Military Review

TU-95. From the history of "Russian bear"


The first attempt to create an intercontinental bomber in the USSR was a deep modernization of the Tu-4. The “80 airplane” (its first flight took place on December 1 1949 of the year) covered the distance 8000 km. However, the Korean War, which began shortly before, convincingly demonstrated the futility of the development of long-range bombers based on piston engines: jet fighters left it less and less chance to break through to protected objects. That is why, despite the possibility of reaching a range of more than 12000 km, further work was stopped on the next Soviet strategic bomber - Tu-85. As a new model, such a machine was supposed to create a bomber with a maximum speed of the order of 900-950 km / h, a payload of up to 20, a range of flight to 14-15, thousand km and an altitude of 13-14, thousand meters.

To ensure such high demands, it was necessary to apply a new aerodynamic configuration and use not only powerful, but also lightweight powerplant, which also has an acceptable fuel consumption. There was practically no other possibility to reach the intercontinental range with all the other parameters. Based on the development of TsAGI on the aerodynamics of the swept wing and the optimization of its design, the aerodynamic scheme of a multi-engined aircraft with a swept wing 35 ° was chosen in the Tupolev design bureau. Ideas embodied in the Tu-85 developed in the layout of its fuselage, crew accommodation, weapon systems and target equipment, but the presence of an arrow-shaped wing made it possible to place a large bomb bay behind the caisson, which was located near the center of gravity of the aircraft.

The most difficult task was the choice of the power plant and the option of its placement on the plane. According to the calculations carried out in the OKB, the required flight performance, especially for the maximum flight range, using the turbojet engines, which the customer insisted on, was impossible to obtain. The real thing that the Tupolev Design Bureau had at that time was the AM-3 TRD with the 8700 kgf bailout and the AL-5 with the 5000 kgf bollard. However, by the end of the forties, the Klimov OKB had developed in a pilot version a VK-2 turboprop engine with 4820 horsepower, with a low specific fuel consumption equal to 326 g / hp. and the specific gravity of 290 g / hp, but the refinement of this engine has so far been limited to bench tests.

Simultaneously, the Design Bureau N. Kuznetsova, relying on the work of interned German specialists, presented for testing TVD TV-2 power 6260 ehp and completed the design of the TV-12, fantastic for those times, with an 12000 power, al.

In Tupolev Design Bureau A, the variants of the aircraft were thoroughly studied with almost all promising aircraft engines developed in the USSR: turbo-jets, turbojet engines in combination with piston engines, in combination with turboprop engines. Studied various layout schemes of the power plant. In particular, a conceptual design was carried out in which six AM-3 TRDs were located on both sides of the fuselage, in pairs one above the other, and two more engines were in the fuselage below, behind the wing. It all looked very exotic, but even in the first estimates it was impossible to achieve the specified LTX.

As a result, it was concluded that the four required turboproads with a total capacity of at least 40000 eHP correspond to the most required aircraft.

New aircraft received in the OKB cipher «95». N. Bazenkov, the chief designer of all the numerous variants of the Tu-95 family, became the head of the work on the topic. In 1976, after his death, N. Kirsanov became the chief designer for all the Tu-95 series aircraft.

According to the decision on the creation of "95", released 11 July 1951, the aircraft was required to produce in duplicate. The first one with twinned motors TV-2 (2TV-2F) and the second one with TV-12. The power in both variants was about 12000 ehp. on every engine.

TU-95. From the history of "Russian bear"

The take-off weight of the new machine was determined in 150 t, so it was necessary to carefully approach the issues related to the strength of the bomber design. First of all, this applied to the swept wing, which had a large span and elongation, having high aerodynamic properties. The presence on the wing of four extremely powerful motors with screws required the search for new design solutions to ensure its vibration strength. At the same time, Tupolev paid special attention to the observance of the conditions for the all-round compaction of the layout.

