

In 2001, Poland demonstrated a modernized version of the C-125 under the designation - "Newa SC". In order to extend the life and increase the time between failures, part of the equipment with the old analogue element base was replaced by digital. Four-beam launchers for increased mobility mounted on the chassis tanks T-55, and the guidance station - SNR-125 - on the 4-axle MAZ-543 chassis (formerly used as a chassis for OTR R-17 launchers). According to independent expert assessments, the Polish version of modernizing the S-125 air defense system is significantly inferior in its capabilities to the complexes modernized in Russia and Belarus.



There were no export orders for Newa SC; for its own air defense forces, the 17 Polish C-125 was upgraded. Most of the Newa SC air defense systems in Poland do not carry permanent combat duty and appear in prepared positions several times a year during exercises. An exception is the air defense system, deployed on the Baltic Sea coast in 15 km west of Gdynia. Apparently, the proud Polish gentry keep him here due to the proximity of the Kaliningrad region as a defense of their naval base from the "Russian threat".


Google Earth satellite image: Polish Newa SC air defense system at a position near Gdynia


Oddly enough, but the C-125 air defense system was preserved in Moldova. One air defense system is deployed near Chisinau in the area of ​​the airfield Bachoi. Reasonable doubts are caused by the effectiveness of the non-modernized Moldovan complex against modern combat aviation. It is not clear with whom the Moldovan anti-aircraft gunners gathered to fight with the help of a single air defense missile system. Moreover, there is no permanent radar field over the territory of Moldova.


Moldavian air defense system С-125 in the area of ​​Bachoi airfield


But this does not prevent the Moldovan military from regularly demonstrating, among other military equipment and weapons, anti-aircraft missiles on a transport-loading vehicle during military parades in Chisinau.



In other republics of the former USSR, where the C-125 air defense system is still on duty, they have either already been upgraded or it is planned for the near future. This applies to the Transcaucasian republics - Armenia and Azerbaijan, and Central Asian - to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Although Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan receive relatively modern C-300P air defense systems from Russia, they are not in a hurry to part with well-mastered personnel, inexpensive to operate and still quite effective C-125 anti-aircraft systems. And Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan do not have enough financial resources to acquire modern systems, especially since within the framework of the “Collective Security Treaty Organization” (CSTO), it is always possible to agree on modernization in debt, if not for free.


ZRK C-125 in the suburbs of Tashkent


An unprecedented number of S-125М “Pechora-M” air defense systems were delivered to India during Soviet times, there were only 60 anti-aircraft systems C-125 and more 1500 missiles for them in this country. Almost all Indian air defense systems were deployed at air bases in the northwestern states along the border with Pakistan. Apparently, the Indians decided not to modernize their C-125, some of these complexes are still in positions, but without missiles on launchers.

One of the main users of the C-125 ADMS in Asia remains the DPRK. North Korea in the middle of 80 received Pechora-M6 С-125М1А and 1 З-ВNXXПД C-216. But unlike Vietnam, which ordered upgrades for the C-601-125М “Pechora-2M” variant, the modernization of North Korean anti-aircraft systems in Russia is impossible for political reasons. It is unlikely that the leadership of our country will want to further exacerbate relations with the United States, Japan and South Korea because of the unpredictable Far Eastern neighbor, regularly conducting nuclear and missile tests.

Currently, in the Americas, the C-125M Pechora air defense system is being operated in Peru. In 1979, 11 low-altitude complexes were sent to this country. They carried combat duty in the vicinity of air bases and covered the borders with Chile and Ecuador.


Launcher Peruvian SAMs C-125M in position in the vicinity of Ilo airport


In 1987, the Peruvian air defense missile systems C-125M and ZUR B-601PD were serviced and upgraded at the 3 stage. These activities were carried out by mobile teams of Soviet specialists and allowed to significantly extend the life of the complexes. But at the present time in the Peruvian armed forces no more than three operational air defense systems of this type are left.


