Military Review

"Black Death"

110
"Black Death"



It seems that there are no more white spots in stories World War II. But some pages still remain in the shadows. How seldom they recall such an ally of the Soviet Union as the Tuvan People's Republic! It is worth recalling that from 1921 to 1944. Tuva had the status of an independent state, and then voluntarily became part of our country.

How much they talk about the help of the USSR from the "Western" allies, while forgetting the help of two "Eastern": Tuva and Mongolia! But, according to experts, the cumulative deliveries of these two states to our country during the war years were only a third less than the total amount of aid - from the USA, Canada, England, Australia and the South African Union, Australia and New Zealand combined.

During the war years, the Tuvan people sent the Soviet Army 40 thousands of war horses, 50 thousands of pairs of skis, 10 thousands of short fur coats, tens of thousands of pairs of felt boots, 67 tons of wool, a huge amount of food and wood. The front-line soldiers received 389 carriages with gifts from Tuvinians. In addition, 25 June 1941 of the Year Tuva transferred to the Soviet Union all its gold reserves in 30 million rubles. and the mining of Tuvan gold (about 11 million rubles per year). And those rubles, whose purchasing power is ten times higher than the current one. In 1944, the arats of the republic, taking patronage over the liberated districts of the Kiev region, transferred more than 26 thousand head of livestock to the Ukrainian collective farms. It was this livestock that became the basis of the post-war revival of animal husbandry in Ukraine. In total, during the war, Tuva sent about 750 thousands of livestock to our country. There was not a single Tuvan family that did not donate their livestock to the needs of the front, from 10 to 100 heads. The total amount of material assistance rendered by Tuvans reached 70 million rubles.



But this does not exhaust the participation of Tuva in the fight against the fascists. A memorable event for Tuvans was the departure of 1942 in January to the front of a large group of Soviet citizens, who previously worked hand in hand and lived with Tuvan workers and arat. In the 1943 year, the crews of Tuvan volunteers began their combat mission as part of the 25 Tank Regiment. They participated in the liberation of Ukraine and Moldova, continued to beat the fascists in Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia. The youngest lieutenant X. Churgui-ool, who showed courage and military skill during the battles for Uman, was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. The military merits of the Tuva tank crews T. Nürsat, X, Unuk-ool, K. Idama B. Bieche-oola, S. Portoi-oola, T. Kyzyl-Tasa, O. Dyrtyk were also highly appreciated. They were awarded orders and medals.

Otherwise, you can’t call as heroic the military way of the Tuvan volunteer cavalrymen who entered the battle on the days when the Soviet Army launched broad offensive operations in Ukraine. We will dwell on the participation of the cavalry squadron of Tuvan volunteers in the liberation of the Rivne region of Ukraine in January-March, 1944.

During the Rivne-Lutsk offensive operation, which was held from 27 January to 11 February 1944, the 8-I Guards Cavalry Division of the 6 Guards Cavalry Corps of the 13-th Army, fulfilling the task, 1 February went into the rear of the 33-th Army, followed by the march for the task, 31 February went to the rear of the 200-th army, and the march for the task, 29 February went to the rear of the rear of the XNUMX-th army, the march Headquarters, February 2014 attack on Rivne. In the first echelon there were guards cavalry regiments; The XNUMX th and XNUMX th Kuban-Black Sea, which included XNUMX Tuvan volunteers, The second echelon was - XNUMX th Guards Cavalry Regiment (GKP).



On the approaches to Rivne, the Germans fought stubbornly. The Kuban-Black Sea people, together with the 33 GKP, were given the task of mastering the enemy stronghold in the northwestern part of the city next to the brick factory, and subsequently to advance in the direction of Klevan-Rovno. Having specified in the course of personal reconnaissance data on enemy defense, the regiment commander E.A. Popov decided to attack the stronghold of 1, 3 and 4 (Tuvan) squadrons in the first echelon. 2-th squadron was the second echelon. Their attack was supported by several batteries of an artillery regiment of the division. Squadrons of the first echelon had to seize the territory of a brick factory and reach the northeast edge of the city. The Tuvinian squadron had the task of attacking on the left flank of the regiment north of Oburow-Rovno highway at the front of the 300 m.

The Tuvin squadron commander, Captain T. Kechil-ool, established a two-echelon combat unit. The first consisted of 2, 3 and 4 th saber platoons (commanders senior lieutenant K. Tongut, lieutenants M. Dorzhu and M. Sat), in the second echelon - 1 th saber platoon of senior lieutenant O. Oolak. A platoon of machine-gunners of Senior Lieutenant S. Burzekei followed in the intervals between saber platoons, supporting their attack by fire from short distances.

After entering the area at a distance of 500 meters from the base, the riders dismounted. Horse owners sheltered horses in a safe place. When it got dark, the cavalrymen secretly stole a distance of about 100 m to the enemy position. Then, at the signal of the squadron commander, they rushed to the attack. The enemy opened heavy rifle-and-machine-gun fire on our soldiers. But the Tuvans quickly broke into enemy positions and drove the Germans out of the factory.



At dawn 2 February, the fight resumed. The 33 th Guards Cavalry Regiment drove the Germans to the Obaruv-Rovno Highway, and the 31 th moved to the northern edge of the city. However, in the area of ​​the experimental station, the units of the Kuban-Black Sea Regiment were stopped by the stubborn resistance of the Nazis.

Having strengthened on the reached turn, the units of 1, 3 and 4-th squadrons opened heavy rifle and machine-gun fire, diverting the enemy to themselves. At the same time, Captain Kechil-ool assigned the task to 3's saber platoon of Lieutenant M. Dorzhu, imperceptibly bypassing the enemy from the right and hitting him from the rear. Leaving the position of the machine-gunners and the 2 th saber platoon, Kechil-ool led the 1 and 4 th platoon of cavalrymen to the territory of the brick factory and ordered the horse breeders to move the horses.

Using the terrain, the platoon of Lieutenant Dorzhu walked around the enemy from the right flank and attacked him on foot. The appearance of cavalrymen in the rear of the defense stunned the Nazis and caused confusion in their ranks. This took advantage of the commander of the 4-th squadron. He led a squadron in the equestrian system, like the Nazis did not expect. They did not have time to recover, as the Tuvans, overcoming their defenses, broke into the railway junction. A platoon of senior lieutenant O. Oolak escaped ahead. Ahead was the commander. He chopped the Nazis with a saber and fired from the PCA. 12 fascists destroyed the commander personally, and his platoon destroyed the enemy infantry to 60. The Germans could not stand the rapid onslaught of cavalry and began to depart.

The memories of the German officer are well known, in which he said that the sight of Tuvan cavalrymen riding on little shaggy horses had a demoralizing effect on his soldiers. According to the officer, this was due to the fact that at the subconscious level the Germans perceived “these barbarians” as the hordes of Attila. After this battle, the fascists gave the name Tu Schwanze Tod - “Black Death” to the Tuva cavalrymen. In addition, the Germans were terrified by the fact that Tuvans had their own centuries-old ideas about the military rules, and, based on them, they did not take enemy soldiers and officers prisoner in principle.



As we moved deeper into the city, the resistance of the enemy grew. Having recovered from the strike and pulling up reserves, the fascists began to counterattack, trying to bypass the flanks and surround the units of the 31 Guards Cavalry Regiment. Repeatedly repulsed the 1 th and 3 th squadron counterattacks. Twice he was surrounded by a Tuvin squadron, but both times he tore up the enemy ring and fought his way forward. It was not easy for a neighbor, the 33 Guards Cavalry Regiment. By one o'clock, more companies of enemy marines had broken into the gap between the 33 and 31 cavalry regiments. As soon as the warriors fought off this counterattack, the enemy struck the flank of the 31 cavalry regiment up to the battalion. The regiment commander brought into reserve a reserve - the 2 squadron. At the same time, two platoons attacked the enemy bound in battle by cavalry. Having lost more than 100 people killed and wounded, the Nazis retreated. The cavalrymen again moved to the city center.

By the end of the day Rivne was released. The next day the division moved to Dubno. The fighting for this city was the brightest page in the history of the Tuvan squadron. Here the volunteers showed not only swiftness and audacity in the offensive, but also iron resistance in the defense.

Trying to prevent the advance of the Soviet units to the south and enable their battered battles to take up defenses along the Ikva River, the German command hastily transferred infantry and tank units. The enemy began to counterattack continuously. Parts of the 8th Guards Cavalry Division were ordered to defend west of the village of Pogoreltsy. The 31st Guards Cavalry Regiment operated on the left flank of the division, occupying about two kilometers. The Tuva squadron defended the area near the village of Sur-michi, with a length of about 800 m and a depth of 600 m, with the task of influencing the enemy with rifle fire weapons and prevent its divisions from reaching our leading edge.



By organizing the defense, the squadron commander built the combat order of the subunit in two echelons. The first consisted of 1, 3 and 4 th saber platoons, the second - 2 th platoon. Captain Kechil-ool paid special attention to the organization of fire at the front edge. The machine guns and light machine guns were positioned so that they could hit the enemy from long distances, conduct flanking and indirect fire at the approaches to the defense area, and also support counter-attacks of the second echelon platoon. The commander chose positions for the calculation of anti-tank guns especially carefully and personally determined each task.