The solution to a complex problem fell on OKB K. Zhdanova, who developed a gearbox and coaxial four-bladed propellers, with the opposite direction of rotation. No analogues in the world aviation practice in those years did not exist. As a result, a unique planetary gearbox and propeller with an unusually high efficiency were installed on the Tu-95 in all modes that remained unsurpassed to this day. In September 1951, the Design Bureau began to produce working drawings; in the same month, the production of the first instance began, and a year later the first prototype was ready. The tasks in testing this aircraft were testing in the shortest possible time the correctness of the chosen concept of a strategic intercontinental bomber, testing in real conditions all its systems and equipment. The 95/1 car was purely experimental, preparing the way for the 95/2 with a TV-12 TVD. On a flight with a crew led by test pilot A. Perelet, "95/1" left on November 12, 1952. The car was in the air for 50 minutes.

All winter and spring of the next year there were his tests. In the seventeenth flight, an accident happened: the third engine caught fire. Despite all the attempts of the crew, the fire was not eliminated, and A. Perelet gave the command to leave the plane. On board, without stopping attempts to save the car, there were only himself and the flight engineer A. Chernov. While leaving the plane, the navigator Kirichenko and the engineer of the NISO Bolshakov were killed, the rest of the crew remained alive.

In the course of the investigation, it was established that the fire was caused by the destruction of the intermediate gear of the third 2TV-2F engine due to its insufficient strength and was not eliminated due to the insufficient effectiveness of the aircraft fire extinguishing equipment.

The entire team of the Design Bureau experienced a disaster, but the second experimental machine was already in the building, and the task was to take into account all the identified shortcomings and omissions in it, to use the experience of finishing the first Tu-16.

In July, the 1954 of the year, the 95 / 2 aircraft was manufactured and until December of that year stood in anticipation of the TV-12 engines, which were adjusted to standard. In the OKB K. Zhdanov and N. Kuznetsov each node was subjected to verification with special care.

In January, the “doubler” 1955 was taken to an experimental airfield, and on February 16, the crew headed by test pilot M. Nyuhtikov (2 th pilot I. Sukhomlin) made the first takeoff on 95 / 2. His factory tests ended at the start of 1956. By this time, the production of the aircraft at the Kuibyshev plant number XXUMX was already unfolding. The first two 18 serial cars took off in October of the 95, after which state tests were carried out on three aircraft.

At the same time, the following results were obtained on the 95 / 2 aircraft: maximum speed - 882 km / h, range with bomb load 5 t - 15040 km, ceiling - 11 300 m. The speed and the ceiling did not meet the requirements of the customer, therefore new engines were installed on the second production car (NK-12М instead of NK-12), which had take-off power already 15000 e. l with. and less fuel consumption. The aircraft had an increased fuel reserve and take-off mass. In September — October, 1957 reached its maximum speed on it - 905 km / h, the ceiling - 12150 m. Range - 16750 km.

The bomber was accepted for mass production and was produced from 1955, in two versions: Tu-95 and Tu-95М. Soon the first of them began to receive the drill units. In August, 1957 was adopted, and it became the main Soviet strategic deterrent at the height of the Cold War, until the first ballistic intercontinental missiles were put into service in the sixties.

In the mass production of the Tu-95 and Tu-95M were up to 1959 year; several aircraft came out in the version of the strategic intelligence officer Tu-95MR. Two cars were converted to passenger and used for special transportation. On these aircraft in the bomb bay housed the pressure cabinet on the 20-24 person. They received the name Tu-116 and were operated in the Air Force until the end of the eighties.

The Tu-95 bombers were designed to deliver bombing strikes, including nuclear ammunition, at strategic targets located deep in the rear of the enemy. At the time of creation, it was believed that the combination of high-speed flight, altitude and powerful defensive armaments made strategic aircraft virtually invulnerable to the then air defense systems. Small-gun armament (6 X-guns caliber 23 mm) made it possible to carry out almost spherical protection against enemy fighter aircraft. The aft unit was equipped with a Argon radar shooting sight. Bomb load Tu-95 ranged from 5 to 15 t depending on the flight range. The maximum caliber of bombs placed on the inner suspension was 9 t.

The Tu-95 equipment was completed with the most up-to-date systems at that time, which made it possible to fly in adverse weather conditions.

At first, the TU-95 crew included eight people: two pilots, a navigator, a flight engineer, a navigator-operator, a gunner-radio operator (in the front of the pressurized cabin) and two shooters in the stern cabin. A feature of the rescue system on the Tu-95, unlike other jet bombers of the time, was the absence of ejection seats.

