He fought for his homeland
Again went to her beloved Tselina. When we walked through the streets, turning into one lane or another, the staff of the local history museum called these streets not just like that, but with special warmth and at the same time told about the fate of each person, whose name is given to the streets of a small Don village in which the memory of past and carefully preserved by descendants.
We are walking along the street named Demurin. Familiar, on hearing, the name. But about whom it is a question of what kind of person few know. Having set a goal, turned the materials in the local archive, turned for help to colleagues from the Salsky district. And that's what I managed to find out.
The unusual and tragic fate of one of the legendary commanders of the Soviet Army, who, according to eyewitnesses, showed amazing courage in battle.
V.Ya. Kochnev, a retired captain, a veteran of the 156-1 rifle brigade, wrote an article entitled “Combat Rider” (about Grigori Fedorovich Demurin):
“Grigory Fedorovich Demurin was a combination commander of the 156 separate rifle, liberating Salsk and Tselinsky district, who also died in our steppes. Colonel Demurin - professional military. His entire adult life is connected with the Red Army. In the unforgettable 1919 year, when the father-partisan still smashed the Basmachis, Grigory Fedorovich became a cadet of the Tashkent Military Unified School named after V.I. Lenin. Then he was 17 years old. He served in the first mountain-rifle regiment near Ashgabat, in the border cities of Jarkent and Termez. In the 1937-1940 years in the rank of major, he read tactics in the same military-combined school, at the same time he studied at the military academy of the Red Army to them. Mv Frunze.
Grigory Fedorovich was a talented military educator, a well-educated commander. We have an address-letter, written back in 1925 by young fighters, in which they respond with great gratitude and love to their company, the young commander GF. Demurine
From the first days of the Great Patriotic War, Grigory Fedorovich was in the thick of the terrible events. In July-September, he forms a division. In November - going to the front. For four talented battles in which Major Demurin showed himself to be a brave, unusually talented commander, he was immediately given the rank of colonel.
Having formed a brigade on the orders of the command, she goes with her into the thick of the battles that are conducted on the Southern Front. Brutal fights and rapid forced marches - this is the way Demurin's brigade from Astrakhan to the Salsk steppes.
They drove the fascists in such a way that their wife’s letters could not find the brigade commander: the addresses changed every day. 20 January 1943 was a stubborn protracted battle under the stud of Budenny.
The battle began at dawn. The enemy resisted stubbornly and for a long time. Only in the evening knocked him out of the village.
In the morning of January 22, the 152 and 156 rifle brigades broke into the outskirts of Salsk. After the liberation of our city, parts of the 156 rifle brigade moved in the direction of Rostov. Fighting again, fighting.
Particularly stubborn was the battle under the village of Mechetinskaya - the last battle of the brigade commander Demurin. Grigory Fedorovich examined the positions on the armored vehicle, when in the sky, wave after wave, “Focke-Wulfs” appeared.
The bomb exploded near the Kombrigov armored personnel carrier, mortally wounded Demurin. He died on the way to the Salsk hospital. ”
GF buried Demurin in the city of Salsk on the street. Freedom.
There is another version of the death of Demurin.
The brink of the difficult fate of the heroic brigade commander in his article “He Fought for the Motherland” (Hammer No. XXUMX-61 from 62 in May 6) reveals the correspondent of the newspaper Sergey Yurov: “The regimental commander Grigori Fedorovich Demurin freed the land of Salsa from the German fascist invaders and died in battle near the Giant settlement (a mistake crept in here - Demurin died near Mechetinskaya, and near the Giant, he most likely died on the way to the hospital in the city of Salsk).
He died going to the attack in full growth, not bending down, despite the dense fire of enemy artillery. And he was killed by a huge lump of frozen ground from a shell exploded nearby. ”
For many decades after the war, official propaganda was limited to this information about Demurin: he fought, liberated, died heroically. All this is true. But, as it turned out, not all.