From the very beginning, defensive battles took on an extremely stubborn character. Creating in some areas a significant superiority of forces, the enemy sought to break through the defenses of our units and discard Dubno. In these battles, the commander of the machine-gun platoon, Senior Lieutenant S. Burzekey and 10 machine-gunners with him, as well as the calculation of sergeant-officer’s anti-tank rifle M. Serena, died firing at the enemy to the last bullet. The machine gunner Sergeant Mon-Gush Choat covered the actions of his squadron. It was necessary to detain the Nazis and give the horsemen the opportunity to take a favorable position. The machine gunner fired until the fragment shattered the machine gun. Then he took the gun. When the ammunition ended, three German soldiers rushed to the sergeant. They wanted to take the fighter into captivity, realizing that he was unarmed. And the Tuvinian himself did not try to escape, he even went to meet them. And suddenly something happened that the Nazis did not expect. A swift shot - and the butt of an automatic rifle fell on the head of the enemy who did not have time to take up arms of the enemy. The last bullet Sergeant killed the second fascist. The third one pulled out a machine gun from a cavalryman, but at the same instant Tuvan’s fingers tightly tightened the throat of an enemy soldier. Grabbing his weapon, Chot jumped off in the course of the message and left in front of the startled Nazis.

Defensive battles continued at the frontiers of the Ikva and Styr rivers until the spring of the 1944 of the Tuva squadron, along with other units of the regiment, completed the tasks assigned to it. The division commander and the head of the political department noted that Tuvan fighters prefer death on the battlefield to surrender, and the guard Captain Kechil-oola knows the entire personnel of the division as a brave and brave commander who always appears where there is the greatest danger.



26 May 1944 The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR awarded the most distinguished Tuvans with orders and medals. The orders of the Red Banner were awarded to Captain T. Kechil-ool, Senior Lieutenant M. Bayskylan, Private O. Senchy. Order of World War I degree was awarded 21 warrior, Red Star - 3, Glory - 17, medal. In all, during the war years, up to 8 thousands of Tuvan residents served in the Soviet Army, almost 5 thousands were awarded various awards.



Sources:
Kuznetsov. I. Volunteers from Tuva // Year 1944. Zarnitsy winning salute. Lviv: Kamenyar. 1979. C. 181-194.
Chichkin A. Tuva: Unknown War. Forgotten ally of the USSR in World War II // Russian newspaper. 6 May 2009.
Domank A. Tuvinsky volunteer // Military-Historical Journal. 1974. No.4. C. 51-54.
Baliev A. Mal is an ally, yes roads. Why did the contribution of Tuva to the defeat of fascism be hushed up? Century. 12 May 2010.
Pivovarov V. Volunteers. Kyzyl: Tuvin. Prince publishing house, 1990. C. 142-149.
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  1. Apt13
    Apt13 16 February 2016 06: 38
    14
    Fighting Guys, I certainly read a lot and books about Tuvans too, but to prevent this from happening, it’s a pity that they got involved with alcohol and drugs, not everywhere, of course, everything is so bad, and it’s impossible to speak a couple of people for the whole people, there are bad people in every nation
    1. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB 16 February 2016 10: 04
      14
      Shoigu is also a Tuvan ... good guys ...
      1. Talgat
        Talgat 16 February 2016 19: 11
        +5
        Tuva and Mongolia are inseparable from Russia for the simple reason that Russia (like any Eurasian empire of the past) is an alliance of Slavs and the steppes - and Tuva and Mongolia are one of the key parts of the Great Steppe (Tuva, albeit not quite a steppe in the geometric sense, but with Altai is the ancestral home of all Turkic nomads - both Tatars and Kazakhs and Kyrgyz - we are all essentially one people almost)

        Interesting. that the name of the capital of Tuva is translated from Kazakh as "Red" - a funny coincidence - Red Army men - Red
        1. afdjhbn67
          afdjhbn67 17 February 2016 05: 02
          +1
          Quote: Talgat
          Tuva and Mongolia are inseparable from Russia

          Yes, the Uzbek god ... from Russia in Mongolia, only the skeletons of DOS remained and that's it - everywhere China steers
          I was in Erdenet last year, sadness is complete .. don’t need Asian songs under tambourines)))) Favorite song about the Great Steppe wassat
        2. Marat76
          Marat76 17 February 2016 10: 39
          -9
          Don’t talk much.
          Eastern people speak little and accurately.
          And you have not been Kazakh for a long time.
          Kazakhs, by definition, with Ukraine.
          Both Ukrainians and Kazakhs are truly steppes, and Russians never.
          1. tupolev-95
            tupolev-95 17 February 2016 13: 34
            +1
            Yeah - they roam the whole farm on the steppe and salt from their nomadic pigs salt))) In a word - nomad brothers.
          2. The comment was deleted.
          3. Talgat
            Talgat 17 February 2016 17: 17
            +3
            Unfortunately, we also have such people as Marat76. These are victims of the dominance of Western propaganda - one thing pleases - there are not many
            1. tupolev-95
              tupolev-95 17 February 2016 20: 04
              +3
              Now there are a lot of people living in parallel reality. In Russia, some also love stories about the most-most ancient and powerful of their ancestors - aliens from distant planets, etc. etc. Zadornov is the most harmless of these clowns.
            2. The comment was deleted.
      2. afdjhbn67
        afdjhbn67 17 February 2016 05: 03
        +3
        ShturmKGB
        good guys ...

        When sleeping, with teeth against the wall (((
        1. PHANTOM-AS
          PHANTOM-AS 17 February 2016 05: 12
          0
          Quote: afdjhbn67
          When sleeping, with teeth against the wall (((

          Where is the aggressor? kamenyuki to score urgently)))
          1. afdjhbn67
            afdjhbn67 17 February 2016 05: 17
            -2
            Quote: PHANTOM-AS
            Where is the aggressor? kamenyuki score urgently

            Yes, you are goddamned, here smoothly about the idea of ​​pan-Turkism, Asian brothers are rubbing the Mongols like they should land the collective farm .... Forgot about the Halkin Goal and so on. otherwise the Japanese of the Mongols would have thinned so that now 300 thousand were steeped across the steppe, They got Vitek) some people are generally ready to kiss in a hickey, they probably have one more chromosome))))
            1. PHANTOM-AS
              PHANTOM-AS 17 February 2016 05: 53
              -3
              Quote: afdjhbn67
              some people are generally ready to kiss in a hickey, they probably have one more chromosome))))

              u-yoyo)))
              Only Peresvet comes to mind. Mongol-Shuudan ischo lol
              I understand that I am surrounded .. and the Mongols, Eugays, mattresses, zilch, Ukrainians, Yap, Shaitans, horn
            2. Chisayna
              Chisayna 17 February 2016 06: 26
              -5
              Yes, you are uzbogysya. I recently spoke with Tuvans. And I jokingly told them. Here you joined voluntarily, so you can leave voluntarily too. They are perplexed, how? a lot of strength and you will be supported. And all legally, like in the Crimea. You will vote, you are the majority. And about the geographical and geopolitical location of Tuva, I will not say anything at all. Sit in a soft place and do not foul where you live.
              1. Chisayna
                Chisayna 17 February 2016 06: 30
                -3
                This is for the whiner from Ulan-Ude. No need to spoil where you live.
    2. Megatron
      Megatron 17 February 2016 03: 43
      -1
      That’s where the Bandera fascists got tales about the Altai Armored Police!

      Still afraid on a subconscious level!
  2. vyinemeynen
    vyinemeynen 16 February 2016 06: 51
    26
    Great article. Thanks.
    In school books should be.
  3. Good cat
    Good cat 16 February 2016 06: 53
    16
    Engineer-techie well done, interesting articles, facts uncovered.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Aleksander
      Aleksander 16 February 2016 12: 32
      -3
      Quote: Good cat
      Engineer-techie well done, interesting articles, facts uncovered.

      On the whole, of course, yes, but this article is very strange in some places. Judge for yourself, ponder this statement by the author:
      total deliveries of these two states to our country during the war years in terms of volume are only one third inferior to total aid - from the USA, Canada, England, Australia and the South African Union, Australia and New Zealand combined.

      This is just nonsense.
      1. Kasym
        Kasym 16 February 2016 15: 21
        19
        The troops near Moscow in 41 all wore Mongolian short fur coats, and some horses under 1 million goals were sent to the front. Now judge for yourself. I am not talking about food, etc .. hi
        And many are new to us. Zealand and Australia delivered? hi
        1. Seal
          Seal 16 February 2016 19: 11
          +4
          Quote: Kasym
          The troops near Moscow in 41 all wore Mongolian short fur coats

          Well, probably it’s not necessary to cut down on "all the troops." In the USSR, too, a large number of factories and artels sewed sheepskin coats.
          Quote: Kasym
          And many are new to us. Zealand and Australia delivered


          Well, these two countries have probably put not so much. But the author claims that
          But, according to experts, the aggregate supply of these two states (Mongolia and Tuva - my footnote) our country during the war years in terms of volume was only one third inferior to the total volume of aid - from the USA, Canada, England, Australia and the South African Union, Australia and New Zealand combined.

