Military Review

Citadel of Russian statehood

Citadel of Russian statehood

The Moscow Kremlin is the heart and soul of the capital, its source. The Moscow Kremlin is a stronghold of power, a citadel of the Russian statehood. It was here that the destinies of the people, the destinies of the country, the destinies of the nations were made. The Moscow Kremlin has always been perceived as the sacral center of the country.

In ancient times, the roots of the good military tradition to give honor and respect to the rulers, monarchs, princes, commanders, hero warriors by exposing the guard. Once armed guards protected the life, peace and health of their lord and his guests. Over time, the custom of guarding state residences has changed significantly. He has new features and features. Gradually, the guard's guard functions began to be complemented by ceremonial-aesthetic, designed to attest to the special respect of the state person. Today, expressions such as “guard of honor” and “honorary escort” have become firmly established in the vocabulary of the peoples of the world. The guard of honor is a concentrated expression of honor and respect, paying due honors to people who deserve it for their feats of arms or everyday labor affairs.

The process of formation of Russian statehood led to the emergence and development of the institute of state protection of the country's top officials, which should be considered as an integral component of the state security system. At the same time, representative functions were immediately added to the security functions of the first units responsible for the “physical health” and calmness of the first persons. Hence the underlined attention to the appearance of security officers who were actively involved in the parade-guard duty.


Carrying the guard service in the Moscow Kremlin has a long tradition. In the years of the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the Kremlin, tenants were in service, glittering in their bright costumes richly decorated with stones, exclusively during the reception of ambassadors, ceremonial exits and ceremonies. The squires of the king, his bodyguards and an honorary escort in the royal train were the so-called rynda. During ceremonies in the Kremlin, the bellies stood guard in ceremonial clothes and with tailgings on both sides of the throne. From the second half of the 16th century, the guard and ceremonial escort of the king was provided by archers who liked to show off in a color “serving dress”. They carried the "guard of the wall" of the Moscow Kremlin.

Companions of the sovereign Peter, united by the bonds of military duty in the first guards regiment of the empire, on the battlefields are an amazing and unsurpassed example of courage and courage, ensuring the safety of the king and the members of the august family. Transfigurations participated in celebrations and ceremonies, parades and processions. None of the important state events was complete without their presence. They carried guard duty in the capital and all palace cities, accompanied the sovereigns on their trips and travels. The transformation of Russia into an empire under Peter I was marked by the appearance of a special unit, the honor guard of the horse guards. Never in the Russian Empire did not exist part, which concentrated in its ranks so eminent and honorable people.

In the 19th century, the duties of guarding government agencies and the first persons of the state, carrying the guard of honor, participating in ceremonies and parades were assigned to a number of military structures known in the past, among which the elite unit of the Life Guard, a special company of the Palace grenadiers, stands apart. The living relic of the Moscow Kremlin at the beginning of the twentieth century was the guardsmen of the Moscow detachment of the legendary Golden Company, created by nominal decree of Emperor Nicholas I from ordinary Life Guardsmen who "went on campaigns against the enemy" and showed courage and bravery on the battlefields, and also "have insignia and medals. "

At all times, the best warriors of the country were attracted to the protection of the Kremlin. They became the best in mortal combat with the enemies of the Motherland. The 69 officials of the Palace Grenadier company had insignia of the military order of St. George and the man 84 - the sign of the distinction of St. Anne (for the 20-year-old service). In difficult periods for the Motherland, when the enemies rushed to Moscow to turn the Russian people into slavery, the Kremlin’s defenders went to the front line to smash the enemy on the distant approaches to the capital. Best of the best defenders of the Kremlin have multiplied the traditions of the Moscow princes, warriors Dmitry Donskoy, militias Kozma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky, diehard Guard of Peter I, the brave soldiers of Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kutuzov, Mikhail Skobelev, Alexei Yermolov and Alexei Brusilov, desperately brave sailors Fyodor Ushakov and Pavel Nakhimov.


Guard 1 th Soviet United Military School of the Red Army to them. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee on the Protection of the Temporary Mausoleum VI Lenin and the commandant of the Kremlin R.A. Peterson. 1924 Photo of the Year

The last century, the security of the Moscow Kremlin is inextricably linked with the name of the legendary December 15 based 1917 of the Moscow Higher All-Arms Command School. Graduates and cadets of this oldest and most famous military-educational institution of Russia were fondly called the people of the Kremlin. 4 marshal and about 600 generals received initial military education in the school, 92 graduates became Heroes of the Soviet Union, 4 graduates became twice Heroes of the Soviet Union, 2 became Heroes of Socialist Labor, 8 became Heroes of the Russian Federation. In 1919 – 1935, the school was located in the Moscow Kremlin. For special merits in the defense of the state and exemplary protection of the Kremlin, the school personnel received numerous thanks and awards, and the cadets rightfully became known as the Kremlin.

