The meeting of Churchill and Roosevelt on board of the battleship "Prince of Wales". August 1941 Source: https://ru.wikipedia.org
After the first stories The industrial revolution unlimited sources of raw materials and the market for the products of its factories and factories in Britain were provided by its enormous empire, over which the sun never set. “The British in principle forbade the development of industry in the colonies, it was this that gave a load to British factories. The British fleet (commercial and military) - the largest, most powerful and modern in the world - provided loading to British shipyards, which, in turn, gave orders to metallurgical, steel-rolling and metal-working enterprises ”(Egorov O. Pax Britannica. Revolution // http: / /topwar.ru/85621-pax-britannica-revolyuciya-polnaya-versiya-vchera-statya-avtorazmestilas-pri-zakrytii-brauzera-izvinite.html). It was during this period that Britain formulated the key principle of foreign policy - the struggle against the strongest continental power, as having the greatest potential for harming British interests "(Samsonov A. How England became the" ruler of the seas "// http://topwar.ru/84777 -kak-angliya-stala-vladychicey-morey.html).
The first onslaught of France repeating the industrial revolution against the domination of the British Empire led to the loss to the end of the 18th century of most of its first colonial empire (the second was created already in the 19th century). French trade gave way to the British, the French fleet could no longer challenge the British "(Samsonov A. How England became the" mistress of the seas. "Ibid.). The industrial revolution of the end of the XIX century in Japan was put to the service of Britain - Japan became the loyal guard of the imperial borders in the Pacific from the encroachments of Russia on the threshold of the industrial revolution, as well as those who committed an industrial revolution in Germany and America, in search of a market for the Pacific region. To prevent rapprochement and eliminate its competitors, Britain, having unleashed World War I, achieved a revolution in Russia and, with the direct participation of America, defeated Germany, turning both empires into rogue states.
Woodrow Wilson, who spoke at Versailles about American exclusivity, the American messianism and its leadership, was ridiculed and did not sign the Versailles Peace or join the League of Nations. However, America did not give up and, remaining one-on-one with England, challenged it. Having prepared a “red” and “red-orange” plan for waging war against Great Britain and Japan (“Red” military plan // https://ru.wikipedia.org; Colored US military plans // https: // ru. wikipedia.org) America first achieved the dissolution of the Anglo-Japanese alliance, then brought Hitler to power and set him on England. Waiting for the hopeless situation of Britain, America began to dictate its terms to it.
The US did not intend to share the scepter of power with anyone (NN Yakovlev FDR is a man and a politician. Pearl-Harbor's Mystery: Selected Works. - M .: International Relations, 1988. - C. 350), much less with England. . According to Olesya Elderberry, “it’s not necessary to think that Roosevelt was a philanthropist who wanted to save the world from a desire to occupy the most honorable place in paradise. America assisted the allies only for money and recognition of her vision of the future world order. The United States twisted even its historic homeland — Britain ”(Buzina O. Pearl Harbor — Roosevelt’s launch // http://www.buzina.org/publications/660-perl-harbor-podstava-rusvelta.html). “The desire of American circles to use Lend-Lease supplies to restrict British world trade ... caused ... considerable tension. The British government was forced to make a statement that the materials obtained from the United States would not be used to produce goods for export (Great Britain in World War II // https://ru.wikipedia.org).
At the same time, America’s leading free trade was more profitable than protectionism and therefore “Roosevelt demanded that Churchill open up the British colonies for American goods. Fat man with a cigar resisted: “Mr. President, England does not intend for a minute to abandon its privileged position in the British dominions. Trade, which brought greatness to England, will continue under the conditions established by the British ministers. ” But the American president continued to persistently educate his British counterpart: “Somewhere along this line you and I may have some differences.” (O. Pearl Harbor's buzina — Roosevelt’s substitute.).
