Military Review

Tamer "Tornado"


Tula says goodbye to the outstanding gunsmith, the author of the famous MLRS Grad and Tornado Gennady Alekseevich Denezhkin. Yesterday, all day since the morning the Tula went to honor the memory of a person whom they knew, loved, which they were proud of. Human flow is not interrupted for a minute. In the honor guard - the first persons of the regional authorities, the director of Tula defense enterprises.

It is significant that the farewell takes place in the Tula Museum. weapons, in the very hall where samples of modern works of Tula gunsmiths are exhibited. Somehow it happened that almost directly behind a large photo of Gennady Denezhkin, mock-ups of his products were placed on the stands. And the actual samples "Grad" and "Smerch", developed by FSUE "GNPP" Splav ", are installed in front of the entrance to the museum.

- I have worked 30 for years. We had a very good school tandem - he has a MLRS school, I have another one, - Nikolai Makarovets, general director and general designer of the FSUE “Splav” Splav, shared with RG. ”And this tandem helped Splae a lot. We worked for Russia, but we managed to declare about ourselves abroad. Gennady Alekseevich was a very principled, responsible person, he could be trusted with any question. A wonderful family man. He worked until the last day. He is an exceptionally decent person and a man of his word. Always showed patience in solving complex issues . He was loved. Tomorrow there will be a funeral all the defense community of the country.

- He never raised his voice, the worst was when he quietly said: "Do I have to order you?" And this phrase, spoken in a calm voice, acted worse than any shout, ”recalls the deputy chief designer of Splava, Boris Belobragin, who has worked with Gennady Alexeevich for almost 30 years. - His instructions were carried out implicitly, because everyone knew that he was sick of the cause. And he demanded the same from others. He knew how to say that it immediately became clear: it was necessary.

And for all that he did, he answered. They say that Gennady Denezhkin himself traveled to all the emergencies that arose for various reasons. It is no secret that other weapon developers, in the event of any inconsistencies, are trying to shift the responsibility onto others, they say, the military has "nakosyachili" or allied companies have not done it. “Until I figure it out, we won’t draw conclusions,” he said, and he went to the training ground to investigate. And he climbed everywhere, despite the danger: “Grad” is my cross, I’m responsible for him, ”he told colleagues who tried to stop. The same with the new technology. So, in August last year, 83-year-old Gennady Denezhkin, as deputy chairman of the state commission for delivery, went on a business trip to test a new product. He himself got behind the wheel of a car and drove to Kapustin Yar for one and a half thousand kilometers. And I looked at everything in detail: what, where and how it got. Then he immediately returned to Tula.

They say about Gennady Denezhkin that he knew all his products thoroughly. So, at one of the enterprises-subcontractors, when they were put into serial production, local designers indicated to him, they say, that they have found such a chamfer - we don’t need it, let's eliminate it. "What do you mean, I worked on it for three years!" - Denezhkin was outraged, having understood what it was about by phone.

Rest Denezhkin little - took a vacation for ten days and fishing. I went with friends to the Volga. And they chose a desert island, so that neither people nor signs of civilization. He also loved hunting. In a word, he actively lived and worked until the very last days. And the cause of death is ridiculous: two months ago, fell down the stairs, was injured.

They say about Gennady Denezhkin that they liberated Vietnam - its installation “Partizan” operated there. He actually solved the problems in Afghanistan, in the counter-terrorism campaign in the North Caucasus. More books will be written about him. According to the current “Splava” general designer, last year a new modernization of the “Grad” system was put into service. Now "Splav" is developing a new product - "we are not only loaded with current production, but also are developing new products" - and this is all a continuation of the work of an outstanding weapon designer.

Tamer "Tornado"

Infographics RG / Anton Binders / Leonid Kuleshov
Help "RG"

Gennady Alekseevich Denezhkin was born 28.01.1932 in the city of Karabanovo, Vladimir region. Designer and organizer of work on the creation of multiple launch rocket systems. Hero of Socialist Labor (1989). Winner of the Lenin Prize (1966). Laureate of the State Prize of the Russian Federation (1997). Awarded two Orders of Lenin, Orders for Services to the Fatherland, II and III degrees, many medals. Honored Designer of the Russian Federation. Doctor of Technical Sciences, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Honorary citizen of Tula. Honorary Doctor of Tula State University.