In the fall of 1918, the cadets began to carry out regular guard duty to guard the Kremlin. This was a sign of the highest confidence of the state to the red commanders. But when danger grew over the country, the Kremlin in a single impulse came to the defense of their beloved homeland. More than 10 cadet brigades, regiments and machine-gun teams fought on the fronts of the Civil War. Hundreds of cadets left as volunteers. The Kremlin everywhere showed miracles of courage and heroism, served as a model of faithful service to the Fatherland. By decision of the Soviet government, commanders and cadets who died as heroes died in battles, a wooden obelisk in the form of a triangular pyramid with a globe above was placed in the Kremlin (in the square between Arsenal and the Senate). Over time, the obelisk was reconstructed, the tree was replaced by marble. The inscription on the monument reads: “Glory to the commanders and cadets who fell in battles in the fight against the counter-revolution under the Orekhov and Sinelnik 23 / VIII - 1920 year”.


Pain in my heart was the news of the beginning of the war. Fascist Germany, violating the treaty, treacherously, without declaring war, attacked our country. Cadets, teachers and commanders of the school named after the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, fulfilling their military duty, defended their great Motherland ....

The school produced 19 military graduates and trained more than 24 thousands of officers who went through difficult roads of war a long way from Moscow to Berlin. In the autumn of 1941, a separate cadet regiment was formed as part of the 10 company, which took a forced march to Yaropolets in the area of ​​concentration. Volokolamsk defensive line, which included the cadet regiment, was soon headed by Major General Ivan Panfilov. In a fierce battle near Moscow, 720 cadets were killed (more than half of the regiment). But the task of the Kremlin performed with honor. Their feat was an example of heroism, courage and military prowess.

The government highly appreciated the feats of arms of commanders and cadets of the school named after the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, who honorably carried out the combat missions of the command. For courage and bravery shown in the battle for Moscow, 30 officers and 59 cadets were awarded orders and medals of the Soviet Union.

On all fronts of the Great Patriotic War, from the Barents Sea to the Black Sea, on the battlefields and behind enemy lines, thousands of Kremlin graduates in all positions, from platoon commander to army commander, are miracles of heroism and courage, courage and command skills defended and defended Home from the hated enslavers. 76 of them were awarded the high title of Hero of the Soviet Union, and three became twice Heroes.

Their acts are great, and the exploits are immortal. The names of those who, according to the poet Vladimir Solovyov, were glorified by general rumors, illuminated and exalted in churches, those who loved, fought and died for Russia, are unforgettable.


Today, the ICCA is one of the recognized military universities in the country. Its graduates have earned the deserved respect of fellow citizens officer training, courage, heroism and courage. The envoys of the armed forces of many foreign countries seek to get a military education here.

On the eve of the upcoming 100 anniversary of the country's oldest military educational institution, its chief, Major General Alexander Novkin, on the stage of the Central Academic Theater of the Russian Army, with excitement and trepidation, names the pets, whose glory both cadets and commanders are rightly proud of. Unbending resilience and heroic strength, courage and courage, endurance and courage, perseverance and dedication, honor and pride are qualities that for nearly a century have personified the color of Russia's military elite. The officer profession is a special profession. In the conditions of modern Russian reality, it requires a special ideological temper, it is identified with knightly service, asceticism, and determined by the centuries-old code of traditional attitudes and ideas. The profession of an officer more than any other requires vocation. It is difficult physically and morally, it is dangerous even in peacetime, it requires high dedication, reaching to the self-forgetting. The officer service is fraught with many deprivations and inconveniences, which representatives of other professions do not even realize. The highest degree of responsibility requires an officer of deep conscience and self-restraint. The officer corps is the backbone of the armed forces. More than 100 years ago, on the eve of the First World War, the famous Russian journalist Mikhail Menshikov called officer heroism the spring of the army and prophetically speaking to the intelligence of the nation, he shared his suffering revelation: “The officers are the soul of the army. In fact, they alone are the defense of the state. "

Proud of glory of heroes

Lieutenant Colonel of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Hero of the Russian Federation Vladimir Vasilyev lived a short but bright life. After graduating from college in 1984, he commanded a motorized rifle platoon, then a company. As commander of a motorized rifle battalion of the 245 Guards Motorized Rifle Regiment, he participated in the storming of Grozny. In 1999, he was appointed deputy commander of the 245 motorized rifle regiment. In the battle near the village of Pervomaysky on the outskirts of Grozny, he personally led an attack by motorized riflemen, breaking through the entourage in which one of the regiment’s companies found themselves. At the end of the battle he was killed by a sniper's bullet. By the decree of the President of Russia, Guards Lieutenant Colonel Vladimir Vasilyev was posthumously awarded the high title of Hero of the Russian Federation for the “courage and heroism shown during the counter-terrorist operation in the North Caucasus region”.