          But this is obvious stupidity. I would like to look at the experts referred to by the author of the article.
          1. Kasym
            Kasym 16 February 2016 19: 49
            +5
            Seal. Information from the President of Mongolia Brilev in the program "Vesti on Saturday". Mongolian cadets who studied at 41 in our military. Universities went to our front. And we must remember 39g. on Khalkin-Gol. And if the USSR fell, then Mongolia would have been occupied for several days. Therefore, Mongolia shared the latter - this is not only friendship, but also the understanding that they cannot survive without us. Leather, wool, meat came mainly from Mongolia (as well as other foodstuffs), because after collectivization and famine of the 30s, this did not remain in the steppe. hi
            Siberian divisions near Moscow were all in Mongolian sheepskin coats.
            1. Seal
              Seal 16 February 2016 19: 57
              +2
              Siberian divisions near Moscow were all in Mongolian sheepskin coats.

              Be so kind as the numbers of the so-called "Siberian divisions" and at least indirect, but either witness or documentary evidence that the "sheepskin coats" were precisely Mongolian. You are welcome.
              1. Kasym
                Kasym 16 February 2016 22: 24
                +1
                Seal, these are the literal words of the Mongolian president - will he lie in an interview with Brilev !? hi
                You can probably search on the RTR website. hi
                1. Seal
                  Seal 13 November 2016 19: 38
                  0
                  Yes, the President said, said. So what ? You never know what the presidents said. There, George W. Bush — he was generally a goldfinch. Yeltsin again. What about Gorbachev? He was also the President. What about Parashenko? But Armenian presidents - they generally say that during the war years, 600 thousand Armenians went to the front. True, they recognize that this is from all over the USSR - but nonetheless precisely 600 thousand. Moreover, 200 thousand - did not return.

                  And in fact ? Let's take it. According to the 1939 census, there were 2.152.860 people in all Armenians throughout the USSR. There are no data as of June 22.06.1941, 2, but I believe that the number of Armenians in the USSR at this date was unlikely to exceed 200. It is believed that the population is approximately halved: men and women. Consequently, there were 000 million 1 thousand people of Armenian nationality from 110 day to 1 years old throughout the USSR. According to the ratio of ages in the USSR before the war, it is estimated that about a third of the population are minors, and 100 percent are people over the age of 20 years. True, among mountainous and Transcaucasian peoples the percentage of older people is higher. Well, okay, we can do without this correction factor. In total, out of 60 million 1 thousand men of Armenian nationality, from 100 day to 1 years old, there were 110 thousand children and 330 thousand old people. Total 220 thousand. The number of women of Armenian nationality drafted into the army was so small that they could be neglected. However, if we add 550 thousand drafted Armenian men to 550 thousand children and old men, then we reach the figure of 600 people. Forgive me, even MORE than the total number of men of Armenian ethnicity in the USSR :))
                  So, senior researcher at the Institute of History of the NAS RA, Doctor of Historical Sciences G. S. Avrahamyan, who calculated that the number of Armenians drafted to the front from the USSR could not exceed 370 thousand, who in Armenia is considered not only RIGHT, but HE EXCEEDED call figure. If even half of the Armenian men of draft age of the USSR were called up, then this figure will not exceed 270 thousand people. And they called - it does not always mean "to the front." It was the Armenians who greatly replenished our armies in Iran. And these armies were non-combatants.
        2. veteran66
          veteran66 16 February 2016 19: 21
          0
          Quote: Kasym
          And many are new to us. Zealand and Australia delivered?

          These may be a little, but thousands of tanks, planes and cars (which, by the way, accounted for 2/3 of the entire fleet of the Red Army), rental, rails, refineries, radio communications, diesel locomotives .... with all due respect and thanks to the Tuvan people Well, nothing ....
          1. Seal
            Seal 16 February 2016 20: 22
            +5
            The Americans supplied 9,1 thousand tons of molybdenum concentrate to the USSR for a "miserable" amount of $ 10 million (one thousandth of the total cost of Lend-Lease goods). On the scale of Soviet metallurgy, where the bill went to millions of tons, 9,1 thousand tons is an insignificant trifle, but without this "trifle" it is impossible to smelt high-strength structural steel. And in the endless lists of lend-lease supplies, not only molybdenum concentrate - there are also 34,5 thousand tons of metallic zinc, 7,3 thousand tons of ferro-silicon, 3,3 thousand tons of ferro-chromium, 460 tons of ferro-vanadium , 370 tons of metallic cobalt. And also nickel, tungsten, zirconium, cadmium, beryllium, 12 tons of precious cesium ... 9570 tons of graphite electrodes and 673 tons (i.e. thousands of kilometers!) Of nichrome wire, without which the production of electric heating devices and furnaces will stop. And another 48,5 thousand tons of electrodes for galvanic baths.
          2. kush62
            kush62 12 November 2016 15: 48
            0
            veteran66 February 16, 2016 19:21 ↑
            These may be a little, but thousands of tanks, planes and cars (which, by the way, accounted for 2/3 of the entire fleet of the Red Army), rental, rails, refineries, radio communications, diesel locomotives .... with all due respect and thanks to the Tuvan people Well, nothing ....


            And they paid a lot of money to the Tuvan people? Free and voluntary.
            And the mattresses received gold.
            1. Seal
              Seal 13 November 2016 18: 34
              0
              Quote: kush62
              And the mattresses received gold.
              Really? Are you even a little familiar with the principles of Lend-Lease? Lend-lease is not a sale, but a rental property. The USA leased us military and civilian goods (finished goods and raw materials) and for rent until the end of the war. And after the war ended, what was not consumed (for example, the stew was eaten by the soldiers, it is clear that it wasn’t required to be returned) or destroyed (by the enemy or for some other reason) - it was just to be returned. And without payment. Moreover, the United States even refused to return all the weapons that were delivered to us and that had survived by September 1945. But the surviving locomotives, wagons, cars and the like, the United States asked to return. Or pay. We did neither one nor the other. Only after many years, something was partially paid there at a large discount.
              1. kush62
                kush62 14 November 2016 08: 54
                +1
                The general principle of Lendlis is this: Hire my short fur coat Seal, you will fight and return. You will perish for me, lodge. But I am also a participant, I gave a fur coat.
        3. Vadim_2
          Vadim_2 16 February 2016 20: 45
          +2
          The European peoples, first of all, think about themselves, and the Asian people about business - this is a war or an industrial revolution. Hence the actions and sacrifices.
        4. Aleksander
          Aleksander 16 February 2016 22: 13
          0
          Quote: Kasym
          Troops near Moscow in 41 all wore Mongolian short fur coats, and some horses under 1 million heads was sent to the front. Now judge for yourself. I'm not talking about food, etc.


          In how, it turns out the obvious, not obvious. Those. 400 000 thousand Studebakers, tens of thousands of aircraft and tanks, steam locomotives and hundreds of thousands of tons of other valuable goods = a million horses. Roughly speaking, 1 truck = 1 horse. lol Now it’s clear, he joined the USSR (made happy yes ) the richest people on Earth is Tuvinian. Bravo! hi
          1. Kasym
            Kasym 16 February 2016 23: 54
            +1
            Read more carefully, please. Mongolia. You cannot fight naked and hungry. I did not deny the help of the "allies", but the role of other countries cannot be belittled. I understand that the West equates its assistance almost as fundamental to victory and promotes it. Another victory in Africa at the level of the army corps (by the Nazis) was almost the main battle in the Second World War. But the importance of Mongolia and Tuva is no less than the aid of the West. And when there was an operation against the Kwantung Army, the Mongols announced a general mobilization - all the men went to war !!! And they helped a lot in it. hi
            And for reference. Western Mongolia - the Altai Mountains on the western side - is inhabited by Kazakhs and representatives of the peoples of Altai (Türks). There have always been very, very few Mongols. Even now. hi
            1. Kasym
              Kasym 17 February 2016 00: 18
              0
              I apologize, it will be correct: "-Altai mountains from the eastern side-"
            2. Aleksander
              Aleksander 17 February 2016 03: 42
              +2
              Quote: Kasym
              Read more carefully, please. Mongolia. You can't fight naked and hungry. I did not deny the help of the "allies", but the role of other countries cannot be belittled. I understand that the West equates its assistance as almost fundamental to victory and promotes it.