During an emergency, the bomber left the forward cabin of the bomber through the open hatch of the nose landing gear using a mobile conveyor, and the stern arrows were ejected through the hatches down.

In March, 1957, the Tu-95 crashed. The failure of one engine should not have led to a catastrophic situation, but in this flight the system of translating the screws into the vane position did not work. Very quickly, in a few months, the NK-12MB engines were launched into the series with automatic and manual feathering.

Reinforcement of the air defense weapons of the probable enemy demanded that the developers of the aircraft improve its performance characteristics. Back in 1952, the task was given to build a high-altitude strategic bomber with a flight ceiling over an 17 target, thou. M and a range at that altitude up to 9000-10000 km, with a 5 m combat load and a speed of 800-850 km / h. It was supposed to install new engines NK-16, high-altitude and more powerful. The car was named Tu-96. She had several large sizes, new fuselage, bow cabin and the center section design. In 1956, the plane went to factory testing. But by that moment it had already become clear that a high altitude would not have saved the bomber from attacks by supersonic interceptor fighters and anti-aircraft missiles. Work on the Tu-96 was terminated.

The main direction of increasing the effectiveness of attack aviation forces in the middle and in the second half of the fifties was the creation of aviation missile systems using the long range of the carrier and the invulnerability of the projectile launched from the carrier a few hundred or thousand kilometers from the target. Such a combined version was supposed to increase the survivability of the shock system.

The aviation and missile system, which received the name Tu-95K-20, began to develop in March 1955. The aircraft carrier underwent alterations: a new nose section was designed, where radars of target detection and targeting of an aircraft-projectile were installed. The Mikoyan Design Bureau created for the complex an X-20 projectile with a range of 350 km and a flight speed corresponding to 2М. X-20 was in the bomb bay on a special holder, which raised the projectile up before the flight and lowered it before launch.

A prototype carrier, the Tu-95K, was lifted into the air on January 1 of 1956. Started finishing work on the complex. To test the X-20 systems, the OKB specialists converted the serial MiG-19 (CM-20 aircraft), which, in a manned version, worked out the guidance system, suspension and discharge from the carrier aircraft.

Due to the novelty of the test subject and refinement of the complex was delayed, and only in September X-NUMX, the Tu-1959-95 was officially adopted. As a result of alterations Tu-20 deteriorated its aerodynamics, as a result of which the flight range decreased. Refueling in the air could save the day. In the spring of 95, the OKB A. Tupolev was tasked to work out a hose-cone refueling system for the Tu-1960K. One year later, the first Tu-95K was equipped with such a system and received the name Tu-95KD. Both options. “K” and “KD” were mass-produced up to 95, thanks to which the combat capabilities of domestic strategic aviation increased significantly.

In the sixties, radio and navigation equipment was updated on the part of the K-series aircraft, after which the vehicle received the Tu-95КМ index. At the beginning of the next decade, it was decided to convert the Tu-95K and Tu-95CD into air-to-air guided missile carriers, similar to those used on Tu-22 and Tu-22 supersonic bombers. The new complex, the Tu-95K-22, included one or two missiles, hung on underwing pylons or in the cargo compartment.

The prototype Tu-95K-22, developed on the basis of the serial Tu-95K, for the first time broke away from the runway in October 1975 of the year. After completion of the tests in the late seventies, refinement began under the Tu-95K-22 of the flight fleet of the Tu-95K aircraft. From the beginning of the eighties, cars in the new capacity went to the line units.

As you know, in the first half of the sixties, the Soviet Navy began to go out into the ocean. His underwater and surface forces required a means of long-range reconnaissance and target designation. Already in the 1962, the test went Tu-95РЦ. For two years, the entire complex of radar and radiotechnical systems of the new machine was being developed and brought up to standard, and in 1964, its deliveries to the Navy began.

A special place among the modifications of the Tu-95 is occupied by the Tu-126 early-warning aircraft equipped with the Liana radar complex. Work on it was undertaken in 1960 year. The first experienced car was ready in two years. In 1965-1967, eight more Tu-126s were released. All nine aircraft were in operation until the early eighties, until they were replaced by more advanced A-50.