FSB colonel, participant of the Afghan war and two Chechen wars, Hero of the Russian Federation Alexey Vasilievich Balandin left the school walls in 1983 year. After a three-year stay in Afghanistan, he graduated from the MV Military Academy. Frunze. In the North Caucasus, he led the actions of the special forces units of the FSB and personally participated in combat operations. 9 April 2009, the head of the operational-combat department of the Directorate “B” (“Vympel”) of the FSB Special Purpose Center, Colonel Alexei Balandin, died returning from a combat mission. By decree of the President of Russia from 13 June 2009, for “courage and heroism shown in the performance of military duty,” Colonel Alexei Balandin was posthumously awarded the high title of Hero of the Russian Federation. In the suburban town of Balashikha, where the brave warrior passed his childhood, one of the streets was named after him.

Solemn exit of Emperor Nicholas II from the saloon car of a lettered train. On the platform - the personnel of his convoy. 1914 Photo of the Year

He graduated with honors in 1994, the Moscow Higher All-Arms Command School. Supreme Council of the RSFSR Vladimir Kulbatsky. The 117 edition of the 2 battalion remembers well this cheerful and never discouraged guy. After studying, he served in the 1-th separate security brigade of TsAMO and the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces (Moscow), then he was a course officer at the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. Since August 1998, he has served in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation in the security division of state security objects on highways. Since February 2002, he is an officer (attached) in the personal security group of the Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation. He served here until his death 9 September 2002 of the year ...

Volodya left us with the rank of captain. On the day of his death, he was in the car escorting the convoy of the Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation during his visit to Kamchatka. On the Yelizovo-Petropavlovsk highway, a gray Volga escort was blocked by a jeep rushing towards you, driven by a drunk driver. The car took the brunt of a jeep. The accident scattered cars across the entire width of the road throughout the 30 m. As a result of the accident, five people were killed and nine were injured. Having closed the minibus with the members of the delegation from a direct collision, Vladimir Vladimirovich Kulbatsky remained loyal to his officer duty, sacrificing himself to save the life of an object of state protection. This is a feat.

Alexander Perov, who graduated from the forge of the Kremlin cadres - the Moscow Higher Command School in 1996, was a hereditary military man. In Alpha, Sasha Perova, despite his almost two-meter height, was nicknamed Pooh. Special Forces took him to his family. He immediately won the championship of the FSB in skiing. He became the first in the double-event service, excellently spoke at shooting competitions. Feat - part of the special forces profession. A business trip to Beslan was unexpected. As unimaginable for cruelty was a monstrous atrocity committed in this cozy North Ossetian town by a gang of brutalized nonhumans. In the course of a short fierce battle, Major Perov destroyed a terrorist who shot the hostages - the children. Saving the hostages, he covered his own body of people exhausted by thirst from breaking a grenade. Having received mortal wounds, he did not leave the line of fire, continuing to lead the group ... For courage and heroism, Alexander Perov was awarded the title Hero of Russia (posthumously).

The standard-bearer of the school, at the parade in honor of the 50 anniversary of the Great Victory, in front of the whole country, walking alongside a war veteran - the main standard-bearer with the Victory Banner in his hands, was the course favorite, a former Suvorov student Nikolai Shchekochikhin, who graduated from Moscow VOK with a gold medal in 1995 year. The only person on the course he was given the rank of senior sergeant in the position of the section commander. After graduating from college he served in the FSB of Russia. Repeatedly performed combat missions. Killed in the North Caucasus region 30 March 2000. Nikolay Nikolaevich Shchekochikhin was awarded the medals "For Courage" and "For Courage." In the memory of relatives, friends, the entire 118 edition, Nikolay Shchekochikhin will forever remain the standard-bearer.


There are many graduates of the Moscow Military University in the top command positions of the Armed Forces, among them: Colonel-General Nikolai Vasilievich Bogdanovsky, First Deputy General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces, Colonel-General Anatoly Alekseevich Sidorov, Chief of Staff of the CSTO, Colonel-General Andrei Valeriyevich Kartapolov, Chief of the Main Operations Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Lieutenant-General Sergey Fedorovich Rudskoy.

Colonel General Igor Dmitrievich Sergun was also a graduate of the Moscow Military University of Human Rights, who until the last day of his life headed the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces.