              I tell you about Thomas, you tell me about Eremu ... WHERE do I have "belittling" other countries ?! I was talking about incorrect NUMBERS, and you are agitation for me. Once again, the author's assertion that"The aggregate supplies of these two states to our country during the war years in terms of volume were only one third less than the total volume of aid - from the United States, Canada, England, Australia and the South African Union, Australia and New Zealand, combined"is TOTAL Nonsense and STUPIDness.
              1. Kasym
                Kasym 17 February 2016 04: 37
                0
                You write like that - Bullshit, Agitki - as if there are statistics of numbers. Do you think the Mongols counted how much wool, meat and skins were sent to the front? How can we evaluate assistance in food, horse-drawn transport, etc.? Here are the simple facts.
                As part of the Soviet troops, the Mongol nomads organized the success of the Kwantung operation. The blow from Mongolia, through the Gobi desert and Inner Mongolia, brought the success of this operation, because our troops went to the rear of the Kwantung Army. And they made the Japanese defend themselves in fortified areas. For such a throw, the nomads, conducting deep reconnaissance, conducted routes so that the Japanese could only defend themselves. To supply the operation of the USSR attracted air. army, but this was not enough, because in addition to fuels and lubricants, water was also needed, including for the Mongol cavalry. And they provided this logistics. Otherwise, this operation would not have been possible in two weeks. By the way, all military analysts call this operation the most successful planning. and conducted by a military company for the entire 2 world. the war. How to evaluate the help of Mongolia in this matter? It is customary in the West to consider everything in a mentality; nomads do not have this. Where is the Nonsense and Stupidity? Where is agitation and nonsense? Do not scatter words please.
                And I assure you that there were no deserters among the Mongols. Also from the mentality. If a man is not taken by fellow villagers (relatives, tribesmen) on a campaign, then he is not full-fledged. It's a shame. Therefore, the Mongol nomads stood up as one. Only children and the elderly stayed at home. This is not an agitation, but the mentality of nomads. And not a few of them died in the liberation of China. hi
                1. Kasym
                  Kasym 17 February 2016 05: 54
                  +1
                  Alexander, and if you come up from a moral point of view. All this Western help could have come to the fascists if we had begun to beat the fascists with 41, so from a moral point of view, this help, for me personally, is reset. Do you agree? But the Tuvans and Mongols were the last to share, and they also kept the front against the Japanese. All the more valuable is their help, and when the turn came, they did not blunder. And the Yankees, with all their might, were connected last - when the victory became obvious. And then they got rich and completely dictated by the rules so far. Therefore, their help is simply the benefit that made them a superpower. What you have listed has already given 100000% of the profit - that’s my opinion. hi
                  1. Seal
                    Seal 13 November 2016 18: 49
                    0
                    Well, let's look from a moral point of view. Mongols and Tuvans were our allies. Before the war, we helped them (you). How they attacked us - you began to help. Everything is fair and fair. I do not understand your claims to the West. After all, neither England nor the United States were our confederates. In general, they had every moral right not to help us. Indeed, at the end of May 1941, we expressed our condolences to Germany on the death of the crew of the German battleship Bismarck, drowned by the British. And regarding the death of the crew of the British battleship "Hood", sunk by the "Bismarck" on May 24, 1941, we did not even think to express our condolences to the British. Well, at least they didn't send a congratulatory telegram to the Germans on this occasion, although .... anything can be.
                    The Yankees extended the Lend-Lease Act to the USSR from October 1, 1941, based on the principles of:
                    - all payments for delivered materials are made after the end of the war
                    - materials to be destroyed are not subject to any payment
                    - materials that will remain suitable for civilian needs are paid no earlier than 5 years after the end of the war, in the manner of granting long-term loans

                    Deliveries from the USA to the USSR can be divided into the following stages:
                    pre-lend-lease - from June 22, 1941 to September 30, 1941 (paid in gold)
                    the first protocol - from October 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942 (signed on October 1, 1941)
                    the second protocol - from July 1, 1942 to June 30, 1943 (signed on October 6, 1942)
                    the third protocol - from July 1, 1943 to June 30, 1944 (signed on October 19, 1943)
                    the fourth protocol - from July 1, 1944, (signed on April 17, 1944), formally ended on May 12, 1945, but deliveries were extended until the end of the war with Japan, which the USSR pledged to enter 90 days after the end of the war in Europe (that is, August 8 1945). From the Soviet side, it received the name "Program of October 17" (1944) or the fifth protocol. From the American - "Program" Milepost. Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945, and on September 20, 1945, all deliveries under Lend-Lease to the USSR were stopped.
                    US share in Lend-Lease - 96,4%
                    In addition, during the Second World War in the United States, the "Russia War Relief" was created, which donated medicines, medical supplies and equipment, food and clothing worth more than $ 1,5 billion. In England, a similar committee operated, but the amount it collected was much more modest.
                    So, there really was no profit from Lend-Lease deliveries.
          2. kush62
            kush62 12 November 2016 15: 52
            0
            Quote:
            Aleksander February 16, 2016 22:13 p.m. ↑
            In how, it turns out the obvious, not obvious. Those. 400 000 thousand Studebaker, tens of thousands of aircraft and tanks, steam locomotives and hundreds of thousands of tons of other valuable goods = a million horses. Roughly speaking, 1 truck = 1 horse. Now it’s clear that the richest people on Earth, Tuvinian, joined (made happy) the USSR. Bravo!



            A people supporting others from the heart is spiritually rich.
            You Westerners do not understand this. You fart in your church for 1 penny.
        5. PHANTOM-AS
          PHANTOM-AS 17 February 2016 07: 53
          +1
          Quote: Kasym
          , and some horses under 1 million heads were sent to the front.

          Konin was also supplied and this is a fact
        6. Marat76
          Marat76 17 February 2016 10: 41
          -4
          You are not Kazakh.
          Explain how you can have the name Kasym-Dauren?
          Most likely you are Russian, judging by the activity that you have spread here.
          And do not speak on behalf of all Kazakhs and Kazakhstan.
      2. SkiF_RnD
        SkiF_RnD 16 February 2016 16: 48
        11
        This is just nonsense.


        This is not bullshit. They did not send cartridges and explosives, tanks and planes, but the volume of supplies of cattle and raw materials for clothing was huge, completely unprecedented for such modest, small allies. I will not undertake to confirm the exact ratio of who helped how much, but the help of Mongolia and Tuva in terms of food and cattle (including horses for horse-drawn vehicles, in particular) was decisive. If it weren’t, the big question is how we would get out.
        1. Seal
          Seal 16 February 2016 19: 34
          +5
          Under Lend-Lease, we got some cars, including the famous Studebakers - more than 400 thousand cars. As well as 22150 aircraft, 12700 tanks, 35170 motorcycles, more than 8000 tractors, nearly 2000 railway locomotives, 105 anti-submarine ships, 3 tires, 786 tons of TNT, 000 tons of food and hundreds of thousands of tons of metal. Even the number of buttons set is known. They were imported 123 150 4 pcs.

          Marshal Zhukov said:
          “It cannot be denied that the Americans drove us so much material without which we could not form our reserves and could not continue the war ...”


          “Or take the supply of cars. After all, we have received, as far as I remember, taking into account losses in the way of about 400 thousand first-class cars of the time, such as Studebaker, Ford, passenger Willis and amphibians. Our entire army was actually on wheels, and what wheels! As a result, its maneuverability increased, and the pace of advance significantly increased. Yes ... Without Lend-Lease, we would probably have fought for another year and a half too many, ”
          - These are the words of the legendary Stalin’s Commissar Anastas Mikoyan.

          Well, let me remind you that in every car, and especially a tank or plane, there was a set of leather clothes. In cars - leather coats. It is clear that not one such leather coat has reached the front-line drivers. At the height of the war, a representative delegation from the State Department arrived in the USSR and was met at the airport at the highest level. However, the allies carefully avoided the embrace and, through an interpreter, asked one question: why are we being met by some drivers?

          The Soviet generals and other officials who met them were almost without exception packed in leather coats, which were supplied with the Studebakers as overalls for drivers. These leather coats, taken from the Studebakers by the nimble logisticians, went to the military and civilian elite. The war photographs show that even the commanders of the fronts, including Zhukov and Rokossovsky, sported these driver's coats.

          In part
          horse-drawn horses
          , yes, here the championship of Mongolia and Tuva is undeniable. But for food ... no.
          1. Pancho
            Pancho 16 February 2016 21: 14
            0
            Quote: Seal
            Under Lend-Lease, we got some cars, including the famous Studebakers - more than 400 thousand cars. As well as 22150 aircraft, 12700 tanks, 35170 motorcycles, more than 8000 tractors, nearly 2000 railway locomotives, 105 anti-submarine ships, 3 tires, 786 tons of TNT, 000 tons of food and hundreds of thousands of tons of metal. Even the number of buttons set is known. They were imported 123 150 4 pcs.

            And the fact that our soldiers defeated the Kwantung Army and thereby saved hundreds of thousands of American lives, nothing? Lend-Lease accounted for 4% of our military-industrial production. And we paid for all this in gold and blood. And as you know, "help" for money no longer counts as help, so sprinkling ashes on your head in front of the Americans, in my opinion, is not kosher.
            1. Seal
              Seal 13 November 2016 19: 02
              0
              It’s not kosher not to know the story.
              The Yankees extended the Lend-Lease Act to the USSR from October 1, 1941, based on the principles of:
              - all payments for delivered materials are made after the end of the war
              - materials to be destroyed are not subject to any payment
              - materials that remain suitable for civilian needs are paid for not earlier than 5 years after the end of the war, in the manner of granting long-term loans.
              Moreover, after the war, the United States decided not to claim payment for military supplies under Lend-Lease, but it was proposed to pay for civilian supplies of the USSR. However, Stalin refused even to report the results of the inventory of the goods received. This was due to the fact that otherwise, as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR A.A. Gromyko: "... the Americans can then demand from us to decipher the remains by individual groups, in particular by equipment. Having received from us this kind of information about the remains of civilian items, the Americans can, referring to Article V of the Agreement of June 11, 1942, present a claim to us to return the items most valuable to us. " The Soviet leadership simply appropriated all the remaining equipment and technology received during the war from the allies and in particular from the Americans, which the USSR was obliged to return!