Churchill, who was heavily dependent on Lend-Lease supplies, in particular, and Roosevelt’s policies in general, found it extremely difficult to defend British interests. His address to 4 May was if not a prayer, then a cry of the soul. “The only thing,” he suggested to Roosevelt, “that can save the situation, is the immediate adherence of the United States to us as a belligerent power ...” (Yakovlev NN FDR is a man and a politician. Pearl-Harbor's Mystery: Selected Works. Ed. Op. S. 330.) The subsequent flight of Hess to England and the German attack on the USSR reduced the threat of Britain from Germany, but did not in any way shake its dependence on America’s location. At a meeting with Roosevelt off Newfoundland Island 14 August 1941 Churchill was forced to do With my position and on board the battleship Prince of Wales, I signed the Atlantic Charter, a joint statement about the goals of war and the principles of post-war organization. "The fourth, most important point was: the United States and Great Britain" will strive to ensure that all countries - great or small, winners or losers - would have access on an equal footing to trade and to world raw materials sources. ”In practice, these beautiful words meant that the world's raw materials should go to the strongest - that is, United athame America "(Elder O. Pearl Harbor - a setup Roosevelt. Ibid.)
According to Michael Weller, “the free trade zone is ... this is the most important point of the Atlantic Charter ... As a result, all the English colonies, mandated territories, and so on, turned out to be a free trade zone for American goods. All - the colonies have become unprofitable. This ended the British Empire. Such was the Atlantic help - the charter, such was the cooperation "(Weller M. Author's program" Think only ... ". Ether from October October 18 2015 // http://echo.msk.ru/programs/just_think/1641404-echo/) . 24 September 1941, the USSR and other countries joined the charter. Thus, leadership in the anti-Hitler coalition, as well as in the post-war world order, passed to America. At the same time, Roosevelt could not get the Japanese to agree to the creation of a free trade zone in the Pacific. It is difficult to say whether this was a defeat or a victory, since the war with Japan suited him almost more than peace with her, even on American terms.
On July 24, 1941, Japan sent troops to the territory of the French colonies in Indochina. In response, Roosevelt “on July 26 ... announced a sequestration, or, more simply, confiscated all Japanese assets in the United States and announced a complete trade embargo. At the insistence of the United States, the United Kingdom imposed the same embargo. Japan was left without oil and raw materials. There was nowhere to buy it, since Japan-friendly countries were blocked by English fleet, and nothing, since the main foreign assets were confiscated! Without oil and other raw materials, Japanese industry was to collapse in a few months. Japan had to negotiate with the United States or seize sources of raw materials by force. The Japanese chose negotiations ”(How Roosevelt provoked an attack by Japan // www.wars20century.ru/publ/10-1-0-22-8) and on August 7 Konoe invited Roosevelt to meet,“ sit down at the table and discuss controversial issues on a peaceful basis ”( What happened in Pearl Harbor: Documents on the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 1941, 1961. - M .: Military Publishing, 19 // http://militera.lib.ru/docs/da/sb_pearl_harbor/XNUMX.html).
17 August Roosevelt gave his consent to the meeting, 28 - Konoe. 3 September Roosevelt confirmed his agreement, insisting on discussing the basic conditions and concluding a preliminary agreement with its subsequent fixation in a personal meeting. Since the interests of the parties were diametrically opposed, Roosevelt simply feared the futility of the meeting. While Japan demanded that America reconcile with its alliance with Germany and Italy, recognize China as the sphere of its undivided influence and resume deliveries of raw materials, primarily oil, the United States requested Japan to “return to the situation that existed before the 1931 incident in Manchu, withdraw troops from China and French Indochina, stop supporting the government of Manzhou-Guo and the Nanking government, repeal the threefold pact (History of the Second World War. 1939 – 1945. In 12 t. T 4 // http://www.istorya.ru/ book / ww2 / 181.ph p). At the same time, the Americans offered “not fantastic principles aimed at preserving the old order, but a well-balanced, constructive, practical and promising plan for resolving contentious issues and creating order” (What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 year. Ibid.).
As part of his doctrine, Roosevelt suggested that the Japanese abandon the achievement of their political and economic goals by using force and committing external aggressions under the “tyranny of the so-called new order” and instead achieve them in a peaceful and legal way along with the proclaimed “greater concept of moral order” based on “four fundamental human freedoms” (freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear of external aggression) respectable an democratic society led by America (Lebedev S. America v. England. Part of 17. Big Bets of the Great Game // http://topwar.ru/86606-prover-amerika-protiv-anglii-chast-17-bolshie-stavki-bolshoy -igry.html). To this end, Roosevelt called on Japan to join the anti-Hitler coalition, withdraw the Japanese troops from China and Indochina, and recognize the Pacific region as a free trade zone.