Google Earth Satellite Image: Peruvian C-125, deployed near the Chilean border

The Peruvian military has repeatedly raised the issue of reconditioning and a major upgrade of existing C-125. Russian-Peruvian negotiations on this topic were going on in 2010-2012. But due to the shortage of funds and the small number of operational complexes in Peru, the parties failed to agree.

In 70-80-s 28, the C-125М / С-125М1А Pechora and 1257 B-601PD missiles received Cuba. These anti-aircraft complexes covered ports, airfields, large garrisons and Soviet facilities on the “Island of Freedom”. Currently, the Cuban air defense forces have the 3 low-altitude complex, but they do not carry permanent combat duty and missiles on launchers are absent.

In Soviet times, anti-aircraft complexes were delivered in very large volumes to African countries and to the Middle East. In the middle of 80-X, the 4 CMS X-NUMXM Pechora-M, 125 CMS X-8М125А Pechora-M1A and 1 B-432PD missiles were sent to Algeria. Until 601, the 2016 anti-aircraft systems survived. At the moment they are covering the capital and large air force bases. But apparently, the Algerian armed forces are experiencing a shortage of anti-aircraft missiles, satellite images show that the number of missiles at the PU is minimal.


Satellite image of Google earth: Algerian C-125 air defense system in the vicinity of Boaster airfield


Neighboring Libya was the owner of the 44 ZRK C-125М / С-125М1А "Pechora", they were accompanied by 1542 B-601PD missiles. Until the end of the 80-ies of the last century, the Libyan air defense missile systems and missiles held regular maintenance. To restore and modernize C-125М / С-125М1А, missile arsenals, repair and diagnostic workshops were built in Tripoli.

But in the 1990-2000 years, the Libyan leadership stopped paying due attention to maintaining and improving the centralized air defense system built on Soviet patterns, and it fell into disrepair. By the time the NATO countries began their aggression against Libya, no more than 10 low-altitude complexes remained in the ranks.


Google Earth satellite image: C-125 air defense system, destroyed in the vicinity of Tripoli


The calculations of the Libyan anti-aircraft systems that did not have the proper skills and motivation did not offer any resistance to the aviation of the Western coalition and all the air defense systems were destroyed in the first days since the beginning of the air strikes or were captured by the rebels.
Subsequently, a lot of videos and photos appeared on the network, in which the Islamists, who captured the C-125 air defense system, are unable to use them for their intended purpose, and redesign the missile defense system for firing at ground targets.



The relatively small weight and size characteristics of solid-propelled missiles B-601PD allow their use from mobile launchers in the variant "ground-to-ground". To do this, the front stabilizers are removed from the missiles, and the self-destruction device and radio fuses are turned off. At the head of the missile mounted contact fuse percussion, which produces a subversion of the standard fragmentation warhead. During the battles between the Libyan radical groups, anti-aircraft missiles on ground targets were launched from both towed launchers and various armored vehicles. With such an application of missiles, the launch range is several kilometers and shooting is only possible at area targets.

Before the Gulf War in 1991, the Iraqi air defense system was integrated into a single network of command, control and communications. Before the introduction of the international embargo on Iraq weapons in 1990, from the Soviet Union, this country received the 40 СS-125М Pechora-M / С-125М1А Pechora-M1A and 2320 B-601PD missiles. As of 2003, the Iraqi air defense year was greatly weakened. Having been subjected to massive strikes by American-British aviation, the main part of the Iraqi air defense systems turned out to be disabled or destroyed, and could not influence the course of the hostilities.

Until the end of the 80-s, Syria, in the framework of military-technical cooperation with the USSR, received the 47 air defense missile system С-125М / С-125М1А "Pechora" and 1820 B-601PD missiles. As in Libya, repair and restoration enterprises, control and inspection points and training classes were built in the SAR. The Syrian leadership, despite its modest financial capabilities, has allocated resources to improve and maintain at the proper level the combat readiness of the air defense forces. Modernization of some of the freshest complexes in Russia to the C-125-2М level in Pechora-2М allowed extending the resource and increasing the combat potential.