Why (as will be known later), Grigori Fyodorovich, in a battle, behaved as if it was not an ordinary fight, but some kind of “psychic attack”? Demonstrating sheer contempt for mortal danger. In every battle!
The light was shed by a letter from the personal driver, Demurin, sent by him several decades after the war to the local history museum. It turns out that before the war, Grigory Demurin was an adjutant of Marshal Tukhachevsky. After Tukhachevsky was executed as the “enemy of the people”, the adjutant of “the enemy of the people” Demurin was, naturally, imprisoned “for Tukhachevsky”. Under pressure from the organs, the family refused Grigory Fedorovich. From the first days of the war, Demurin began to write letters asking him to send him to the front, and in the end he was allowed to "wash away the blame with blood."
Demurin fought brilliantly. He was awarded high military awards. A demonstrative contempt for his mortal danger, the driver Demurin explained by the fact that behind Grigori Fyodorovich’s back was relentlessly, like a shadow, a Beria special eye loomed, overseeing the distrust through the sight: does the “Tukhachev” fight “correctly”?
Was this demonstrative disdain of Colonel Demurin addressed to them, "watching", whose utter, finger-sucked suspicions to the depths of the soul injured him, a military officer, selflessly devoted to the Motherland?
Did he give them some kind of hidden challenge, openly exposing himself to mortal danger and not fearing her, not bending down even when the fear of death, this primordial self-preservation instinct, perhaps the strongest of all human instincts, had to force him to duck? May be. We do not know for sure; the letter did not directly mention this.
The most important thing in the war for him, Colonel Grigory Fedorovich Demurin, as it most certainly follows from the letter of the person who knew him closely, was something else. He fought for his homeland! And he died defending her.
Such a fate is tragic, heroic and sinking into the heart with its harsh realism. To perpetuate the name of the hero of the Great Patriotic War began much later, more than two decades later. No wonder that the street named after Demurin appeared in the village of Celina: it was he who was the commander of the 156 rifle unit who liberated Tselina and the district.
The event with the assignment of the name of the hero to the Tselina street, according to my calculations, was to occur at the end of the 60-s, by the date of the 25 anniversary of the hero's death. We decided to check this fact together with the head of the district archive - at that time, Elena Petrovna Sokirkina, but, unfortunately, in the Tselinsky archive we did not find documents on the day and year of the GF street named. Demurina. The local historian found facts in the economic books of Tselina that added new information to our research. As the entries in these books confirm, from 1967 (probably the year when the street was laid) to 1970, it was called Incubatornaya Street.
But a little later, Elena Petrovna reported that she had found the first inhabitants of the street: they were the family of Alexander Stepanovich Derlysh - the father of Lyudmila Alexandrovna Komelyagina, who for a long time headed the justice service in the area. As her daughter testifies, her parents built the house, which was the first on this street and settled in it in August 1967, and they were already recorded in the house book as residents of the street named after Demurin.
29-year-old Homeland clock died March 2
In those years, the name of the Hero of the USSR I.I. Many objects were called Strelnikov: streets, cities, villages, schools, etc.
I found information about Strelnikov in official sources. He was born 9 in May 1939 of the year in the family of hereditary grain-growers in the village of Bolshoy Khomutets, Dobrovolsky District, Lipetsk Region. In the spring of 1940, the family moved to Siberia in the village of Lyubchino, Okoneshnikovsky district of the Omsk region. In 1958, Ivan was called up to serve in the frontier troops. Having graduated perfectly from the external ten-year, senior officer courses in Moscow, he was promoted to deputy chief of the outpost for political purposes in the rank of junior lieutenant.
Soon, Strelnikov is appointed head of the Nizhne-Mikhailovskaya gates. He was preparing to enter the military academy.
On the night of 1 on 2 of March 1969, the armed Chinese detachment crossed the Soviet state border in the area of the Nizhne-Mikhailovskaya outpost (Damansky Island).
