AQUARELS F.G. Solntseva. CLOTHES OF THE RUSSIAN STATE. 1869 CH.3
- Introduce yourself, please - tell us about yourself how long and why you became interested in the popular struggle.
- I was born in Ukraine, in the family of an officer of the Soviet army, but historical roots from Siberia and the Volga region. I am a historian and ethnographer by profession, I have been engaged in field ethnography since 2001. The love of history manifested itself early in 5 years: for the first time in the magazine "Murzilka" in 1980, he learned about the Battle of Kulikovo - he "fell ill" with history. Yes, and his father instilled a love of history and exercise. Then he started flipping through his sister’s history books, and in the fourth grade he decided that I would become an archaeologist. After graduation, he entered the Tyumen State University at the Faculty of History. Interest in domestic martial arts began with the books of MN Lukashov, then classes on the “Buza”, and his own search in order to critically approach the work of colleagues in this field and get to the bottom of the truth. He took up ethnography six years after graduation. The first expedition was to the native village of my maternal grandfather, in a. Molchanovo, Tyumen region, Tyumen region, and nearby villages 10-30 km. from Tyumen. The first experiment was very successful: the material went quite easily, the old people willingly shared information about their lives, about wrestling on the belts, games, power competitions, fist fights.
- By the way, there are still a lot of old people left who can share knowledge about the folk tradition?
“They still remained, but the last attempt showed that the material was hard to go: old people die, get sick, memory weakens, they get tired during intercourse. But there are unexpected discoveries, perseverance is rewarded ... From one respondent you can’t take the full information ...
- What region tradition are you studying? In percentage terms, how much did you manage to learn about the military tradition of these places? According to your estimates.
- Basically - the Middle Trans-Urals, more precisely the agricultural south of the Tyumen region, where the "old-timers" and "new settlers" live who arrived during the Stolypin reform. In addition, I collected materials in the Lysogorsky district of the Saratov region, in the homeland of my father, as well as in the Sverdlovsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk regions, Kurgan ... I think I managed to learn about the local tradition on 80-90%. For many years, I can say that most often the information is of the same type, but often “shoots” new terminology, techniques, other facts, so that the ethnographic questionnaire constantly has to be improved, the research prospects are broadened. I consider a competition-applied culture through the prism of a person’s entire life - this is the so-called “biographical method of research”. Immediately you understand - "man-made" was woven into the fabric of the lives of individuals and the whole community, even the region.
- Were there attempts to collect the national military tradition in the Soviet era? Excluding the well-known story about the creation of sambo and the attempts of the journalist B. Chesnokov. After all, numerous ethnographic expeditions were carried out.
- No, I was at school at the time .... And in Soviet ethnography, only a few were engaged in this topic. N.P. Novoselov, B.V. Gorbunov, B. Chesnokov, and, perhaps, everything ... In my research, I rely not only on my own ethnographic material, but also on materials from my colleagues and predecessors, on archival materials, periodical materials up to the Soviet and Soviet period, memories, diaries, and so on, and using the whole complex of sources to restore the general and exact picture from the pieces of the “historical puzzle”. All the other Soviet ethnographers only dealt with this topic in a series of other research topics, without deeply plunging into this industry. They began to study this topic extensively only at the end of the 1980-s - 1990-s.
- Why not?
- The question is interesting, I can only guess. B.V. Gorbunov defended his first thesis (Ph.D.) in 1989. Before him, nobody so carefully summarized this material. On the other hand, there was a strict ban on karate, and on other martial arts that could be confused with karate, besides there was a severe struggle between Soviet power and hooliganism, so the ethnographers didn’t even touch upon many topics, and the people didn’t really talkative, especially those who participated in group fights, went with weapons. Well, in the 1990-s. On the wave of interest in martial arts, a surge of interest in their native culture began ...
- By the way, do not know, N.P. Novoselov was engaged in the practical implementation of his thesis, or was everything at the level of theory?
- As far as I know, N.P. Novoselov did not engage in the practical implementation of his work, written in 1946. However, the writing of his work coincided in time with the realization of collective boxing (essentially collective fist fighting) among the ranks of the SA and Navy in the Far East on the eve of the war with Japan. But it was the embodiment of the idea of the Soviet boxer K.V. Gradopolov, which in 1930-ies. combined boxing and Russian wall fight ...
- What are the differences between the Russian national struggle and the struggle of other nations?
The Russians had several types and varieties:
1) wrestling on belts tied around the waist;
2) wrestling on belts tied over the shoulder and around the waist;
3) wrestling on belts tied crosswise over the shoulder and around the waist;
4) fight with mutual fixed grip with one hand gates;
5) fighting with mutual grip with two hands on the shoulders or straps, missed under the shoulders as the straps on the satchel;
6) struggle with mutual grip with one hand on the arm near the elbow;
7) the fight against arbitrary capture of the body or clothing of the enemy;
8) struggle to girth, etc.
Surely there are such varieties that we have not fixed at all, there is information on this subject, but at the moment it is not enough. Many nations had similar types of struggle, but all have differences in technique. For example, take similar types of belt wrestling in Russian and Kazan Tatars. The Russian belt is tied with a knot in the front, they are used with feet and gray hair with rolling on the back, fighting in the stalls before holding, in any position or on one or two shoulder blades, or on the “four shoulder blades” - when the buttocks and so on are pressed to the ground. Therefore, a set of techniques and preferences is different. Most often, the Tatars do not tie a belt with a knot, most of them fight without a step, before throwing or touching the ground with a third point. Tatars are Muslims, the tradition of Muslims does not allow knots in clothes (otherwise Allah will not hear the prayer), therefore even the fabrics are woven so that there is not a single thread with a knot. In addition, the Sharia cannot intentionally damage clothing, soil human blood and other secretions of clothes (Allah does not hear such clothes), and cause injuries to a person with deformation of body members and organs, especially strikes to the face (face is the image of an angel). Therefore, the Pahlevans in the struggle are trying to observe the rules of Sharia. Islam did not encourage fist fights, but fighting, horse racing, military exercises with a blade, and especially shooting, are encouraged (the latter is a valid reason for being absent from prayer). But in the Russian struggle was not so regulated by the Orthodox faith.