One of the most important components of the American nuclear “triad” since the sixties is the combination of nuclear submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. To combat them, in the USSR, in 1963, they began developing a long-range anti-submarine strike complex based on the Tu-95, capable of detecting and destroying submarines in surface and submerged positions. In the summer of 1968, the experienced Tu-142 made its first takeoff. From the Tu-95 it differed in the target equipment, the new wing design and the reduced composition of the gun-guns. Initially, the Tu-142 had original carts of the main chassis with six wheels, which ensured the possibility of using unpaved runways. The Tu-142 aircraft in December 1972, were in service with naval aviation.

In the seventies, the combat capabilities of nuclear submarine missile carriers increased significantly, which required the modernization of anti-submarine weapons, including aircraft anti-submarine systems. In the OKB named after A.N. Tupolev, under the general supervision of the General Designer A. Tupolev in 1972, initiated work on the modernization of the Tu-142. In the course of them, the Tu-142M aircraft was created, on which the equipment for detecting low-noise submarines was installed, a more accurate inertial navigation system, an updated automated radio communication system, Ladoga magnetometer, and the front cockpit was completely changed. The first flight on the Tu-142M was performed by test pilot I. Vedernikov on November 4, 1975. Since 1980, this machine has been successfully operated in parts. Based on the Tu-142M subsequently for the needs of the underwater fleet developed a Tu-142MR repeater aircraft.

Work in the United States on the modernization of the B-52 airborne strategic missile systems and arming them with cruise missiles provoked a backlash from the Soviet side. The start of work on the re-equipment of the Tu-95 fleet with new rocket assets can be attributed to the early seventies, when the Tu-95М-5 (Tu-ЭNNXXК-5 complex) was launched as a test, armed with two KSR-26 missiles used on the Tu-5K -16. However, this direction has not been developed.

In the 1976 year, also on a trial basis, one of the serial copies of the Tu-95M was converted into a missile carrier with air-launched cruise missiles, the Tu-95М-55. In the 1978 year, he passed the factory tests, however, and this time the decision to rework the aircraft of the park was not followed.

Simultaneously, on the basis of the Tu-142M, work was underway on a strategic carrier of cruise missiles. The new version, called Tu-95MS, made its first flight in September 1979, and in the early eighties entered service, and to this day is in service with strategic aviation of the Russian Armed Forces.

Tu-95MS has very high defensive capabilities. Crews rated the aircraft literally as unbreakable. The airborne defense complex (BKO) of this vehicle became the most perfect in our country and surpassed the American B-52H complex in a variety of indicators. On "emes" it was possible to successfully solve the problems of electromagnetic compatibility, which spoiled so much blood when creating the Tu-160. In the summer of 1987, on specially conducted tests, his electronics managed to brilliantly thwart all attempts to make attacks of the most modern and electronics-stuffed MiG-31 interceptor. The flight took place at night in simple weather conditions at an altitude of 8000 m. The crew of the thirty-first reported: "I observe the target visually, I can work the gun, the tactical launch can not be done." It is worth noting that the characteristics of the onboard complex MiG-31 significantly exceeded those of the American F-15. As you can see, by the end of the last century, the stern shooter regained its former value.

On these machines again organized combat duty. At the same time, its crews were no longer subjected to such psychological stress as their predecessors, who were flying on bombers, experienced. They did not need to enter the zone of action of a powerful air defense, and besides, they did not know their targets, nor even the launch point. The crew’s task was to bring the strike machine to a certain point, from where it would automatically fly for another hour, after which it would also launch missile launches on its own.

One of the most famous modifications of the Tu-95 bomber was its passenger version - the Tu-114. Work on the aircraft design bureau began in 1955. The prototype lifted into the sky test pilot A. Yakimov, November 10 1957 of the year. In July, the 1960 year ended state tests, in March of the next - operational.

24 On April 1961, the first Tu-114 flight took place with passengers aboard on the Moscow-Khabarovsk route. In total, up to 1965 of the year, the 31 Tu-114 was built at the Kuibyshev aircraft plant, which successfully served on domestic and international lines up to the 1980 year. During this period, more than 6 million passengers were transported. The airliner was produced in the layout of the 170 and 200 seats. And in 1962, a variant was prepared for flights to Cuba: the number of passenger seats was reduced to 120 due to an increase in the stock of fuel. From January 1963, regular flights to Havana began, with one stopover.

