Military Review

Gun waltz

17
Gun waltz



82 a year ago, 13 February 1934 of the year, came the climax of the four-day civil war that erupted on the eve of Austria. The artillery of the government troops opened fire with high-explosive and chemical shells at the proletarian quarters of Vienna, in which detachments of the workers' militia and Shutsbund, the militant wing of the Social Democratic Party, defended themselves.

The Social Democrats and the Communists who supported them revolted in an attempt to resist the onslaught in the country of the clerical-fascist dictatorship led by the local "Fuhrer" Engelbert Dolfus. In 1933, Dolphus, relying on the far-right Christian Social Party (CSU), the fasteist organization of the Fatherland Front and church circles, carried out a coup d'état. He broke up the parliament, banned all parties except the CSU and the Vaterlandish Front, introduced censorship and launched reprisals against political opponents. Mass arrests and construction of concentration camps began in the country.

Due to the fact that on the side of Half-hearted, the regular army came out, the uprising was quickly suppressed. By February 16, the military and Heimwere troops of the Vaterlandish Front armed militia eliminated the last centers of resistance of the Schutzbundis. In street battles, according to various sources, people died from 1300 to 1600, of which the rebels were about 1000, the rest were soldiers and heymverovtsy. Dozens of captured rebels were shot or hanged, thousands fled abroad.

As a result of the defeat of the uprising in Austria, a regime was established, which four years later led to its absorption by Nazi Germany. True, Dolphus himself did not live to see it. Fearing competitors both “left” and “right”, he banned not only the communist, socialist and social democratic parties, but also the Nazi NSDAP. In retaliation in July 1934, he was shot by SS man Otto Planet. However, this is different история.

And on the screensaver "Star of Shutsbund", carved on a rock in Kislovodsk by Austrian immigrants - participants in the uprising, who decided after the flight from the country to move to the USSR. At first they were greeted enthusiastically and settled in the North Caucasus, but in 1937-38, most of them were declared “fascist agents” and repressed.



Left: Engelbert Dolfus speaking at the Ф Vaterlandish Front rally. Right: caricature photo collage "The Führer is big and the Führer is small." Dolphus was really almost a dwarf, his height was only 148 centimeters.



A group of Heimvera fighters with the Schwarzlose machine gun.





Demonstrations shutsbundtsev held in Austria before the ban of this organization. In order to differ from the ultra-right militants, the Social Democratic militias wore not horned stalhelmy, but rounded helmets of the French and Italian type.



The building of the working commune of Karl Marx, which in February 1934-th one of the main strongholds of the Vienna insurgents.



The Austrian army arrives in Vienna.





Police armored cars "Skoda" Czechoslovak production, who took an active part in street fighting. The rebels did not have artillery and any other armor-piercing weaponsable to withstand these machines.



Soldiers with light field howitzer near the Schiff hotel.







Artillery from the embankment of the Danube firing on the rebels, entrenched on the opposite bank.



Map of Vienna with marked street fighting spots. Right: killed Heimvers.



Death machine gunner.



Traces of the work of artillery. On the left is the commune of Karl Marx, on the right is the commune of Schlingerhof.
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17 comments
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  1. AlexW
    AlexW 22 February 2016 06: 13 New
    22
    I am ashamed, but I must admit that there was a complete gap in knowledge about the history of Austria in the pre-war period. Besides the Anschluss, I could not remember anything. I saw a star in Kislovodsk, but did not attach any importance to it. Article plus. Special thanks for the photo. Cognitive and encourages the search for additional information.
    1. Riv
      Riv 23 February 2016 07: 53 New
      +3
      In the USSR, this page of history was not advertised. The fact is that about the support of the uprising by the Communists - this is an exaggeration. For the Austrian Communists, the uprising was a surprise. He was raised by the Social Democrats, and the Bolsheviks ruled out the possibility for the Social Democrats, as Compromisers, of organizing an armed uprising based on the proletariat.

      Therefore, the uprising turned out so short. If the rebels had normal support from the USSR ... But no one asked Stalin for help.
  2. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 22 February 2016 07: 05 New
    +8
    The symbol of the Austrian nationalists directly with the symbol of una-unso echoes. Raguli cannot come up with anything of their own, they even stole the symbolism of their old curators! wassat
    And since there, as I remember, it was not so simple, Dolphuss was more a fascist than a National Socialist. He was patronized by the Italians and when Otto Strasser, the head of the left-wing nationalist organization "Black Front", fled from Hitler to Austria, like our National Bolsheviks, he was received with caution. As before the death of Dolphuss himself, the NSDAP was not accepted.
    In general, looking from the outside bell tower, these performances were more like a minus. Firstly, then fascism and National Socialism, to put it mildly, did not combine in views and competed among themselves. Secondly, formally independent fascist Austria would later become Hitler’s same burden as Italy, Hungary, and Romania. And thirdly, after the uprising and the assassination of Dolphus, the rapprochement between the Italian fascist party and the NSDAP began ... all this later poured into Spain and so on and so forth ...
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 22 February 2016 18: 20 New
      +1
      "First, then, fascism and National Socialism did not combine in views and
      competed with each other "////