              In 1948 The USSR agreed to pay only a small amount. In 1951 The United States twice reduced the amount of payment to 800 million dollars, and the USSR agreed to pay only 300 million. Partially, the debt was repaid during the time of N. Khrushchev, the remainder amounted to about 750 million dollars in the era of L. Brezhnev. By agreement of 1972 The USSR agreed to pay 722 million dollars, together with interest, by 1973. 48 million were paid, after which payments ceased. In 1990 A new maturity was established - 2030. in the amount of 674 million dollars.
              Thus, of the total volume of American lend-lease supplies of $ 11 billion to the USSR, and then by Russia, it was recognized and then partially paid, $ 722 million, or about 7%. However, it is worth considering that today's dollar is "lighter" than the dollar of 1945 by about 15 times.

              About the Kwantung Army. The entire Kwantung army (both personnel and equipment) was thrown against the United States from 1942 to May 1945. And burned in battle with the Yankees.
              On August 01, 1945, the Kwantung Army was only a pale shadow of the army that was as of 22.06.1941/1945/1945. But as of the beginning of 400, there was not even a shadow. Only when at the beginning of XNUMX, after the Yalta Conference, the Japs realized that the USSR would most likely oppose Japan, did they begin to somehow restore the Kwantung Army. They sent untrained conscripts from Japan, included police units from Manchukuo in the Kwantung Army, reservists of the second order from the Manchurian and Korean Japanese, and the Koreans and Manchurians themselves were also rowed. So they scraped together XNUMX thousand "warriors". There were almost no tanks. There were remnants of those tanks who had fought against us on Khalkhin Gol. That is, those that were shot from everything that is more powerful than a pistol.
          2. velikoros-xnumx
            velikoros-xnumx 16 February 2016 23: 08
            0
            Quote: Seal
            Under Lend-Lease, we got some cars, including the famous Studebakers - more than 400 thousand cars. As well as 22150 aircraft, 12700 tanks, 35170 motorcycles, more than 8000 tractors, nearly 2000 railway locomotives, 105 anti-submarine ships, 3 tires, 786 tons of TNT, 000 tons of food and hundreds of thousands of tons of metal. Even the number of buttons set is known. They were imported 123 150 4 pcs.

            Yes, yes, a total of 7% of the USSR's own gross production of military products. Of course, for certain types of products, these figures reached 80% (cars), but in general it is 7%. REMEMBER THIS. Remember that the USSR paid for all this assistance in full. The United States did not supply the USSR with what it really requested and what it really needed - the B-29 for bomber aircraft. The fighters made in the USSR were not much inferior to the American, and in some places were even better. About the likeness of a tank called Sherman is better to be modestly silent.
            7% !!!!
            1. Seal
              Seal 13 November 2016 19: 07
              0
              Marshal Zhukov in post-war conversations said:
              "Now they say that the allies never helped us ... But it cannot be denied that the Americans drove so many materials to us, without which we could not form our reserves and could not continue the war ... We did not have explosives, There was nothing to equip rifle cartridges with. The Americans really helped us out with gunpowder, explosives. And how much sheet steel they drove to us! How could we quickly set up tank production if it weren’t for American steel help? And now they present the matter in such a way that we had all of this in abundance.
              ... Without American trucks, we would have nothing to pull our artillery with. "

              667 ships and ships were delivered. Of these: naval 585 - 28 frigates, 3 icebreakers, 205 torpedo boats, 105 landing craft of various types, 140 submarine hunters and other small ones. In addition, American engines from General Motors were installed on the Soviet large sea hunters of Project 122. And trade - 82 (including 36 wartime buildings, 46 pre-war buildings).
              Explosives - 389 tons: dynamite - 766 pounds (70 tons), gunpowder - 400 tons, TNT - 000 pounds (31 tons), toluene - 933 pounds (127 tons). Detonators - 000.

              Note: The same explosives and gunpowder that Zhukov spoke of, with which bullets and shells could hit the enemy, and not lie in warehouses with worthless pieces of metal, because the Germans captured the factories for their production, and they did not yet build new plants and they still for a long time did not cover all the necessary needs of the army. What are tens of thousands of tanks and guns worth if they cannot be fired? Nothing at all. It was this opportunity — to shoot at the enemy — that was given by the allies, the Americans and the British, to Soviet soldiers, thereby providing invaluable assistance in the most difficult period of the war, in 1941, as well as in all subsequent years of this war.

              Railway rolling stock. Locomotive - 1 981. Soviet almost never graduated during the war. So diesel locomotives or steam locomotives, for example, in 1942 in the USSR was issued:
              - locomotives - not a single one,
              - steam locomotives - 9.
              Freight wagons - 11 155.
              In the USSR itself for 1941-1945. It was made already 1087 wagons
              It seems like a trifle, some wagons, it's not guns or airplanes, but how do you deliver thousands of tons of cargo hundreds of kilometers from the plant to the front line? On soldiers backs or on horses? And this time, that same time, which during the war is more valuable than all the gold of the world, because the outcome of the battle depends on it.

              Raw materials and resources. Non-ferrous metals - 802 000 tons (of which 387600 tons of copper (the USSR produced 27816 tons of copper in 1941-45)), oil products - 2 670 000 tons, chemicals - 842 000 tons, cotton - 106 893 000 tons, leather - 49 860 tons, alcohol - 331 066 liters.

              Moreover, after the war the USA decided not to pretend to pay military supplies under Lend-Lease, but it was proposed to pay for civilian supplies of the USSR
              ... However, I.V. Stalin refused to report the results of the inventory of the goods received. This was due to the fact that otherwise, as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR A.A. Gromyko: "... the Americans can then demand that we decipher the remains by individual groups, in particular by equipment. Having received from us this kind of information about the remains of civilian items, the Americans can, referring to Article V of the Agreement of June 11, 1942, present a demand for us to return the items most valuable to us. " The Soviet leadership simply appropriated all the remaining equipment and equipment received during the war from the allies and in particular from the Americans, which the USSR was obliged to return!

              In 1948 The USSR agreed to pay only a small amount. In 1951 The United States twice reduced the amount of payment to 800 million dollars, and the USSR agreed to pay only 300 million. Partially, the debt was repaid during the time of N. Khrushchev, the remainder amounted to about 750 million dollars in the era of L. Brezhnev. By agreement of 1972 The USSR agreed to pay 722 million dollars, together with interest, by 1973. 48 million were paid, after which payments ceased. In 1990 A new maturity was established - 2030. in the amount of 674 million dollars.
              Thus, of the total volume of American lend-lease supplies of $ 11 billion to the USSR, and then by Russia, it was recognized and then partially paid, $ 722 million, or about 7%. However, it is worth considering that today's dollar is "lighter" than the dollar of 1945 by about 15 times.
              1. stalkerwalker
                stalkerwalker 13 November 2016 19: 53
                +2
                Quote: Seal
                Note: The same explosives and gunpowder that Zhukov spoke of, with which bullets and shells could hit the enemy, and not lie in warehouses with worthless pieces of metal, because Germans seized factories for their production, and new plants have not yet been built and for a long time they did not cover all the necessary needs of the army.

                What kind of nonsense?
                Another residentist?
          3. kush62
            kush62 12 November 2016 15: 54
            0
            Keyword "lend-lease"
      3. robbihood
        robbihood 16 February 2016 18: 04
        +2
        The article is interesting and informative. But the respected author, succumbing to the all-Russian trend, casually managed to kick our allies in WW2. "" the total supplies of these two states to our country during the war years in terms of volume were only one third less than the total volume of aid - from the United States, Canada, England, Australia and the South African Union, Australia and New Zealand combined. " But in vain. Stupid. Just a couple of numbers.
        Of the nearly 18 million tons of cargo sent to the Soviet Union, more than a quarter — more than 4,5 million tons — were foodstuffs.
        The USSR received Lend-Lease 622,1 thousand tons of railroad rails (56,5% of its own production), 1900 locomotives (2,4 times more than those produced during the war years in the USSR) and 11075 cars (more than 10,2, 3 times), 606 million 43,1 thousand tires (610%), 41,8 thousand tons of sugar (664,6%), 108 thousand tons of canned meat (427%). The USSR received 32 thousand cars and 1945 thousand army motorcycles, while in the USSR from the beginning of the war until the end of 265, only 6 thousand cars and 27816 motorcycles were produced (here you must take into account the pre-war amount of equipment). The United States supplied 2 million 13 thousand tons of gasoline (together with the allies - 2 million 586 thousand tons) - almost two-thirds of the fuel used during the war years by Soviet aviation. The numbers are simply incommensurable.
        Marshal Zhukov in post-war conversations said:
        Quote:
        Now they say that the Allies never helped us ... But it cannot be denied that the Americans drove so many materials without which we could not build up our reserves and could not continue the war ... We did not have explosives, gunpowder. There was nothing to equip rifle cartridges. The Americans really helped us out with gunpowder, explosives. And how much they drove us to sheet steel! How could we quickly set up tank production if it weren’t for American steel help? And now they present the matter in such a way that we had all of this in abundance.
        - From the report of the chairman of the KGB to V. Semichastny - to N. S. Khrushchev; signature stamp “top secret” // Zenkovich N. Ya. Marshals and general secretaries. M., 1997.S.
        On debt. Of the total US $ 11 billion in US lending lease supplies, and then Russia, $ 722 million, or about 7%, was paid.
        1. Disant
          Disant 16 February 2016 21: 21
          0
          Yes. received rails, automobiles, motorcycles, fuel, etc. from Lend-Lease. nobody argues. but why then do you belittle the merits of the Tuvans and the Mongol?
          .
          1) it was a lend-lease, not a CREDIT!
          if a loan, then return everything in full. if Lend-Lease - according to the agreement of that time, pay for what has survived. this is the ACCOMMODATION OF THIS TIME. it was mutually beneficial and natural. The main overwhelming deliveries came in the year 43-45, WHEN THE EXIT OF THE WAR HAS BEEN CLEAR. the allies first voted on their interests. during the Anglo-American conference in Casablanca in the year 43, Roosevelt noted: deliveries to Russia are a profitable investment. Churchill said that the Lend-Lease flow in the USSR was the best military dividend.
          .