After graduating from the Tula Mechanical Institute in 1954, he was assigned to work at the Scientific Research Institute-147 (now the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Splov State Research and Production Enterprise, Tula). He made a great creative contribution to the development of the famous Grad system, created in 1963, all its subsequent activities are related to the development of artillery shells and MLRS, with the creation of the systems "Grad-1", "Prima", "Uragan", etc. In 1983-m is appointed chief designer and first deputy general director of FSUE "GNPP" Alloy ". At this time, continued successful development of the MLRS and finally confirmed the possibility of using in long-range MRLS missile flight correction with a significant reduction in dispersion. In 1987, the Smerch MLRS with an angular stabilization system is adopted. Various types of MLRS and their combat equipment are being improved, including self-aiming elements to combat armored vehicles.

In 1992, he proposed the concept of developing a unified weapons system in the interests of the Ground Forces, the Navy fleet and the Air Force on the basis of a 122 caliber projectile instead of the previously created and obsolete products Grad, Grad-M, C13. The new design of the projectile allowed to increase the firing range from 20 to 40 km and significantly increase the weight of the warhead. In terms of effectiveness, these products are superior to world analogues. The author of more than 300 scientific works and inventions.

Thanks to the "Grad" known worldwide

For a full salvo of 12 shells of “Twister” need no more than 40 seconds, after which the jet system in three minutes can roll up and leave the position. Photo: RIA News

The system "Grad" is known worldwide. Sixty-six countries took the Gradovo rocket as the basis for their similar rocket systems. It is recognized almost reference. And in this great merit of designer Denezhkin

When in the 1954 year after graduating from the Tula Mechanical Institute a completely young engineer was assigned to a secret research institute-147, he most likely could not even guess what he was to do. And what will be the work of his life. Three years later, in NII-147, under the leadership of outstanding designer A. N. Ganichev, work began on creating a new generation of multiple launch rocket systems.

It would seem, so what was special in that? After all, Katyush analogs were actually created. And the "Katyusha" was a big drawback - a huge scatter of missiles. That is why, after the Victory in the Soviet Union, they intended to close this line of rocket artillery altogether. The generals who had passed through the war were sure that there were no prospects for volley fire systems, since in battle it was necessary to hit not square, but specific targets.

Alexander Ganichev, Chief Designer of the Scientific Research Institute-147, had great work to defend to the military the idea of ​​developing multiple launch rocket systems. Just an increase in accuracy and the appearance of the new rocket had to deal with Gennady Denezhkin. As a result, it was possible to achieve, more recently, it seemed quite impossible. The ballistics of reactive hailstones, caliber 122 mm, turned out to be the same as those of barreled artillery shells. They didn’t fly away, but beat exactly to the specified target, smashing it to smithereens.

The BM-21 Grad system was adopted in 1963 year. For his contribution to its development, Gennady Denezhkin was awarded the Lenin Prize in 1966. It was then the designer 34 of the year.

And in 1969, the first combat use of the top secret jet salvo systems then took place. It happened during the conflict on the island of Damansky. The effect was stunning.

It soon became clear that these systems have a huge potential for combat use. For example, using “hail” you can mine large areas at a distance of several kilometers. A salvo of 20 missiles mined a kilometer of the front - in each rocket many small anti-personnel mines. There are missiles designed to interfere with enemy radio communications at the tactical level. A set of eight rockets suppresses radio equipment in the 1,5-120 MHz frequency range. Firing range 4,5-18,5 km. The continuous operation time of the 60 interference transmitter is minutes, the interference radius is 700 m. The lighting rocket provides illumination of a circle with a diameter of 1000 m from a height of 450-500 m for ninety seconds.

And Denezhkin was directly involved in the creation of all this.

In 1983, he was appointed chief designer and first deputy general director of the State Research and Production Enterprise Splav, which grew out of a small research institute-147. He received great authority, which allowed to implement the most ambitious plans. Work continued to improve the combat characteristics of the Grad, and even more powerful systems were created. In 1987, the Smarch RSZO was put into service, which caused no less shock to the then military opponents of our country than the Grad used to be. Closed by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1989, G.A. Denezhkin was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. It was a reward for Tornado.