Satellite image of Google earth: Syrian ZRK C-125-2М “Pechora-2M” at a position in Latakia


The civil war provoked by Western countries in the SAR had the most disastrous effect on the state of the Syrian air defense system. Although the C-125 complexes suffered less from the C-75 SAMs, the C-125 was destroyed in positions during artillery and mortar attacks by Islamic militants.

In Yemen, before the beginning of the civil war, there were four S-125М1А "Pechora" air defense systems in the ranks. In total, 80 low-altitude air defense systems and X-NUMX B-6PD missiles were delivered to this country in 250's. By the beginning of 601, all Yemeni C-2016 had been destroyed during Saudi and American air raids.

In tropical Africa, C-125 is still exploited in Angola, Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique. The last known case of the combat use of the C-125 on the African continent took place during the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict in the 2000 year.

For the first time, Western experts were able to familiarize themselves in detail with the Egyptian C-125 air defense system in the first half of the 70-x. But much more interesting were the modernized complexes that were in service with the air defense units of the Warsaw Pact countries.
After the end of the Cold War, a significant part of the C-125 was on the ranges of the United States and European NATO countries. Our "partners" were interested in the characteristics of maneuverability of missile defense systems, the real areas of destruction during operations against cruise missiles and the noise immunity of the complexes. Operational guidance stations - SNR-125 are still used at American training grounds when conducting exercises of tactical aviation of the Air Force, deck aircraft of the Navy and USMC. This means that the air defense system of the C-125 family is today regarded as representing a real threat to American military aircraft. The high combat and modernization potential laid down by Soviet designers, in the case of modernization using modern element base, can significantly increase the capabilities of the complex and extend the service life by 10-15 years.

Based on:
http://bmpd.livejournal.com/257111.html
http://old.vko.ru
http://geimint.blogspot.ru/
Author:
Articles from this series:
LAW C-75 in the XXI century
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  1. Magic archer
    Magic archer 26 February 2016 07: 10 New
    15
    An interesting article! It feels like another 50 years will pass and a century-old Russian weapon will fight! This potential was laid! Ps, the photo where the rocket on the tank amused)))) I have never seen such a "miracle weapon"))) )
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 26 February 2016 11: 59 New
      +6
      Quote: Magic Archer
      An interesting article! It seems that another 50 years will pass and Russian weapons of a century ago will fight

      Why wait 50 years? The Mosin rifle (in a modernized form) is still fighting. smile
      And the Degtyarev-Shpagin product will celebrate the anniversary of the first model (the very, purely Degtyarevsky one) in a decade and a half.
      1. PKK
        PKK 27 February 2016 02: 22 New
        +2
        And here it was not without humor: the Moldovan air defense systems look effective in the Parades! Once again, I remembered Gorbachev, a traitor to all the secrets of the USSR, if we calculate in a timely manner, such traitors at all levels of government, we will survive.
        1. Bongo
          27 February 2016 02: 37 New
          +2
          Quote: PKK
          And here it was not without humor: Moldavian air defense, effectively look at the Parades!

          Well, what without humor? Moreover, in Moldova, scientists are proud of this Soviet complex, built more than 30 years ago. On the other hand, in neighboring Romania, even older S-75s are still in operation.
          Quote: PKK
          Once again, I remembered Gorbachev, a traitor to all the secrets of the USSR, if we calculate in a timely manner, such traitors at all levels of government, we will survive. I propose that we would voice such personalities known to everyone.