The Pacific market, the Americans crammed the Japanese, will make it possible for America and Britain to enrich themselves along with Japan. Meanwhile, the American proposal demanded from Japan a radical transformation of both the external and the internal line of conduct. Unlike England, Japan remained true to its position and insisted on its own terms. “On September 6, at a meeting with the emperor’s participation, a plan was launched to attack the Dutch East Indies in order to capture vital oil fields and other natural resources. All other conquests in Southeast Asia were planned with the main goal - to protect the communications routes with the East Indies ”(Dzowett F. Japanese Army. 1931 – 1942 / Translated from English A. Kozlova; Art. S. Andrew. - M .: AST; Astrel, 2003. - C. 19 // http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/141454/Yaponskaya_armiya_1931-1942.pdf). On September 20, at a regular meeting of the Coordination Committee, the military demanded in an ultimatum from Konoe “to make a decision on the start of hostilities no later than October 15” (Yakovlev NN FDR is a man and politician. Pearl-Harbor's Mystery: Selected Works. Decree. Op. - C. 634 – 636).
On September 28, Secretary of State Hell, saying to Roosevelt that Japan, further narrowing the basis for reaching agreement on the American project, continues to insist on meeting in Juneau to realize its own, suggested that he “remind Japan of the position she held when meeting with ... was delivered ... for the first time; point out her tougher stance now, ask whether she will agree to resume preliminary talks on major issues in order to reach an agreement on them in principle before organizing the meeting, and at the same time reiterate your agreement to the meeting "(What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7 of the year. Ibid.). 1941 of October Roosevelt refused to meet with Konoe, stating to the Japanese ambassador that the condition of the meeting "should be a preliminary explanation by Japan of its attitude to the Tripartite Pact, the purposes of the stay of Japanese troops in China and attitude to" equal opportunities "in international trade" (Yakovlev NN USA and England in the Second World War (http://historic.ru/books/item/f2/s00/z00/st0000025.shtml).
“The American response has caused an increase in aggressive sentiment in Tokyo. On October 9, at a meeting of the coordination council, the military leaders stated that, in their opinion, there are currently no grounds for continuing negotiations, and that Japan should decide to start a war ”(History of the Second World War, ibid.). On the issue of prospects for further negotiations with the United States between the Prime Minister and the military leaders of Japan have disagreements. "The government of Konoe, who insisted that the demands of Japan could be met by negotiations, lost face in the eyes of the militarists" (N.N. Yakovlev, the United States and Britain in the Second World War. Ibid.).
October 15 in Japan, the government crisis broke out and October Konoe's 16 government resigned. The new government of General Tojo, who came to power on October 18, set out to accelerate the preparations for the war with the United States and Great Britain. On November 10, the Emperor's Secret Council decided to nominate the armed forces, but to stop the negotiations and make two proposals to the US government, tentatively named Plan A and Plan B. And if the negotiations before November 5 are not crowned with success, start December 25 War (until Tokyo time). November 8 Nomura handed the first version to Hull, and “November 7 10 of the year ... Vice Admiral Nagumo issued Operational Order No. 1941, ordering all ships to finish the 1 preparations for the November November 20 of the year” (What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about the attack of Japan on Pearl Harbor 1941 December 7 of the year // http://militera.lib.ru/docs/da/sb_pearl_harbor/1941.html).
November 15 Hell replied to the Japanese ambassador by refusing his proposals on international trade and the Tripartite Pact, calling them unacceptable. According to him, “the mob lynches him, the state secretary, if he comes to an agreement with Japan, which is bound by firm obligations with Germany” (Yakovlev NN FDR is a man and a politician. Pearl-Harbor's Mystery: Selected Works. Decree. Op. - S. 655) In response on the same day “15 in November the imperial headquarters and the Japanese government adopted the document“ Basic principles of warfare against the USA, Great Britain and Holland ”. It identified the goals of the war, areas of seizure of territories, forms of the occupation regime, methods of psychological and economic warfare, etc. After this, the deployment of the strike forces of the Japanese fleet began (Koshkin AA “Kantokuen” - “Barbarossa”) -Japanese. Why Japan did not attack the USSR. - M .: Veche, 2011. - S. 205). “From 17 to 22 November, Admiral Nagumo's operational compound ships gathered in Itankup Island in Tankan Bay (Hitokapu) on the Kuril Islands group” (Yakovlev NN FDR is a man and a politician. Pearl Harbor's Mystery: Selected Works. Decree. Op. - C. 523 – 524).