Traditionally, graduates of the school continue to ensure the security of the Kremlin. The commander of the Presidential Regiment of the Federal Security Service of Russia, Major General Oleg Pavlovich Galkin, a former student of MosVOK, began serving in the Kremlin almost 30 years ago as a platoon commander of the same regiment. Under Galkin, presidential grenadiers received and mastered modern armored vehicles, air defense assets. Under him, the regiment was supplemented by a cavalry squadron. The regimental soldiers serve at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, conduct spectacular divorces with the participation of a cavalry escort. At the same time, in terms of combat readiness, part of Galkin is not a front door, but a full-fledged combat. The commandant of the Moscow Kremlin and the direct head of General Galkin, Lieutenant-General Sergey Dmitrievich Khlebnikov, notes: “Many of the positive changes in the regiment are closely related to the activities of the current commander. I know that Oleg Pavlovich is a talented person, and I have no doubt that he will cope with everything successfully. ”

The leading posts in the Federal Guard Service of Russia are occupied by prominent graduates of the school. Among them, Lieutenant-General Igor V. Vasilyev, Lieutenant-General Sergey Vladimirovich Yangorev, Major-General Mikhail Alexandrovich Filimonov, the press center of the FSO is headed by Colonel Alexander Alekseevich Ryazkov, and the head of the Grand Kremlin Palace is Colonel Dmitry Ivanovich Rodin.

And in the civil service, the former Kremlin remains a model of loyalty to the service to the Fatherland. And here in the most important areas of state, economic, social activity graduates of the Moscow Higher All-Arms Command School named. The Supreme Council of the RSFSR gave and give all the strength, knowledge, talents to the prosperity of our Motherland.

Vladimir Vasilievich Chernikov, a graduate of MosVOKU, a reserve colonel, candidate of economic sciences, has achieved great success in the field of state activity. Being a man of diverse talented and creative, Vladimir Chernikov managed to be realized on domestic television by creating his own television program on the VGTRK channel “On the Roads of Russia”. However, scrupulous honesty and integrity led him soon to the post of head of the inspectorate of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation. Since May 2006, Vladimir Chernikov has been working as Deputy Head of the Administration of the State Duma’s Office of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. Two years later, he headed the Financial and Economic Department of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. Currently, Vladimir Chernikov is the head of the Department of National Policy, Interregional Relations and Tourism of the city of Moscow. He is a valid State Counselor of the Russian Federation of the 2 class.


In 1992, the school graduated with distinction from the person-legend Sergey Vladimirovich Militsky. No films have been made about it yet and no novels have been written. Only oral stories of his comrades in the famous group “A” Alpha of the Center for Special Purpose of the Federal Security Service of Russia and the Operational-Search Department of the Federal Security Service of the Federal Security Service of Russia. The officer received his baptism of fire in a fierce clash with a gang of terrorists in Budennovsk. Then the Alphas, literally covering the hostages with their bodies, entered into a cruel and fleeting melee. Three of his special forces comrades died under gangster bullets, Militsky himself was seriously wounded in the head, but having shown an incredible effort of will, he kept his conscience and continued to shoot. Colonel Sergey Vladimirovich Militsky is one of three people in the Russian Federation and the only holder of four (!) Orders of Courage in the Russian FSB. He was also awarded the Order “For Military Merit”, the medals “For Courage” and “For the Salvation of the Perished”.

Alexander Aleksandrovich Zubkov was born in the family of a front-line soldier. He graduated from college in 1977 with a red diploma. Early received the rank of captain and colonel. He served in the GSVG and LenVO in the Arctic. He served in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation as Chief of the Direction of the Main Operational Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation with the rank of Major General. Poet. Conducts the poetic chronicle of the school and the exploits of the Kremlin. During the celebratory concert in December 2015 of the year, devoted to the 98 anniversary of the school, on the stage of the Central Academic Theater of the Russian Army sounded verses by the author:

Machine Gun School was born

At the break of great eras

And military science taught

In the walls of the Kremlin palaces.

And in the years of dashing tests

On the battlefield for the country

The cadets held the exam,

Life giving for Moscow.

And if the terrible time

In the military campaign will call,

Kremlin cadets change

Take a step forward.
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  1. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 14 February 2016 06: 28
    The article is interesting, thanks. At the very great-grandfather in the convoy of the emperor served.
    1. Tatyana
      Tatyana 14 February 2016 08: 10
      An interesting and useful article. For the first time I read such a review article on the history of the organization of the protection of the Kremlin and top officials of the state.

      Authors +
  2. serge siberian
    serge siberian 14 February 2016 19: 24
    Major General Oleg Pavlovich Galkin in 1986 served in the Separate Red Banner Kremlin Regiment with the rank of captain, was awarded the Order of the Red Star. In the 90s he was transferred to the reserve, but did not stay there for long. In the same 90s he was reassigned to his military unit, VOKKP, but renamed to the Presidential Regiment, where he still serves today, and rightfully enjoys the respect of his colleagues and veterans of his military unit.
  3. The comment was deleted.