          2) the Mongols and Tuvans, contrary to the Lendlizists, delivered good without any conditions, it is UNBREAKABLE. for the good of the motherland they gave all the good, as well as themselves!
          .
          3) and about $ 11 billion of "debt".
          there was a reverse Lend-Lease. forest, furs, fish, gold
          .
          4) and more. however it may sound today, Stalin said in 45: "The USSR paid in full for the lend-lease deliveries in blood."
          .
          I would also like to remind you that there was a world game for world domination, and the supreme landlords played the second world war, redirecting the flow of resources in one direction or the other, and we tried to survive.
          only Americans could call World War II a "good war"
          .
          do you understand my message about a third and two-thirds about which you spoke?
          .
        2. The comment was deleted.
      4. 97110
        97110 16 February 2016 19: 49
        0
        Quote: Aleksander
        This is just nonsense.

        And bring the numbers? The author gave - 67% of the help of the West. Well, refute.
        1. Seal
          Seal 16 February 2016 20: 21
          +2
          Total US Lend-Lease deliveries totaled $ 11 billion.
          During the four years of the war, the Soviet Union was delivered 485 thousand horses, “Mongol”. According to other sources - a little more than 500 thousand. But this is not free. Horses were delivered from Mongolia as planned, at a conditional price, mainly by offsetting the Mongolian debts of the USSR. Thus, all the political, military and economic investments of the USSR in Mongolia paid off.
          And free of charge, as gifts from the Mongolian peasants-Arats, another 32 thousand Mongolian horses were transferred - i.e. for 6 wartime cavalry divisions. True, the Mongol horses did not fall into the cavalry. Stunted and slow moving. Plus, in fact, they can't run. They can ride some distance - but with such a gait that the rider just needs to stay on the horse. Mongolian horses are very hardy, but in fact they do not run, but walk fast. But fast is still 7-8 kilometers per hour. Like a very fast man step. But on their way, Mongolian horses nibble the grass. This fact once again proves all the delusional stories about the "invincible and fast as the wind, the cavalry of Genghis Khan."
          This, incidentally, is indirectly reflected in the story. Tuvan cavalrymen use horses to get closer to the front line - then dismount to go into battle. Only one case is given when Tuvans entered the station on horseback. Well, to enter the station is not to attack the trenches.

          For the same years, Mongolia supplied almost 500 thousand tons of meat to the USSR.
          From the Mongolian steppes throughout the war another strategic product of the war came to our country - wool. Wool is, first of all, soldier's overcoats, without which it is impossible to survive in the trenches of Eastern Europe even in the summer. 54 thousand tons of wool came to us from the USA then, from Mongolia - 64 thousand tons. Every fifth Soviet overcoat in the years 1942-45 was "Mongolian."

          In Mongolian sheepskin coats was dressed as they say "several divisions of the Red Army." Well, during the war years, the size of the division is about 10 thousand people. Even if you take that 10 divisions were wearing, it means that this means 100 thousand short fur coats.
          At 67% percent of aid from the West, these figures are clearly not pulling. Even 6,7% do not pull.
          But there is one more important point.
          In Mongolia, there was the only industrial source of tungsten available to the USSR during the war years, without which it was impossible to make shells capable of breaking through the armor of German “panthers” and “tigers”. That was the main thing in Mongolian help.
          Tungsten, not Mongolian horses or short fur coats.
          But tungsten was also supplied under Lend-Lease. I couldn’t find the numbers how many tungsten the Mongols set for us and how many the Americans set for.
          1. Igor V
            Igor V 16 February 2016 21: 58
            +1
            A bunch of articles have been written with Lend-Lease calculations. For example, in Korsun-Shevchenkovsky and Iasi-Kishinev operations, cars were seized comparable to land lease. They compare the number of produced Soviet cars with the Lend-Lease one, but if there are deliveries, then why the prudent owner will produce his own. Aviation gasoline was used on American aircraft, etc.
            And Mongolia and Tuva helped disinterestedly, which the author wanted to show. Mongol officers persistently sought to participate in the war and reached Stalin. He allowed them, but on general grounds. Then they smashed the Kwantung Army.
            By the way, I read somewhere that not only fur, but also leather products were made in Mongolia according to the plans of our people's commissariats.
        2. Aleksander
          Aleksander 16 February 2016 22: 00
          0
          Quote: 97110
          And bring the numbers? The author gave - 67% of the help of the West. Well, refute.


          First, prove this obvious nonsense, and it is with numbers: how did the author turn out that one triaxial Studebaker all-terrain vehicle cost two Tuvan sheep, and tens of thousands of planes and tanks did not cost ANYTHING at all. Then we'll talk .....
      5. Aleksander
        Aleksander 16 February 2016 22: 39
        +1
        Yes, and one more thing: for 55 years I was sure that the "black death" is tens of thousands issued IL-2, today the author has enlightened that the "black death" for the Germans is, after all, a thousand Tuvans. hi
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Disant
          Disant 16 February 2016 23: 22
          +2
          Aleksander
          il-2 is an alloy of man and aircraft
        3. Seal
          Seal 13 November 2016 19: 26
          0
          For 55 years I was sure that the "Black Death" is tens of thousands of IL-2

          And also traditionally "der Schwarze Tod" are our sailors.
          One gets the impression that the Germans were some kind of nervous schoolgirls who, whatever they hit, called "black death". Moreover, it was black death, and not green, airy, narrow-eyed or whatever.
          In fact, the Germans did not call ANYONE and NOTHING "black death".
          Well, maybe blacks in the US Army, and even then for fun.
          About sailors - this went first with the light hand of Vsevolod Vishnevsky, and then other correspondents. Moreover, Vsevolod Vishnevsky himself called the sailors who, during the defense of Odessa, went on the attack on Romanian - black cloud. Then other correspondents replaced the Romanians with the Germans, and the black cloud with black death.

          IL-2. As the Germans did not call him. And "Cementbomber" and "Iron Gustav" and simply (mostly pilots) - Il Zwai. But nowhere is the term "black death" recorded in relation to the IL-2.

          Accordingly, the Germans themselves learned about the fact that the Germans also called the Tuvan horsemen "black death" from this article hi
      6. The comment was deleted.
  4. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 16 February 2016 06: 54
    15
    Thank you, informative article. It was in this general test of war that the unity of Tuva and Russia, laid down at the beginning of the last century, gave rise to real unity, as a consanguinity of different peoples of Russia.
  5. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 16 February 2016 07: 20
    13
    Thank you for the article!!! Well written! I am proud of the Tuvans !!! low bow to the Volunteers!
    1. afdjhbn67
      afdjhbn67 16 February 2016 09: 10
      -16 qualifying.
      Quote: Volga Cossack
      Proud of Tuvans

      For some reason, all the Russians escaped from Tyva in the 90s .. take pride on ... wassat
      1. Chisayna
        Chisayna 16 February 2016 11: 07
        12
        I travel to Tuva every summer. On the lake to heal. There are many Russians in Tuva. There are many Russians in Toja. Sizim, Erzhey are completely Russian Old Believers villages.
        1. afdjhbn67
          afdjhbn67 16 February 2016 13: 09
          0
          Quote: Chisain
          .Sizim, Erzhey-completely Russian Old Believers villages

          The Old Believers remained 10 thousand no more .. Even our Buryats didn’t get along in Tuva, no offense, but it is ..
          1. Chisayna
            Chisayna 16 February 2016 13: 20
            +1
            There were never Old Believers in Tuva, there were 10 thousand. I lived in Sisim in 80 (eighties). Then there were about 1 (one) thousand Russians in Tuva 40-50 thousand. For 100 (thousandth) Kyzyl Russians 31-33 thousand. In summer on Dus- Hol and in general, tens of thousands of people from all over Russia travel to Tuva and many foreigners travel.
            1. afdjhbn67
              afdjhbn67 16 February 2016 15: 48
              0
              Quote: Chisain
              Never Old Believers in Tuva, there were 10 thousand.