On the Tu-114, the 32 world record was set. In addition, in 1958, the airliner was awarded the Grand Prix at the Brussels International Exhibition, and A.N. Tupolev was awarded the FAI Large Gold Medal.
Various flying laboratories were also created, where advanced aircraft engines, equipment and aircraft systems were tested. There were many unfulfilled projects of aircraft carriers for various types of manned and unmanned objects. A glorious and difficult journey, from the moment of birth to the present day, was made by the Tu-95, the only aircraft of this class in the world with theaters.

Rigmant V. Tu-95 // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 2001. No.1. C. 17-26.
Rigmant V. Tu-95 // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 2000. No.12. C. 8-14.
Kirsanov N. Rigmant V. Unparalleled // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 1992. No.12. C. 14-17.
Gordon E. Rigmant V. Tu-95. Purpose - America // Aviation and Time. 1996. No.5. C.2-20.
Antonov D. Rigmant V. From the file “Russian bear” // Wings of the Motherland. 1994. No.6. C. 8-10.
Antonov D. Rigmant V. From the file “Russian bear” // Wings of the Motherland. 1994. No.7. C. 1-5.
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  1. Good cat
    Good cat 15 February 2016 07: 01
    Beautiful and powerful plane!
    1. NIKNN
      NIKNN 15 February 2016 21: 26
      Thanks to the author! "+" It is interesting to read, it seems to be a lot of technical nuances and simple! good
  2. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 15 February 2016 07: 05
    a beautiful plane - flies well - this is about him. combined both grace and power! delight and respect! and just - well, I like him!
    1. gjv
      gjv 15 February 2016 11: 25
      Quote: Volga Cossack
      a beautiful plane - flies well - it's about him

      Tu-95MSM with underwing nodes for the suspension of new missiles. Handsome - Polar Bear!
  3. bionik
    bionik 15 February 2016 07: 17
    Long-lived airplane, 60 years in service !!!
    1. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 15 February 2016 15: 55
      Quote: bionik
      Long-lived airplane, 60 years in service !!!
  4. Magic archer
    Magic archer 15 February 2016 08: 01
    Good article. I remember reading how the Tu-116 flew to Latin America for the first time, and there Russian emigrants specially came to see it. They stood and cried. One old Cossack said (I do not remember literally, but the meaning is something like this) -Left Mother Russia, thought to disappear under the Communists, and she became even stronger once such aircraft makes!
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 15 February 2016 17: 29
      -16 qualifying.
      Well, like this. Without the Communists, such an aircraft would have been made twenty years earlier b.
      Since Sikorsky, Seversky and Kartvelli worked at home, b.
      1. Pilat2009
        Pilat2009 15 February 2016 21: 38
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        Since Sikorsky, Seversky and Kartvelli worked at home, b.

        Write garbage, for:
        in September 1959, the Tu-95K-20 officially adopted
        March 12, 1956, the first unit equipped with B-52B - 93 Bombing Wing (93rd BW) at Castle Airbase in California reached operational readiness.
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        Without communists, such an airplane would have been made twenty years earlier.

        What did the Sikorsky and others like them twenty years before?
        You still compare the possibilities of a fattening America and the destroyed USSR

        And you can compare:
        The initial version of the aircraft, B-1A, was developed back in the early 1970s, but production was discontinued after the first 4 prototypes were made. In 1980, the B-1B was created on the basis of the B-1A as a low-altitude air defense breakthrough aircraft. The B-1B entered service with the U.S. Air Force in 1985.
        Tu-160: The first flight of the prototype (under the designation "70-01") took place on December 18, 1981. The first production car (No. 1-01) took off on October 10, 1984, the second serial (No. 1-02) - 16 March 1985, the third (No. 2-01) - December 25, 1985, the fourth (No. 2-02) - August 15, 1986.
        again Sikorsky 20 years doing unknown
      2. goose
        goose 16 February 2016 10: 46
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        Well, like this. Without the Communists, such an aircraft would have been made twenty years earlier b.
        Since Sikorsky, Seversky and Kartvelli worked at home, b.