          I deliberately do not write articles on political topics and "spite of the day", so as not to slip into squabbles. But what will change what you propose?
          On the ship, the captain is responsible for everything that happens, in the army it is the supreme commander-in-chief, and in the country it is the popularly "elected" president. Serdyukov, Kudrin, Dvorkovich, etc. are on everyone's lips ... What other names are needed?
  2. inkass_98
    inkass_98 26 February 2016 07: 22 New
    +7
    Sergey, thanks. The review turned out to be quite ambitious and informative. But the conclusion is this: if a head and hands are applied to Soviet technology, then it will still fight. And if the indicated parts of the body grow out of the ass, then no matter how modern the weapon may be, there will be no sense.
    1. Bongo
      26 February 2016 09: 24 New
      +4
      Quote: inkass_98
      Sergey, thanks. The review turned out to be quite ambitious and informative.

      drinks
      Quote: inkass_98
      But the conclusion is this: if a head and hands are applied to Soviet technology, then it will still fight. And if the indicated parts of the body grow out of the ass, then no matter how modern the weapon may be, there will be no sense.

      This can be said about any technique. But our technology, in spite of not very good ergonomics, has unique qualities - reliability, maintainability and high efficiency. It remains only to dream that in our country cars would be made at the same level as air defense systems.
      1. washi
        washi 26 February 2016 10: 48 New
        +1
        Quote: Bongo

        This can be said about any technique. But our technology, in spite of not very good ergonomics, has unique qualities - reliability, maintainability and high efficiency. It remains only to dream that in our country cars would be made at the same level as air defense systems.

        Cars are doing well with us. Our BMWs are considered in the world better than German. Those. the problem is not in the workers. The problem is in the manual. If you can make a decent Hyundai from our components, then why can't a normal car be made from foreign components on a VAZ? Maybe just snickering, given the state. support. Or are the heirs of Berezovsky still rule there?
        1. Bongo
          26 February 2016 10: 52 New
          +7
          Quote: Vasya
          Cars are doing well with us.

          It is possible that it passed me by, for the last 20 years I have been driving exclusively on "Japanese" cars.
          Quote: Vasya
          Our BMWs are considered in the world better than German.

          Is BMW our car? wassat
          1. samoletil18
            samoletil18 26 February 2016 15: 08 New
            0
            Quote: Bongo
            Is BMW our car? wassat

            Yes, there is one. And the German VAZ, I am afraid, is not foreseen for a long time.
            angry
  3. engineer
    engineer 26 February 2016 07: 24 New
    +5
    he himself served on the S-125 Neva. not a bad complex for its time. but the S-300, and especially the S-400, is much better. and to cover the troops, the torus and the carapace are superior in everything.
  4. Mera joota
    Mera joota 26 February 2016 08: 07 New
    +6
    For me personally, the B-600 is the most beautiful rocket, the first associations with the word "rocket" are, of course, the image of the B-600. The fact that she is still alive and serves (no matter who) is good news.
    1. aba
      aba 26 February 2016 21: 03 New
      +4
      Yes, maybe so, but look at 5V21 from the S-200 - almost a space rocket! laughing
  5. doework
    doework 26 February 2016 08: 52 New
    +9
    I myself served in those / divisions serving the C-75, and, of course, "my" rocket was the dearest to me. wink
    But the missiles of the 125th complex have always pleased with compactness, relative simplicity, and, so to speak, pretty wink
    hello to all the air defense! soldier
  6. Amurets
    Amurets 26 February 2016 09: 24 New
    +4
    Sergey! Hi.http: //armyman.info/rakety/zenitnye/28330-malovysotnyy-zrk-s-125.h
    tml Here's a more complete article, but both are good. In general, on the M-1 "Volna" air defense system, will you write a separate article? I was surprised that there is not even mention of it. And yet. It flashed in the press that more than one F-117 was damaged in Yugoslavia. Did you come across anything reliable? The fact is that here, on VO, the war in Yugoslavia was mentioned and links to the material were given, but the links turned out to be empty, and I did not find the article.
    1. Bongo
      26 February 2016 10: 06 New
      +5
      Quote: Amurets
      Sergey! Hello

      Hi Nikolay! This article aimed to show the state of the S-125 air defense system in the 21st century - i.e. at present. The publication has an active link:Low-altitude C-125 - therefore, to write twice about the same thing also seemed unnecessary.
      Quote: Amurets
      In general, will you write a separate article on the M-1 "Volna" air defense system?