              The police do not protect us in any way ”(1993).
              At that time, almost 50% of the Russian population lived in Tuva, but realizing that in Moscow they actually turned a blind eye to what was happening and were mentally prepared to turn Tuva over to local nationalists, the first Russian chiefs rushed to escape from Tuva, among whom was the head of the USSR KGB Directorate. [2]

              263 934 people according to the 2010 All-Russian Population Census

              How many Russians in Tuva ?? Chisayna for today ???
              1. Chisayna
                Chisayna 16 February 2016 16: 00
                +1
                The population of Tuva now, a little more than 300 (three hundred) thousand. Tuvans 70-73%. Russian and other nationalities 30-27%.
                1. Nagaibak
                  Nagaibak 16 February 2016 17: 36
                  +4
                  Chisaina "The population of Tuva now is a little more than 300 (three hundred) thousand. Tuvans are 70-73%. Russians and other nationalities are 30-27%."
                  Here are the data on the population of Tuva.))) What 30% of Russians?)))
                  From the wiki "The Republic of Tyva is a multinational republic. Many nationalities live on its territory, each of which has unique characteristics of material and spiritual culture. According to the 2010 All-Russian Population Census [46], among those who indicated their nationality as the predominant nation in the population of Tuva are Tuvans (more than 80%). The second place is occupied by Russians (more than 16%). The remaining 4% are Khakass, Tatars, Ukrainians, Armenians, Kyrgyz, Buryats and other nationalities. "
                  1. Chisayna
                    Chisayna 16 February 2016 17: 45
                    +1
                    I’m saying what I see. I’ll repeat it again, I go there every summer to have a rest. The unforgettable impressions of the rafting on the Yenisei. Well and health on the lakes corrected well.
  6. sledge
    sledge 16 February 2016 07: 27
    +6
    Great article. Necessary. It is a pity that the current generation does not know anything, not only about these little-known pages of history, but also about the more well-known .....
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. parusnik
    parusnik 16 February 2016 07: 44
    +7
    Thank you, good article .. really "Black Death" .. Tuva helped as much as she could, she gave the last ..
  9. EDP
    EDP 16 February 2016 07: 44
    +4
    More such articles. In every participant in those battles was the spirit of the invincible cavalry of Genghis Khan!
  10. Chisayna
    Chisayna 16 February 2016 07: 53
    +4
    I can’t insert the photo: Putin in Tuva with a 21kg pike, in his hands, on Toja. Yes, but does the dear Mangel Olys know that the Tuvan Tuvans did not let Genghis Khan or his army go to Toja.
    1. Mangel olys
      Mangel olys 16 February 2016 07: 57
      +2
      No, I didn’t. Tell me, very interesting.
  11. Shadowcat
    Shadowcat 16 February 2016 07: 55
    +6
    Long live the winners! Long live the friendly Soviet peoples!
  12. cobalt
    cobalt 16 February 2016 08: 05
    +7
    In contrast to the United States and England, who received gold payments for Lend-Lease deliveries, Tuva and Mongolia helped disinterestedly, we must remember this, Russia has always had few friends.
    1. Nikolay K
      Nikolay K 16 February 2016 08: 46
      +7
      Our troops defended Mongolia and Tuva from the Japanese invaders. So the help was mutual.
    2. veteran66
      veteran66 16 February 2016 19: 28
      -2
      Quote: cobalt
      Unlike the United States and England, who received gold payments for land lease deliveries

      It’s already been done so much for VO that no one paid for Lend-Lease (only for property left after the war), no, some especially stubborn idiots again repeat the same thing.
  13. Chisayna
    Chisayna 16 February 2016 08: 16
    12
    The center of Asia is in Tuva. In Tuva, the only place in the world where the two-humped camel, musk ox and reindeer live together. There are baths cut in the mountains at healing springs, the bathtubs are more than a thousand years old. There is a niche in the mountains, there is a statue of Buddha, Scythian gold, a huge number of barrows. Snow leopards (snow leopards) are also found in Ak Bars. In general, there is a paradise for tourists.
  14. Nikolay71
    Nikolay71 16 February 2016 08: 32
    +4
    Quote: Good cat
    Engineer-techie well done, interesting articles, facts uncovered.

    I join, the author really knows how to find interesting topics and interesting to talk about.
  15. Free wind
    Free wind 16 February 2016 08: 43
    10
    From Tuva, 12000 Russians and 206 Tuvan volunteers fought on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. It is interesting how the Nazis distinguished Tuvans from the Yakuts, from the Kazakhs and so on, so as not to be confused by whom to call what death. They fought, won, I am proud of our people.
    1. Zymran
      Zymran 16 February 2016 10: 19
      +4
      No difference. The Germans called all the Mongols, although the Mongols did not even participate in the war with the Germans.
      1. Mangel olys
        Mangel olys 16 February 2016 12: 13
        +6
        Quote: Zymran
        No difference. The Germans called all the Mongols, although the Mongols did not even participate in the war with the Germans.

        on a subconscious level, the Germans perceived "these barbarians" as the hordes of Attila.

        Well, if I say now that they have a fear of the Tatars for a long time sits in the subcortex ("terribly afraid of the Tatars"), then now some people will shower me with cons fellow
        1. Cat man null
          Cat man null 16 February 2016 12: 28
          0
          Quote: Mangel Olys
          I'm afraid of the Tatars

          What language is this?

          1000
          1. Koshak
            Koshak 16 February 2016 17: 28
            +1
            Quote: Cat Man Null
            What language is this?

            Old Russian, from the time of the annals. In Serbian, too, there are similar constructions.
          2. Koshak
            Koshak 16 February 2016 17: 32
            +2
            Ah yes armored Tuvan cavalrymen! The joke, it turns out, is serious! soldier
    2. The comment was deleted.
  16. Red_Hamer
    Red_Hamer 16 February 2016 09: 00
    +4
    So the enemies of Russia need to know where our Defense Minister comes from! Sergei Kuzhugetovich Shoigu (Tuv. Sergei Kazhget oglu Shoigu; May 21, 1955, Chadan, Tuva Autonomous Okrug, USSR
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 16 February 2016 13: 50
      -1
      and RUSSIAN should not forget that under his dad they destroyed the Russians in Tuva, there was genocide of the Russian people. Do not forget this!
      1. Chisayna
        Chisayna 16 February 2016 14: 01
        +2
        Tell us about this genocide.
      2. SkiF_RnD
        SkiF_RnD 16 February 2016 17: 04
        0
        when his dad destroyed