November 20 Hell received a new proposal from Japan, which required America to stop providing any material and moral support to China, at the same time resuming Japan’s oil supply and thus helping it in the war with China. “The Secretary of State considered the Japanese proposal from 20 November 1941 of the year as an ultimatum and ... from this point on, the point was essentially to try to delay the final gap for as long as possible in the hope that, in the words of Secretary of State Hull,“ for that time somewhere and something happens all of a sudden "(What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 of the year // http://militera.lib.ru/docs/da/sb_pearl_harbor/ 03.html).
November 22 Tokyo informed the Japanese embassy in Washington about postponing the end date of the negotiations with 25 to November 29, notifying in passing that if the Japanese side didn’t accept the deadline, the events "will develop automatically" (N.N. Yakovlev, USA and England in World War II (http://historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000025/st031.shtml). 25 On November 1941, the Anti-Comintern Pact was extended by 5 years by Germany, Japan, Italy, Hungary, Spain and Manchuku. “At the same time Finland, Romania, Bulgaria, as well as the puppet governments of Croatia, Denmark, Slovakia and the Wang Ching-wei government formed by the Japanese in the occupied parts of China joined it (Anti-Comintern Pact // https: // en .wikipedia.org).
Essentially, Japan not only confirmed its commitment to Nazi Germany and fascist Italy, but also involved in their orbit a puppet government in the occupied territory of China. In the evening of November 25, the United Fleet Commander Yamamoto ordered Nagumo to launch a nomination for a strike on the American fleet in Hawaii, notifying him, in case the negotiations were successful, be ready for immediate return and dispersal (YN NOV FDR is a man and a politician. Riddle Pearl Harbor: Selected Works (Decree. Op. - C. 525). On the morning of November 26, the carrier connection headed for Pearl Harbor, an attack on which was intended to defend the conquests of Japan in Malaya and the Dutch East Indies from the US Pacific Fleet.
November 25 Hell during a meeting of Roosevelt with the military “noticed that Japan brought a spear and could attack at any time. The President noted that the Japanese are known for their perfidiousness and can attack without warning. He stated that we could be attacked, for example, next Monday. ” According to War Minister Stimson, “if you know that the enemy is going to strike you, it’s usually unreasonable to wait for him to take the initiative and rush at you. However, despite the risks involved, we had to let Japan take the first shot. This was necessary in order to get the full support of the American people, who had to know who the aggressor was. ”(What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 of the year // http: // militera. lib.ru/docs/da/sb_pearl_harbor/06.html).
As a result of the discussion, it was decided not to take any proactive measures, and instead “send a temporary agreement to the Japanese government for a period of three months. During this time, negotiations were to be conducted with a view to working out a comprehensive peaceful settlement of disputed issues throughout the Pacific, and at the end of the modus vivendi agreement the two governments, at the request of either of them, should have discussed and established whether modus vivendi to reach a final settlement "(What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 of the year // http://militera.lib.ru/docs/da/sb_pearl_harbor/19.html). However, events soon took a completely different turn.
Upon returning from the meeting to the war ministry, Stimson was reported "very alarming intelligence data" about the beginning of the deployment of huge Japanese expeditionary forces on 30, 40 or even 50 ships from Shanghai, advancing along the coast of China and south of Formosa. According to Stimson, “we considered the attack on the Philippines as the main and most likely danger. Information about the movement of Japanese troops, which we were able to obtain, indicated that the troops were transferred to the south, from where they could be sent to Indochina, to the Malacca peninsula, to the Dutch East Indies or to the Philippines. Drawing such conclusions, we were right. The attack on the Philippines was prepared and immediately followed the attack on Pearl Harbor. The movement of the fleet forces that attacked Pearl Harbor remained completely unknown to us. ”(What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 of the year // http://militera.lib.ru/docs/da /sb_pearl_harbor/06.html).