      Honestly, I didn’t think about it, I’m not strong in naval complexes request
      Quote: Amurets
      It flashed in the press that more than one F-117 was damaged in Yugoslavia. Have you come across anything reliable?

      It is likely that not one, Americans are able to hide their losses. But I do not have reliable data on American losses in Yugoslavia.
    2. sivuch
      sivuch 26 February 2016 17: 11 New
      +3
      Yes, the second one was damaged
      http://pentagonus.ru/publ/boevoe_primenenie_f_117po_materialam_rossijskikh_i_zar
      ubezhnykh_istochnikov / 100-1-0-1715
      Despite the fact that the author is a big fan of American technology
  7. qwert
    qwert 26 February 2016 09: 56 New
    +3
    Few people know, but C-125 was supposed to be used against ships. First of all, sailors were taught this on ships, where his naval version stood. And secondly, and soldier divisions in Vladivostok. Moreover, part of the divisions was located on the coast, and the installations were set up in such a way that they could work on the bay direct fire. In the ninth division, two installations were covered from the shore by an easily removable fence. around the launcher there was a parapet of such height that it would not interfere with firing with elevation of 0 degrees towards the sea.

    And yes ... Hello to all the air defense forces!
    Started at 125, finished at 300.
    1. Bongo
      26 February 2016 10: 11 New
      +3
      Quote: qwert
      Few people know, but the S-125 was supposed to be used against ships. First of all, sailors were taught this on ships, where his naval version stood. And secondly, and soldier divisions in Vladivostok.

      The S-125 had a really good anti-ship potential. The use of sea and land targets was practiced by all complexes except for the S-200. This was especially true of missiles with "special combat units".
      Quote: qwert
      And yes ... Hello to all the air defense forces!

      drinks
      Quote: qwert
      Started at 125, finished at 300.

      At the S-300PS in the Golden Valley or in Rybachy?
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 26 February 2016 11: 01 New
        +4
        Quote: Bongo
        Honestly, I didn’t think about it, I’m not strong in naval complexes

        So much for your answer. M-1 "Volna" is a naval version of the land-based S-125. And greetings to the Air Defense Forces. One of them.
        1. Bongo
          26 February 2016 11: 04 New
          +2
          Quote: Amurets
          M-1 "Volna" naval version of the land-based S-125

          I know this, but it differs in hardware and missiles on launchers are suspended differently. Otherwise, missiles are loaded, there are some differences in the method of application.
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 26 February 2016 11: 32 New
            0
            Quote: Bongo

            I know this, but it differs in hardware and missiles on launchers are suspended differently. Otherwise, missiles are loaded, there are some differences in the method of application.

            So I asked?
    2. Ale.xey
      Ale.xey 26 February 2016 22: 42 New
      0
      And my 75th theoretically could shoot at ground targets, but somehow it was all very difficult
  8. Falcon
    Falcon 26 February 2016 10: 19 New
    +3
    Again by name, you can guess the Author!

    Hi, hello! Very interesting.

    Interested in two points:
    In the "tropical" version, the complex had a special paintwork for repelling insects.

    belay And what are such coatings? Urgently need to repaint the village cornfield!

    и

    Almost all Indian air defense systems were deployed at air bases in the northwestern states along the border with Pakistan. Apparently, the Indians decided not to upgrade their C-125


    I wonder why? They have no problems with money, they would be very useful.
    1. Bongo
      26 February 2016 10: 32 New
      +3
      Quote: Falcon
      Hi, hello! Very interesting.

      Hi, Kirill!
      drinks
      Quote: Falcon
      And what are such coatings? Urgently need to repaint the village cornfield!