The characteristics of this reactive system are fully consistent with the name. The firing range of the 300 mm missiles "Smerch" was 90 km, and now reaches 120 kilometers. The system can be equipped with four, six or 12 guides for rockets. For a full salvo of 12 shells of “Twister” need no more than 40 seconds, after which the system can roll up and leave the position in three minutes.

Here is just a short list of what the Tornado is capable of in combat. There are projectiles that contain 72 combat elements, each of which carries 6912 ready-made heavy fragments intended to destroy unarmored vehicles, and 25920 ready-made light fragments intended to destroy enemy manpower.

There are missiles with self-targeting combat elements. They are designed to defeat armored vehicles. The combat elements released above the site of the accumulation of enemy equipment themselves find the targets and pierce the armor with a thickness of 70 mm.

There are shells for anti-tank mining areas. Each of them contains 25 anti-tank mines with an electronic proximity fuse.

There are a number of cumulative projectiles capable of striking all types of armored vehicles.

A missile with a thermobaric warhead creates a thermal field with a diameter of at least 25 meters. The temperature inside this field is above 1000 Celsius. To survive in this hell-fire there are no chances for the equipment, much less the soldiers-aggressors

Already at the end of his life, continuing to work, despite his advanced age, Gennady Denezhkin took an active part in creating a completely new rocket launcher - the Tornado. They differ from the "Smerch" new chassis, unified with the MLRS of other calibers, and improved ammunition.

Now in service with the Russian army are three-caliber jet systems. These are 122 mm Grad, 220 mm Hurricane and 300 mm Smerch. The design of the Tornado allows you to install the starting blocks of different calibers on one wheelbase. In the future, an option is being considered for placement in containers that can be mounted on the Tornado chassis, operational-tactical and cruise missiles.

In the new system, you can use old ammunition. But for the "Tornado" created and completely new missiles. The range of their shooting - 90 km. Rockets "Tornado" have a satellite guidance system, so that rockets hit the ball.

Separate and not yet fully disclosed the scope of the "Alloy" and designer Denezhkin - the creation of multi-rocket systems for the Navy. For example, the jet ship complex "Udaw-1M". He is able to effectively repel torpedo attacks on surface ships, destroy submarine sabotage groups and fight enemy submarines. It never occurred to anyone to fight submarines and torpedoes with salvo attacks from jet systems. Tulyaki did it first. And one of the first in the series of creators of naval weapons - Gennady Alekseevich Denezhkin.
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  1. Koshak
    Koshak 22 February 2016 06: 23
    Man! All his life - for the defense of the Motherland, and the memory of him - not only among people, but also in the systems that he created. soldier
    1. subbtin.725
      subbtin.725 22 February 2016 07: 06
    2. tracker
      tracker 22 February 2016 14: 00
      The brilliant Soviet designers Gryazev, Shipunov, Invincible, now Denezhkin are leaving. Immortal respect for the people thanks to whom Russia still lives
      1. cap
        cap 22 February 2016 18: 09
        Quote: Pathfinder
        The brilliant Soviet designers Gryazev, Shipunov, Invincible, now Denezhkin are leaving. Immortal respect for the people thanks to whom Russia still lives

        + I join hi
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 22 February 2016 07: 28
    Our care is simple,
    Our concern is this:
    If my native country lived,
    And there are no other worries ....
    So lived and worked - Gennady Alekseevich Denezhkin. A low bow to you and memory ..
  3. midshipman
    midshipman 22 February 2016 09: 31
    Met with G.A. Denezhkin in Tula and at arms exhibitions. Honored and respected specialist. I bow to him. It is an honor of our country. I have the honor.
  4. ALEKS419
    ALEKS419 22 February 2016 12: 28
    The best are leaving .. Eternal memory
  5. sw6513
    sw6513 22 February 2016 18: 40
    Man-legend. Rest in peace ..
  6. Litsvin
    Litsvin 22 February 2016 19: 37