Stimson immediately called Hull and sent a copy of the intelligence report to the president. On the morning of November 26, Hell “almost finally decided not to send a three-month recess to Japan,” and Roosevelt, who had learned from Stimson on the Japanese’s new actions in the morning, “deeply outraged Japan’s perfidy, which, on the one hand, negotiated the withdrawal of its troops from China, on the other hand, sent new troops to Indochina "(What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 of the year. Ibid.). Under the circumstances, Roosevelt resolutely put the Japanese in a dilemma - either to accept the American conditions entirely or to commit aggression against America and its allies.
November 26 Hell handed the Japanese ambassador a response to Japan’s proposals. The United States demanded that it conclude a multilateral non-aggression pact between the British Empire, China, Holland, Soviet Union, Thailand and the United States, withdraw all of its troops from China and Indochina, conclude a trade agreement based on mutual favor policy and the elimination of both countries trade barriers. To Stimson’s question “how things are“ with the Japanese - whether he presented them with a new proposal, which we approved a few days ago, or acted as we said yesterday, that is, stopped negotiations altogether ”, Hell replied:“ I wash my hands in this business. Now everything depends on you and Knox - the army and the navy. " I called the president after that. The president expressed it a little differently. He said that they stopped the negotiations, but only after a magnificent statement prepared by Hull. I learned later that the statement was nothing new and that it only confirmed our constant and usual position ”(What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 of the year. Ibid.).
Meanwhile, now the Japanese have taken the memorandum of Hella as an ultimatum. Without losing time, the Americans began to prepare for the already inevitable attack. On November 26, the American government used IBM “Holllerit” punched cards and counting machines, previously used by Hitler in Germany to identify Jews, began sorting 1930 and 1940 census data to identify Japanese and Japanese Americans living in the United States. Already 19 February 1942 of the Year Roosevelt will instruct the military to send 112 thousands of Japanese, regardless of whether they had American citizenship or not, to concentration camps (IBM helped Hitler to count the Jews during the Holocaust // http://lenta.ru/world / 2001 / 02 / 12 / ibm /; Yakovlev NN FDR - a person and a politician. Pearl-Harbor's Mystery: Selected Works (Decree. Op. - S. 668).
On November 27, the commander of the Hawaiian Military District and the commanders of three other districts at the Pacific Theater in Panama, the Philippines and the West Coast, including Alaska, were sent a warning about a possible start of the war, which indicated the end of negotiations with Japan and the likelihood of hostile actions on her part . Moreover, it was stressed that “if military action cannot be avoided ... it is desirable for the United States that Japan’s open hostile act be the first” (What happened in Pearl Harbor. Documents about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 in December 1941 of the year.). On the same day, the military and naval ministries, under the specious pretext of transporting 50 fighters to Wake and Midway Islands, were ordered to move away from the Hawaiian islands the aircraft carriers Enterprise and Lexington. November 28 Pearl Harbor left the Enterprise and, taking the 25 aircraft to Wake Island, turned back December 4. The next day, December 5, Lexington came out of Pearl Harbor to Midway Island, but not yet reaching Midway, received an order to connect with Enterprise (YNNF NN FDR is a man and a politician. Pearl Harbor Riddle: Selected Works (Decree. Op. - S. 520).
29 in November, although the agreement between the United States and Japan was not reached, Japan did not extend the deadline for negotiations. "The December 1 Coordination Committee made the final decision on the war against the United States, England and Holland." According to Tojio, "it is now clear that Japanese demands cannot be met through negotiations." The day of the beginning of the war was confirmed by December 8, Tokyo time (December 7, Hawaiian time) (NN Yakovlev FDR - a person and a politician. Pearl-Harbor Riddle: Selected Works. Decree. Op. - C. 678). 2 December 1941 of the year Hell asked Japanese ambassador Nomura and envoy Kurusu to comment on the advance of the Japanese troops to the southern part of Indochina, thereby indicating to Japan that the United States government is aware of the advancement of its troops to Indochina. On the same day, the Japanese government “asked Germany and Italy for formal commitments that they would fight together with Japan against the United States and would not make a separate peace. ... 5 December Ribbentrop handed over to Oshima more than requested Tokyo: the text of the German-Italian-Japanese agreement on the joint warfare and the non-conclusion of a separate peace (NN Yakovlev FDR is a man and a politician. Pearl-Harbor's Mystery: Selected Works. Decree. cit. - C. 679).