      Yes, there are such insecticidal and acaricidal paints and varnishes, but I don’t know how available they are and whether they are on sale. request
      Quote: Falcon
      I wonder why? They have no problems with money, they would be very useful.


      The Indians had the S-125M air defense systems delivered in the early 80s. Currently, these complexes and missiles have practically exhausted their resource and there is no point in modernizing them. In addition, they themselves are trying to make the "Akash" air defense system on the basis of our "Cuba" and buy the SPYDER SR air defense system in Israel.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 26 February 2016 11: 20 New
      +3
      Quote: Falcon
      And what are such coatings? Urgently need to repaint the village cornfield!

      Cyril! Hi. I have specially consulted with my son-in-law. There are soils and paints and varnishes, I just need to look. When after school I worked at the factory in front of the army, we used such primers and paints in the factory for export products, I remember that they were hot drying, but I don’t know the painting modes. And we did high-voltage equipment for power engineering and some of the equipment went to tropical countries.
      1. Falcon
        Falcon 26 February 2016 11: 29 New
        +5
        Quote: Amurets
        Quote: Falcon
        And what are such coatings? Urgently need to repaint the village cornfield!

        Cyril! Hi. I have specially consulted with my son-in-law. There are soils and paints and varnishes, I just need to look. When after school I worked at the factory in front of the army, we used such primers and paints in the factory for export products, I remember that they were hot drying, but I don’t know the painting modes. And we did high-voltage equipment for power engineering and some of the equipment went to tropical countries.


        Greetings, Nikolay! Thank!
        Honestly the first time I heard about such coatings, I was very surprised!
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 26 February 2016 11: 39 New
          +4
          Quote: Falcon
          Honestly the first time I heard about such coatings, I was very surprised!

          If you do not use such coatings, then the vile, mosquitoes and other muck stuffed under the covers of the connectors and caused a short circuit or stuffed into the ventilation holes and caused the equipment to overheat.
        2. padded jacket
          padded jacket 26 February 2016 11: 42 New
          +3
          Thank you very interesting and informative article.
          Add a little:
          Ukrainian air defense system S-125-2D "Pechora-2D"

          Quote: article
          One of the main users of the S-125 air defense system in Asia remains the DPRK. North Korea in the mid-80s received 6 S-125M1A "Pechora-M1A" air defense systems and 216 V-601PD missiles. But unlike Vietnam, which ordered the modernization of the S-125-2M "Pechora-2M" variant, the modernization of North Korean anti-aircraft systems in Russia is impossible for political reasons.

          The Koreans themselves remade the S-125 into a mobile version, although they only show the launchers on KRAZ’s radar station.
          1. padded jacket
            padded jacket 26 February 2016 11: 53 New
            +2
            Pecher-2M in Myanmar PU and antenna post folded?

            1. Bongo
              26 February 2016 12: 05 New
              +2
              Quote: quilted jacket
              Pecher-2M in Myanmar PU and antenna post folded?

              Yes, in transport position yes
          2. Bongo
            26 February 2016 12: 03 New
            +4
            Quote: quilted jacket
            Add a little:
            Ukrainian air defense system S-125-2D "Pechora-2D"

            Thanks for the video. hi I had seen it before, but did not insert it into the publication. When you look at it, attention is drawn to the fact that the S-125-2D "Pechora-2D" air defense missile system is clearly operated by civilian specialists. Apparently, only one air defense system of this type has been modernized in Ukraine, although as of 2014 it was stated that there are 17 C-125 air defense systems in storage.
            Regarding the modernization of the S-75 and S-200, these are definitely "fairy tales" from the "Wishlist" area. All Ukrainian S-75s were decommissioned back in the 90s, and the S-200s in 2013.
            1. padded jacket
              padded jacket 26 February 2016 12: 46 New
              +2
              Quote: Bongo
              Yes, in transport position

              Is there a radar photo in expanded form on a car chassis?
              Quote: Bongo
              I saw him before, but did not insert it into the publication.