      It's right. Mussolini did not recognize the very concept of nation, and Hitler ridiculed Hitler’s Aryan theory
      (... Italians - the heirs of the Roman Caesars - are the most cultured and cool, not the northern primitives ...) smile .
      Mussolini exaggerated the topic: "Latin world" (meaning - the world of Latin, the Latin language, the foundations of European culture, etc.)

      The article is excellent.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 22 February 2016 07: 44 New
    13
    Dolphus was killed by militants of the Austrian SS on July 25, 1934, after his death on July 29, 1934, Chancellor of Austria became Kurt Schuschnigg. He announced a plebiscite on the preservation of Austria's independence, Hitler demanded that the plebiscite be canceled and Schuschnigg resigned. Austrian President Wilhelm Miklas accepted Hitler’s terms. On March 12, the next day, German troops crossed the border of Austria to include it in the Third Reich. Anschluss of Austria took place ... So when they say that the Anschluss of Austria and the return of Crimea to Russia are the same thing .. this is far from it .. Thank you to the author for interesting photos .. and comments on them ..
  4. X Y Z
    X Y Z 22 February 2016 08: 13 New
    +6
    After reading the article, the statement of historians becomes more understandable that in Europe, in the 30s, there were about 15 dictatorial regimes.
  5. moskowit
    moskowit 22 February 2016 10: 06 New
    +6
    Read about this page in the history of Austria at Remarque. He has a cycle of stories about Jewish emigration from European countries, where Nazi influence was intensified, to Austria and through it to France and the USA ...
  6. kunstkammer
    kunstkammer 22 February 2016 15: 07 New
    +6
    Glory to all the heroes who fell in the fight against Nazism!
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 23 February 2016 17: 29 New
      0
      kunstkammer

      Maybe use the word "glory" on the word "memory" ...

      And it somehow sounds Ragulian. Rather, the word "glory" will be beaten in fashion, regardless of the continuation.
  7. AlexW
    AlexW 22 February 2016 16: 41 New
    +5
    "The Austrian Chancellor died defending his principles. And this is not so common in our cynical time." (FROM)
  8. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 22 February 2016 17: 02 New
    +6
    The officers and generals of the collapsing empire were looking for at least some embodiment of their ideals (well, not ideals, then - goals for which they had served for 10-20-30 years before and shed blood. Austria after 1918 was a little separate and even - independent, and here - again the Anschluss.
    A little bit is in historical temporal terms. And for many people, this temporary piece has become a tragedy.
    Some "states" since 1991, having declared independence, are still waiting for someone to conquer them again. No worries, no hassle, in everything in 50 years the occupier will be to blame, who finally built the road from the town hall to the bell tower. It's not customary to remember people ...
  9. Pre-cat
    Pre-cat 22 February 2016 21: 54 New
    +2
    Quote: Sergey-8848
    Some "states" since 1991, having declared independence, are still waiting for someone to conquer them again. No worries, no hassle, in everything in 50 years the occupier will be to blame, who finally built the road from the town hall to the bell tower. It's not customary to remember people ...

    Moreover, after another 50 occupiers will be to blame for the fact that they did not build something. laughing
  10. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian 22 February 2016 22: 48 New
    0
    The article is the biggest plus. I did not even hear about the uprising in Austria, thanks to the author, the gap is closed. Of course, history does not tolerate subjunctive moods, but what would happen if the left defeated ??
    1. AlexW
      AlexW 22 February 2016 23: 13 New
      0
      Quote: Pomoryanin
      The article is the biggest plus. I did not even hear about the uprising in Austria, thanks to the author, the gap is closed. Of course, history does not tolerate subjunctive moods, but what would happen if the left defeated ??

      I suppose there would have been a civil war and intervention by Nazi Germany and Nazi Italy. Austria would have been bled with blood, as earlier in 19. Tips in Hungary.
  11. Grishka cat
    Grishka cat 22 February 2016 23: 59 New
    +1
    Most likely Mussolini would have retreated and Austria would still have been under Germany. In1934, and not in 1938.
  12. Partisan Kramaha
    Partisan Kramaha 23 February 2016 18: 59 New
    0
    Something very reminiscent of modernity. Very similar to 404
    1. Conrad
      Conrad 24 February 2016 20: 28 New
      0
      Quote: Partizan Kramaha
      Something very reminiscent of modernity. Very similar to 404

      What does it look like ?! Complete identity. That's just the main thing has not yet been shot!