        Even so, they did not oppress, but destroyed? Such a serious statement without evidence is. you understand how it looks. What will be your arguments?
    2. Seal
      Seal 16 February 2016 19: 55
      0
      Well yes. They mixed up his name and surname. When issuing a passport.
  17. Engineer
    Engineer 16 February 2016 09: 02
    +2
    People who are fascinated by the history of their country, of course, know about this. Moreover, there have already been articles on this more than once. But, as they said at school earlier: repetition is the mother of learning.
  18. Starshina wmf
    Starshina wmf 16 February 2016 09: 06
    +2
    Tuvans are fighting boys. I met them in the army. Why all of them were tankers. It’s a pity that now they are thumping heavily. Even more than we are.
    1. Chisayna
      Chisayna 16 February 2016 09: 09
      +2
      Everyone thunders, Tuvans are no exception. I've seen drunk Khanty, that's something.
      1. Mangel olys
        Mangel olys 16 February 2016 09: 23
        +2
        Hunts and Mansi are few, and to see them drunk, you must try. Where was it?
        1. Chisayna
          Chisayna 16 February 2016 09: 27
          0
          Near Surgut, on Bystrinka. Not far from there is the village of Russkinskaya.
          1. Mangel olys
            Mangel olys 16 February 2016 09: 34
            +1
            If you are there, say hello. Maybe it will turn out to call in to them, then we will drink together.
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 16 February 2016 14: 51
              +3
              Mangel Olys "If you are there, say hello. Maybe it will turn out to call them, then we will drink together."
              You need to know with whom.))) I recently had a fellow with some hunts.)))) I got sick of it and says hiding my guns.)))
        2. 020205
          020205 16 February 2016 10: 16
          +5
          There is even less Tofov left, just because of the booze! Representatives of the Mongoloid race are more susceptible to alcohol and it has a more detrimental effect on them than on europioids!
          1. ando_bor
            ando_bor 16 February 2016 23: 08
            +1
            It’s not a matter of race, but whether there was alcohol in the traditional landscape of the people’s habitation, and not even centuries, but millennia, if not, then the genetic resistance to alcohol is low - they get drunk quickly, for example, the Finugor peoples also have low resistance to alcohol, - from You can’t make cranberries.
        3. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 16 February 2016 14: 49
          +3
          = Mangel Olys "There are not many Khanty and Mansi left, and to see them drunk, you have to try. Where was that?"
          No need to try. Just stay with us and will certainly see. Although there are among them not drinkers.)))
          On the other hand, to represent the small peoples of the north are entirely not far drunkards, as many people think of us as a great misconception. This I am not at your address.)))
      2. lex locis
        lex locis 16 February 2016 15: 34
        +2
        "I've seen drunken Khanty, that's something."
        And I saw the Chukchi drinking, so it's generally fantastic. I drank and a week is free !!! Savings crazy ....
        1. Chisayna
          Chisayna 16 February 2016 15: 44
          +2
          Army wisdom says: only cats and dogs do not drink, they lap.
  19. Chisayna
    Chisayna 16 February 2016 09: 55
    0
    Also, for Mangel Olysa. In Tuva there is Lake Chagytay-Chagatay.
    1. Apt13
      Apt13 17 February 2016 07: 18
      0
      Dear Leshy nickname through "Y" write)
  20. Red_Hamer
    Red_Hamer 16 February 2016 10: 04
    +3
    Does anyone not like that our Minister of Defense is from Tuva? Fighting people! The article is good!
    on a subconscious level, the Germans perceived "these barbarians" as the hordes of Attila.
    Along the way, to someone else, does this fact press on the subconscious? And centuries-old ideas about military rules are not bad!
    Germans were also horrified by the fact that the Tuvans had their own centuries-old ideas about military rules, and, based on them, basically did not take enemy soldiers and officers captive.
  21. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 16 February 2016 10: 44
    +3
    Bly-and-and-and-n, beauties.
    Such detailed material, just a sight for sore eyes.
    ... "In addition, the horror of the Germans was caused by the fact that the Tuvans had their own centuries-old ideas about military rules, and, based on them, in principle did not take enemy soldiers and officers prisoner."
    Well done, that's right, from all points of view.
    You can’t fight - you don’t smoke the sky, and create problems for everyone around - protect you, a prisoner of war, feed, treat, transport. And so - buried, and all things.
    And if you can fight, then you won’t be captured.
    Everything is very real.
    Well done Tuvans.
    .
    These are really "invincible Mongol troops". That's what I believe in. And greetings.
    Ah well done.
    .
    I suppose that -ools .... corresponds to Turkic -ogly? As a sign of goodness and daring, so no?
  22. andrew42
    andrew42 16 February 2016 10: 45
    +2
    Here, the Nazis received in fact the "Three Testaments of Chingiz". :)) In general, Tuvans are really ruthless warriors. I remember going on hikes in the Sayan Mountains. The Buryat guides of Tuvans were afraid and scolded them as "bandits". Once we got up to the parking lot on the descent from the pass, 2 Buryats-guides take the disassembled catamarans off the horses, and then from the forest four horsemen with carbines across the saddle. "Who are, how old, why not in the army?" It turned out to be a Buryat patrol. They say, Tuvans steal cattle from the valleys. In the same place, there is a long narrow valley, one and a half or two kilometers across, if not less. - put a fence, and drove there cows (crossed with yaks) and horses to graze, - will not go anywhere. To the question, what about the screw cutters? - the answer was short and stern, - jokes are bad with Tuvans.
  23. 1rl141
    1rl141 16 February 2016 13: 14
    +3
    In the early 90s, Tuvans, Buryats and other small nations began to be called up for service in the SA. Previously, I did not see them in the ranks of the SA. About 40 people came to us. I remember the name of one of my soldiers, Manai-ool.
    So, the course of the young fighter and all that, before taking the oath, everyone should go through firing. As usual, 3 trial, 3 credits.
    These guys, all as one, knocked out at least 25 points from AKM. The best of them knocked out 29.
    And they served all well.
  24. TARAS BULBA
    TARAS BULBA 16 February 2016 13: 29
    +1
    In Kyzyl, they form a 55 mountain brigade, just apparently for them to be busy with business)
    1. ando_bor
      ando_bor 16 February 2016 23: 16
      0
      There was a regular appeal from Tuvans in the mountainous region in the KCR, so many have training, maybe they will go for a contract.
  25. Chisayna
    Chisayna 16 February 2016 13: 56
    -1
    I used to be in Chadan, small and medium business, in Kyzyl, small and medium business, an artillery regiment, a separate battalion comm. Communications base. In 90 (nineties), all military units were brought to Abakan, to the base for storing military equipment. Once served in one of the military units.
  26. Free wind
    Free wind 16 February 2016 14: 04
    +7
    black death was not called blacks with braids, and especially not Tuvans about whom no one knew at all, but Soviet sailors !!!!!!!! Honor to you and Glory !!!!!!!!
  27. Faust
    Faust 16 February 2016 14: 14
    -1
    Quote: 1rl141
    In the early 90s, Tuvans, Buryats and other small nations began to be called up for service in the SA. Previously, I did not see them in the ranks of the SA.

    In 1988, all deferrals, restrictions, and so on were canceled. We even had a case in Sseveromorsk: after washing in the bathhouse, we had to write off two Evenki cleanly, due to acute oxygen poisoning.
    1. AX
      AX 16 February 2016 15: 10
      -1
      Do not talk nonsense ...
    2. martin-159
      martin-159 16 February 2016 18: 19
      -1
      In 1984-86 he served with a Tuvan.
      1. 1rl141
        1rl141 16 February 2016 22: 03
        +1
        In 1984 I saw a Chukchi soldier. A real Chukchi. And I saw him in the guardhouse, where I was on guard, and he "spent time". Absolutely harmless kid, only in Russian he could say "Yes", "No", "That's right." But he understood everything. And why was he put on kichu?
        And after this incident, I have never met, until the beginning of the 90s, representatives of the small peoples of the north and Siberia.
        It seems like they were not drafted into the army, maybe this Chukchi accidentally got when he arrived in the city for salt.
        1. ando_bor
          ando_bor 16 February 2016 23: 21
          +1
          At the same time, in 1984, we had a Chukchi senior lieutenant, saying - I am the only Chukchi officer.
  28. andrereu74
    andrereu74 16 February 2016 19: 21
    +1
    together - we are force!!!!!
  29. Seal
    Seal 16 February 2016 19: 52
    +1
    Quote: cobalt
    Unlike the United States and England, who received gold payments for land lease deliveries

    In order to close the knowledge gaps in terms of paying for something in gold.

    The Lend Lease Act, the full title of the United States Protection Act, An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States, passed by the US Congress on March 11, 1941, provided the following conditions:
    1) delivered materials (vehicles, various military equipment, weapons, raw materials, other items) destroyed, lost and used during the war are not subject to payment (Article 5);
    2) property transferred under Lend-Lease, remaining after the end of the war and suitable for civilian purposes, will be paid in full or in part on the basis of long-term loans provided by the United States (mainly interest-free loans);
    3) if the American side is interested, undamaged and unused machinery and equipment should be returned after the war in the United States.
    Immediately after the war, the United States sent to countries receiving Lend-Lease assistance a proposal to return the surviving military equipment and pay off the debt to receive new loans. Since the Lend-Lease Act provided for the cancellation of used military equipment and materials, the Americans insisted on paying only for civil supplies: railway transport, power plants, ships, trucks and other equipment that were in the recipient countries as of September 2, 1945. The United States did not demand compensation for the military equipment destroyed during the fighting.
    The volume of US deliveries under Lend-Lease amounted to about $ 10,8 billion. According to the Lend-Lease Act, only equipment that survived the war was payable; Soviet-American negotiations began to agree on the final amount immediately after the war. The United States initially calculated that the amount payable for the surviving equipment was $ 1,3 billion.
    At the 1948 talks, Soviet representatives agreed to pay only $ 170 million and met the predicted failure of the American side. The negotiations of 1949 also led to nothing. In 1951, the Americans twice reduced the amount of payment, which began to equal $ 800 million, but the Soviet side agreed to pay only $ 300 million. According to the Soviet government, the calculation should not have been carried out in accordance with real debt, but on the basis of a precedent. This precedent should have been proportions in determining the debt between the USA and Great Britain, which were fixed in March 1946.
    An agreement with the USSR on the procedure for paying off debts under Lend-Lease was concluded only in 1972. Under this agreement, the USSR pledged to pay $ 2001 million, including interest, until 722. By July 1973, three payments were made in the total amount of $ 48 million, after which payments were discontinued due to the introduction of discriminatory measures by the American side in trade with the USSR (Jackson-Vanik Amendment). In June 1990, during negotiations between the US and USSR presidents, the parties returned to discussing debt. A new deadline for the final repayment of debt was set in 2030, and the amount was $ 674 million.
    On April 2, 1993, the Government of Russia announced its acceptance of responsibility for all debts of the USSR.
    Technically, the debts of the USSR were divided into debts to governments (Club of Paris), and debts to private banks (Club of London); debt for land lease was a debt to the US government, that is, part of the debt to the Paris Club. Russia fully repaid its debt to the Paris Club in August 2006

    About gold.
    In addition to Lend-Lease deliveries, we conducted regular commercial trade with the USA and England. And in this case, yes, we also calculated with gold.
  30. Seal
    Seal 16 February 2016 20: 31
    +3
    Quote: Free Wind
    From Tuva, 12000 Russians and 206 Tuvan volunteers fought on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. It is interesting how the Nazis distinguished Tuvans from the Yakuts, from the Kazakhs and so on, so as not to be confused by whom to call what death. They fought, won, I am proud of our people.


    Until Tuva joined the USSR in 1944, their uniform was somewhat different from ours. Because of this, Tuvans even had problems. With our watchful bodies and individual citizens and military personnel. But at the front, until 1943, Tuvans, well, with the possible exception of units, were not.
  31. nekromonger
    nekromonger 16 February 2016 20: 52
    +2
    from them the Germans shouted the guard, and right now their slab banderlog curse the Tuva-Buryat armored pier.
  32. Ramzes33
    Ramzes33 17 February 2016 14: 53
    +1
    Article plus. In difficult times, Russia threw support from the East (sometimes from the South).