              It’s also true, for example, I almost do not store anything in Ukraine.
              Quote: Bongo
              When you look at it, attention is drawn to the fact that the S-125-2D "Pechora-2D" air defense missile system is clearly operated by civilian specialists. Apparently in Ukraine, only one air defense system of this type has been modernized. Regarding the modernization of the S-75 and S-200, these are definitely "fairy tales" from the "wishlist" area. All Ukrainian S-75s were decommissioned back in the 90s, and the S-200s in 2013.

              Most likely, this is the way the Ukrainian military-industrial complex is "dying" and all the current cash resources of its Defense Ministry are being spent on the modernization of ground air defense equipment, clearly not even in second place.
              Another Cuban modernization of the S-125 is like just like the Polish smile Warsaw accidentally did not help Havana?
              1. Bongo
                26 February 2016 13: 00 New
                +3
                Quote: quilted jacket
                Do you like the Cuban modernization of the S-125 just like the fact that Polish Warsaw accidentally did not help Havana?

                The idea lies on the surface, the Cubans and a pair of S-75 rear missiles on the T-55 chassis were transferred. But unlike the Polish, in Cuba, when installing the S-125 on tanks, double-girder launchers were used. Alteration in Cuba has undergone only one S-125. How efficient it is is not known.
                Quote: quilted jacket
                Is there a radar photo in expanded form on a car chassis?


                1. padded jacket
                  padded jacket 26 February 2016 13: 52 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Bongo
                  Alteration in Cuba has undergone only one S-125

                  And how many PUs? The pictures clearly show that at least three.
                  And if you count on the chassis then five launchers, although missiles are hardly visible there.

                  Thanks for the snapshot of the Pechery-2m antenna post, I did not see his photo in expanded form.
                  1. Bongo
                    26 February 2016 14: 08 New
                    +4
                    Quote: quilted jacket
                    And how many PUs? The pictures clearly show that at least three.

                    I won’t tell you about the old double-charged, four-beam PU 5P73- usually 4 pieces.
                    Quote: quilted jacket
                    Thanks for the snapshot of the Pechery-2m antenna post, I did not see his photo in expanded form.

                    drinks
                  2. Alexey RA
                    Alexey RA 26 February 2016 16: 03 New
                    +2
                    Quote: quilted jacket
                    And how many PUs? The pictures clearly show that at least three.
                    And if you count on the chassis then five launchers, although missiles are hardly visible there.

                    In the picture, 5 pairs of missiles can be distinguished (the fourth is superimposed on the tree in the background, and the fifth merges into one rocket).
                    And if you look closely at the big photo, then the chassis in the photo is not 5, but 6. smile And there seems to be a sixth pair of missiles.

                    EMNIMS, when they told us about the history of our complex at the military department, they said that initially there were 4 two-gang launchers in the division. From the experience of Egypt, it turned out that there were few 8 missiles ready for launch - the divisions could be caught during reloading. And then the old PUs were replaced with four-girder ones.
                    1. padded jacket
                      padded jacket 26 February 2016 19: 47 New
                      +3
                      Quote: Alexey RA
                      In the picture, 5 pairs of missiles can be distinguished (the fourth is superimposed on the tree in the background, and the fifth merges into one rocket).
                      And if you look closely at the big photo, then the chassis in the photo is not 5, but 6. smile And there seems to be a sixth pair of missiles.

                      Probably there are six, but I only see five smile

                      I also forgot to upload the video on the mobile S-125 to KRAZ developed and produced in the DPRK since there have long been disputes that this is just a layout. And she turns out to shoot Kim Jong-un happy with the results smile
  9. Bongo
    26 February 2016 12: 39 New
    +4
    After the end of the Cold War, a significant part of the S-125 ended up at the training grounds of the United States and European countries of NATO.