To stop the trespassers of the state border, two groups of Soviet border guards, one of which was a cover, moved to the place of Chinese breakthrough. To negotiate, Senior Lieutenant Ivan Strelnikov and several frontier guards went out to meet border violators with a peaceful offer to leave the territory of the Soviet Union.
The course of this short conversation was constantly filmed by private Nikolai Petrov on a photo and movie camera. Subsequent events only confirm the fact that the Chinese have clearly planned the course of their operation in advance. Events developed rapidly. As soon as Soviet frontier guards expressed their legitimate demands, the first rank of Chinese soldiers parted, and the second opened fire to kill. All Soviet border guards standing in the open were killed.
Already dead, the Chinese gouged out their eyes.
True, one was lucky enough to survive after being wounded in the back and being hit by a Chinese bayonet in the chest: Private Gennady Serebrov lost consciousness, and the Chinese decided that he was dead.
By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 21 March 1969 II Strelnikov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union posthumously. Together with Ivan Strelnikov, seven of his comrades died, but the surviving border guards kept to the last, and survived. By 14.00, the island was completely under the control of Soviet border guards.
The Chinese were fierce. They captured Corporal Pavel Akulov and tortured him for a long time. In April of the same year, they dropped his body from a helicopter into Soviet territory. 28 of bayonets was counted on Pavel, all his hair was pulled out, and the shreds that remained in some places were gray.
Strelnikov Chinese also gouged out his eyes. He was then just 29 years old.
The sentry of Homeland Strelnikov is buried with military honors in the city of Iman (now the city of Dalnerechensk) of the Primorsky Territory. Outpost, commander of which was Hero of the Soviet Union I.I. Strelnikov, given his name. He was awarded the Order of Lenin (posthumously).
After these tragic events in the name of Hero of the USSR I.I. Strelnikova called villages, pioneer camps, schools and streets, the memory of the defenders of the Damansky Peninsula is immortalized in books, newspapers, museum stands.
And we must remember them, tell about their efforts to children and perpetuate their memory, no matter what: Strelnikov Street also exists in the small village of Tselina.
Full holder of the Order of Glory liberated Ukraine
And now about the “youngest” in terms of assigning the name to the street - ul. named MA Dudka.
Mikhail Andreevich many Tselina residents of the older generation knew well, they remember even now. The participant of the Great Patriotic War, who was awarded for his feats of arms with orders of Glory of all three degrees. Mortar calculation under his command distinguished himself in battles during the liberation of Ukraine, Poland and Germany.
He was lucky to stay alive and return to his native land.
Mikhail Andreevich was born in the village of Polivanskoe, Razvilensky District, and his whole pre-war life was spent in the Oryol District. From there he went to the front. After the war, Mikhail Andreevich settled in Tselin, where he started a family. Together with his wife Ekaterina Nikolaevna, they brought up wonderful and hardworking children: the son of Alexei and daughters - Tatiana and Lyuba. They have grown and wonderful grandchildren.
In the 2004 year, in the year of his death, Tselina actively discussed in print the proposal to give East Street, in which the veteran lived, his name.
The newspaper “referendum” supported this initiative of the Tselinsky Rural Settlement, and October 1 2004 of the Assembly of the Tselinsky District takes decision No. 4 “On renaming East Street in the village of Tselina”, which reads: “Based on Art. , petitions of the Head of the Tselinsky rural administration and appeals of citizens of Tselina, the regional assembly of deputies decides: “In order to perpetuate the memory of the gentleman of the three Orders of Glory, Honorary Citizen of the Tselinsky District, Michael Andr Dudka eevich rename Vostochnaya street in the village of Celina in the street named after MA. Fife ".
And this is true: a worthy person is a worthy memory. On this street, the veteran lived his entire post-war life, his children grew up here, he was happy here.
However, a tribute to the memory is not only to simply name the street, but also to keep it in constant order. And this is a question - to the local authorities, and to the residents themselves.