- The popular struggle is more power-based or technical?
The struggle, for those who can fight, is technical, and for those who cannot, or have not adapted to the grip, for example, with a belt with two hands, or behind the goal with one hand, the struggle will be more forceful. In addition, the opponent's weight plays a big role - in the tradition there were no weight categories, the loser left, the winner remained to fight the next opponent, until he left, or no one came to him. For a tired wrestler, even technically, the struggle will be power.
- What is known about the old Russian struggle? Does it coincide with what you found on expeditions?
- We can judge the Old Russian wrestling only by brief references in the annals, for example, The Tale of Bygone Years in the plot of Jan Usmar against the Pechenegs, and Prince Mstislav the Departure with Adyg Rededy, as well as miniatures from the chronicles, frescoes of the Sofia Cathedral in Kiev, the bas-reliefs of the Dmitrovsky Cathedral in Vladimir, the iconographic stamps of the struggle of St. Nestor of Thessalonica with the gladiator Liem, St. Andrew of Tsaregradsky with a demon, St. Joak with the angel ... In general, this is similar to what we find on expeditions, but I cannot speak 100% confidently , similar - not in when thou identity.
- Tell us about the types of struggle of the Slavic peoples.
- The Eastern Slavs, those who today are called Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, had practically no differences in martial arts. In the Middle Trans-Urals under Stolypin, many “new settlers” came from the Russian and West Russian provinces of the Russian Empire. By the way, they didn’t call themselves Ukrainians and Belarusians, in Siberia they called themselves Russians, or at the place of their exit to Siberia - “Mogilev”, “Chernigov”, “Vitebsk”, “Volyn”, or by a local nickname given to Siberians - “Ukrainians” , “Self-propelled guns.” According to the similarity of the dialect, “old-timers” were so called and “Kursk”, “Smolensk” and other representatives of the transitional wide dialect zones. The term “Ukrainians” and “Belarusians” were imposed during the 1926 census and 1920-s of., And then picked up by Soviet ethnography became a hostage of poly It was a political division, justified by scientists, and when we understand this, it becomes clear why the “separate” nations play games, hand-to-hand and power competitions among the Eastern Slavs are the same on 30-90%. “New settlers” avoided Ukrainization and Belorussification and did not have time to merge with the “old-timers”, including culturally, since the “great war”, revolution and civil, and then collectivization and affiliation to collective farms soon began. So their way of life turned out to be to the delight of the ethnographers to be mothballed by a certain life frame.
As for the Siberian Cossacks, the set of games and competitions they have is the same as that of the peasants, because the Cossacks on 95% consisted of Siberian peasants "old-timers" transferred to the military class, and such a large translation for the 19 century was 3. If we compare the hand-to-hand competitions of the Siberian Cossacks with the Ural, Don and Kuban competitions on the scientific works of V.А. Pechnyak, V.V. Remmler, A.V. Yarovoy, A.S. Alexandrova (my namesake), the similarity is also obvious, despite the local regional and class differences. We were in the framework of a large single ethnocultural space.
- What about the types of struggle of the Slavic peoples in general?
The first description of the techniques of the Slavs dates back to the 6th century. The Byzantine historian Procopius of Caesarea gave a description of the capture of a Goth by a Slav, who in an ambush seized him with his hands and brought him to the Byzantine camp. Apparently, it was about capturing across the body with a grip and pressing both hands to the body, and squeezing the abdomen to deprive the breath, and, most likely, from behind - so it is safer for the attacker. A similar seizure was held by the Russian conqueror Yan Usmar in the 10th century. (PVL), who initially strangled the Pechenegs with his hands, after having torn him off the ground, and then killed him with a blow to the ground. It was probably from such a capture that the struggle was born in the girth across the body and the struggle on the belts. In Western Slavic languages, the term "struggle" literally translates "for the belt." For example, “free-style wrestling” will sound like “free for a belt”, and “sambo” - “sambo for a belt”. From struggle to girth by the waist, there probably arose a struggle in an armful with a grip over the shoulder because the hand during the seizure can walk and often goes up, and then the struggle for the collar, and on the girdles, with the seizure tied over the shoulder and crosswise . Our ethnographic materials show that the fight against arbitrary seizure appears where the belt for a fixed seizure disappears, which guides and limits excess freedom, which is better for initial training.
- So it turns out that the struggle is not belt not borrowed from the nomadic peoples? If it is in the Western Slavs, who practically did not contact with the Mongols. It is believed that the nomads understand the emergence - to pull the enemy from the saddle.
- There is such a struggle in North and South America, known in England, in France, Finns, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians. Practice shows that grabbing a belt on a horse is dangerous for a grabber: first, it’s very difficult to put your hands under your belt on foot, and what to say about it during a race, and when you grab a horse on a belt, you have to roll over, with which the attacker is most easily pulled off the horse. Rather, they themselves used grip to capture the retreating - from the back.
In the 2 part: the people's OFPs and TFEs, teaching methods, competition rules, the “applied section” of the national combat tradition and much more