    S-125 air defense missile systems at a UK firing range
  10. sivuch
    sivuch 26 February 2016 17: 13 New
    0
    Sergey, you do not know, for military air defense, how did the Circle and Cube have equipment similar to Doubler-75 and -125?
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 27 February 2016 00: 46 New
      +2
      Quote: sivuch
      Sergey, you do not know, for military air defense, how did the Circle and Cube have equipment similar to Doubler-75 and -125?

      Firstly, thanks for the link about the second F-117.
      Secondly: in my opinion, no. Because the mission of the air defense system is different. The military quickly change positions, which can not be said about the object.
    2. Bongo
      27 February 2016 02: 44 New
      +1
      Quote: sivuch
      Sergey, you do not know, for military air defense, how did the Circle and Cube have equipment similar to Doubler-75 and -125?

      Most likely, given that the stationary S-75 and S-125 were not all equipped with such protection.
    3. PVOSV
      PVOSV 28 February 2016 14: 51 New
      0
      no, there was no such equipment for the Krug Circle, Cube
    4. opus
      opus 29 February 2016 03: 21 New
      +4
      Quote: sivuch
      similar to Doubler-75 and -125?

      Yes.
      Only decided already at a different level, not so:


      ON Circle and Cube without "understudy"

      at SAM "KUB"
      The 1C32 station implemented a method of covert monoconic scanning by angular coordinates and an electronic target auto-range finder; intermittent radar modes of a self-propelled reconnaissance and guidance installation were used to protect against Shrikes.
      Well, + work on someone else's lighting

      There are
      "Newspaper-E"



      well and so on
      There are many ways:
      1. Missile trap (used to protect an autonomous and highly mobile radar (SAM), conducting combat work on the move and in place, in the absence of interacting radar, time and means to place around N DII)

      2. Means of setting aerosol and dipole interference, infrared traps fired by mines
      3.If I write me 99% will not understand belay
      More "open" here:
      Volzhin A.N., Sizov Yu.G. Fight against homing missiles. M., Military Publishing, 1983.

      Nebabin V.G., Kuznetsov I.B. Radar protection from PRR // Foreign electronics. 1991

      Quote: Amurets
      Troops quickly change positions, which can not be said about the object.

      and for the "shriiks" it is on the "drum" (object or military).


      Who did not have time, he was late.

      And rarely did anyone.

      The working time of the K-1 complex from detecting an enemy aircraft to
      issuance of target designation for the division, taking into account the distribution of goals and the possible need for transfer fire was 32 s.
      The reliability of target designation reached a value of more than 90% with an average time
      search for a target by a missile guidance station 15–45 s.
  11. Gomel
    Gomel 26 February 2016 17: 17 New
    -1
    I apologize for offtopic, I write from the phone,
    an interesting link came to the author about the new guards assault unit of the engineering troops in the city of Murom (Vladimir region)

    I myself can’t process it far from the computer, if anyone has the time and desire to let them publish it in VO, a very interesting article and a lot of pictures

    http://www.livejournal.com/magazine/1357367.html
    1. 52
      52 26 February 2016 22: 09 New
      0
      Kamrad! And what’s the problem7 You calmly come home, process the material not only from the link to the slurry, but also from other sources, turn on the brain and write an article. Googel will help you and let the hand poking the keyboard not dry out!
  12. 52
    52 26 February 2016 22: 03 New
    +4
    Thank you for the slightly messy, but tasty article! Although I finally felt myself at the topwar, otherwise this political and comedic part was already annoying. By the way, the S-125 really liked the compactness, although both Father and Father-in-law served on the most beautiful C -75. Well, there is pure aesthetics, which is already there ...
    1. Ale.xey
      Ale.xey 26 February 2016 22: 47 New
      +1
      As a former guidance officer, I c-75, I completely agree with you
  13. vlad575nso
    vlad575nso 14 March 2016 06: 04 New
    0
    SAM MIM-23 "Hawk" was adopted in 1960, four years earlier than the Soviet S-125
    The S-125 complex with the V-600P missile was put into service on June 21, 1961 by Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 561-233