December 7 aircraft of the Japanese aircraft carrier smashed the American fleet in the harbor of Pearl Harbor. At the same time, Japan attacked the British colony of Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand and Malaya. December 8 Japan declared war on the United States, Britain, the Netherlands (government in exile), Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Cuba, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras and Venezuela. In turn, 8 December, the United States declared war on Japan (formally 7 December, because of the difference in time zones), 11 December, Germany and Italy, and December 13 - Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria.
December 22 The 1941 of the year, led by an impressive delegation, Churchill came to Washington. Roosevelt immediately besieged his guests, putting them in place with a small lecture on the US attitude towards England: “The American tradition is distrust, dislike and even hatred of Britain, you know, here memories of revolution, war of the 1812 year, India, war with drills, etc. D. Of course, Americans are different, but as a country, as a people, we are against imperialism, we simply cannot stand it ”(Yakovlev NN FDR is a man and a politician. The Pearl-Harbor Mystery: Selected Works. Decree. Op. - S 370). Roosevelt’s hatred of the British was sincere, genuine, and was caused by America’s historically poor relations with its former metropolis.
At the same time, hatred of mossy imperialism and the colonial system was due to the fact that they stood in the way of America to world domination, but “he wanted America to take the lead in the inevitable liberation of the colonial territories” (Kissinger G. Diplomacy // http: / /www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/History/kissing/16.php), Europe would not only lose its leadership and lose its colonies, but also fall under the protectorate of America. The ultimate goal of Roosevelt’s strategy was a unipolar world. The vision of his postwar world society was aptly captured by Secretary of State Hull in November 1943: “There will no longer be any need for spheres of influence, alliances, balance of power or other special arrangements through which nations in an unhappy past sought to ensure their own security or achieve their interests "(Kissinger G. Diplomacy. Ibid.).
Roosevelt demanded that Churchill completely abandon Britain’s privileged position in his colonies and “insisted that the charter be applicable not only to Europe, but to the whole world, including colonial territories:“ I firmly adhere to the fact that if we are going to ensure stable peace, it should include the development of backward countries ... I can not believe that we can wage war against fascist slavery and at the same time remain inactive in freeing people all over the world from the consequences of backward colonies common politics ". The British Wartime Cabinet rejected such an interpretation: “... the Atlantic Charter ... was addressed to the nations of Europe, which we hope to liberate it with Nazi tyranny, and was not intended to resolve domestic issues of the British Empire or to assess relations between the United States and, for example Philippines. The link to the Philippines was specifically made by London in order to enter into the framework of "excess feelings" on the part of America and show American leaders what they could lose if they brought their arguments to a logical conclusion.
And yet it was a shot that did not reach the goal, because America "for the sake of achieving world domination" has already decided to grant independence to its only colony as soon as the war ends. The Anglo-American debate about colonialism did not end there. In the 1942 year, on the occasion of the 1861 - 1865 Civil War Memorial Day, Roosevelt’s friend and confidant, Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles reiterated America’s historic rejection of colonialism: “If the current war is a war for the liberation of nations, it should provide the sovereign equality of all the peoples of the world, in particular, throughout the Americas. Our victory should lead to the liberation of all nations ... The era of imperialism is over ”(Kissinger G. Diplomacy. Ibid.).
Imperialism was replaced by a broad step in globalism. “In the previous era, the great powers fought among themselves for the possession of colonies and individual islets. In a unipolar world, it is assumed that the entire planet has become a colony of the United States, where individual units enjoy varying degrees of autonomy. ... In a world where your currency is the highest value, and your ships plow the alien seas like your own, owning overseas territories is no longer the highest value. After all, there you need to build roads, maintain schools, etc. It is better to give it to the natives, and the owner will do more important things ”(Kabardin I. America: globalism and overseas colonies // topwar.ru/69383-amerika-globalizm-i-zamorskie -kolonii.html). It is not surprising that “by the end of the XNUMXth century, Britain’s colonial past had vanished like smoke — only a few pieces of overseas territories were preserved from the once mighty Empire” (Kaptsov O. Black deer. Basic aviation in the Falkland War // http://topwar.ru/30676-chernyy-olen-bazovaya-aviaciya-v-folklendskoy-voyne.html).
1 January 1942 America, England, the USSR and China signed the Declaration of the United Nations. The next day, they were joined by another 22 state. “They all pledged to use their economic and military resources to fight against Germany, Italy, Japan and the countries that joined them, and besides, to cooperate with each other and not enter into a separate truce or peace with the states of the fascist bloc. This was the key to creating a favorable atmosphere for the planned buildup of military power of the anti-Hitler coalition (Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow // http://encyclopedia.mil.ru/encyclopedia/history/[email protected]).
“The fascist strategy is clearly deadlocked” (Dashichev VI. Bankruptcy of the strategy of German fascism. Decree. Op. - C. 6, 245). At one time, “Hitler violated his own decision not to fight simultaneously on two fronts” (NN Yakovlev FDR — a man and a politician. Pearl-Harbor Mystery: Selected Works. Decree. Op. C. 339) and now “Nazi Germany has been facing the threat of a lingering struggle on two fronts unpromising ... And in such a struggle, Goebbels wrote sadly in his diary, "the empire has never won a victory" (V.I. Dashichev. Bankruptcy of the strategy of German fascism. Historical essays, documents and materials. - Moscow: Nauka, 1973. - S. 247). Japan, in turn, followed in the footsteps of Germany and, without ending the war in China, attacked a country with military potential many times larger than its own. Japan’s decision to “conduct a transient campaign with limited goals” (YN Yakovlev FNR is a man and a politician. Pearl-Harbor's Mystery: Selected Works. Decree. Op. - C. 653) against America, over which it had no way to completely prevail despite all the initial successes, in the long run it did not bode well for her.
According to F. Jowett, “Japan simply did not have enough industrial base to expand the armed forces and make up for losses (for example, already in 1941, aircraft production in the US was four times higher than the corresponding figures of Japan, and then the gap began to widen further). The huge industrial potential of the United States soon surpassed the Japanese both qualitatively and quantitatively. By the end of 1942, the scale of production and the quality of American military products, as well as the number of military personnel, aircraft and ships that the US could use outside its own territory, became so impressive that the myth of Japanese invincibility that developed as a result of the initial defeats of American and British troops began to fade. . Nevertheless, largely due to the amazing personal qualities of the Japanese soldier, it took another three years of fierce and bloody battles to bring the Japanese empire to a final defeat ”(Jowette F. Decree. Op. - C. 27 – 28).
Thus, America helped England in its struggle against Nazism not disinterestedly, but for its recognition of the American political and economic structure of the post-war world. Since imperialism with the colonial system stood on America’s sole world domination, Roosevelt demanded Churchill accept the creation of a free trade zone in the British colonies, told the British about the inevitability of dismantling the colonial system and urging them to accept the end of the era of imperialism. Believing that part is less than whole, but more than nothing, Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter.
While the Japanese neglected the American offer to join the democratic camp, accept the free trade zone in the Pacific and leave the occupied territories of China and Indochina. Refusing to meet with Konoe, Roosevelt essentially put an end to real negotiations. Allowing Japan under the guise of continuing the sham talks to treacherously attack America, Roosevelt thereby made it an aggressor. The Japanese, who did not wish to sign the treaty with the Americans, were destined to lose everything, to experience the bitterness of military defeats in the Pacific, the defeat of the Kwantung Army, incinerating a fiery whirlwind over Tokyo and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
President Roosevelt signs the declaration of war on Japan. Source: http://www.fresher.ru/2011/08/02/fotografii-ataki-na-perl-xarbor/
1 schema. Military operations in the Pacific in 1941 — 1945 Source: The Great Soviet Encyclopedia // http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/bse/76395/%D0%92%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%X0%D1%8%