        I do not like juggling.
        Sikorsky and Kartveli emigrated to a country where the economy was 12 times larger than in the wretched tsarist Russia. With the appropriate number of engineers serving it. Therefore, both found a sufficient number of staff and demand. If it were the USSR of the 60-70s, whose economy was only 30% smaller than the United States, both would be stars.
    2. Civil
      Civil 15 February 2016 19: 16
      Quote: Magic Archer
      Good article. I remember reading how the Tu-116 flew to Latin America for the first time, and there Russian emigrants specially came to see it. They stood and cried. One old Cossack said (I do not remember literally, but the meaning is something like this) -Left Mother Russia, thought to disappear under the Communists, and she became even stronger once such aircraft makes!

      Went to the wrong place - no luck
  5. Bongo
    Bongo 15 February 2016 09: 24
    In general, the publication made a favorable impression, but there are a number of inaccuracies, for example:
    A special place among the Tu-95 modifications is occupied by the Tu-126 aircraft for early radar detection equipped with the Liana radar system. Work on it was undertaken back in 1960. The first prototype was ready in two years. In the years 1965-1967 released eight more Tu-126.
    Here the author is somewhat mistaken, the Tu-126 was developed not on the basis of the Tu-95, but on the basis of the passenger Tu-114, which in turn differed in the fuselage design from the Tu-95.
    1. opus
      opus 15 February 2016 13: 59
      Quote: Bongo
      The Tu-126 was developed not on the basis of the Tu-95, but on the basis of the passenger Tu-114,


      Quote: Author
      Crews rated the plane literally as unbreakable

      Hardly of course, even at the mark of the creation years
      Angles of shelling cannon mounts.
  6. air wolf
    air wolf 15 February 2016 09: 56
    It would be better if we developed 3M ....
    1. 0255
      0255 15 February 2016 15: 45
      Myasishchev did not have such ties as Tupolev.
      1. Chicot 1
        Chicot 1 15 February 2016 16: 00
        Quote: air wolf
        It would be better if we developed 3M ....

        Maybe better, but (everywhere the omnipresent "but!") ...
        Quote: 0255
        Myasishchev did not have such ties as Tupolev.

        Myasishchev (unlike Tupolev) did not want to engage in the improvement of production cars. Having made 3M (a great car for its time!), He rushed to sculpt a new plane, and Tupolev at that time brought to mind the serial Tu-16, Tu-95 and passenger cars ...
        You see the result today - "Tupoles" (good or bad) fly to this day, and "emki" are at best in museums ...
        1. 52
          52 15 February 2016 16: 55
          There are many factors — the complexity of the missile suspension, And the eternal headache — engines, and the lack of capabilities of Myasishchev’s design bureau. Yes, and the bicycle chassis added problems to the basing. And the general reliability of the aircraft-weapon system of Myasishchev wasn’t very good. and then an exhibit.
        2. Aqela
          Aqela 16 February 2016 02: 26
          Well, the safely buried M-50 in all respects surpassed the American B-1A. If not for political squabbles, it is not yet known what kind of aircraft would be the basis of our military aviation. Just look at the history of the ups and downs of Sukhoi. Myasischev also always had the same troubles.
          1. goose
            goose 16 February 2016 10: 54
            Quote: Aqela
            Well, the safely buried M-50 in all respects surpassed the American B-1A.

            I don’t think these are planes of different generations and concepts.
    2. goose
      goose 16 February 2016 10: 52
      Quote: air wolf
      It would be better if we developed 3M ....

      I don’t think even now the fashion for fuel-efficient subsonic aircraft with limited mass has not passed. An analogue of the M3 type will obviously be 1,5 times larger (with all the problems of the runway, construction and operation), more voracious, fewer, and less combat readiness in%.
      I would say that the reincarnation of such an aircraft with a side weight of 2 times lighter, updated aerodynamics, a spacious bomb bay, and PNK, allowing successful use in local conflicts, is already asking. It is not the case in Afghanistan and Syria to drive the Tu-22M or Tu-160.
  7. Sochi
    Sochi 15 February 2016 10: 13
    Dad flew at such an EW officer, first from Uzin, then from Chagan ... The boys' machine was enchanting us - a whopper ...
  8. qwert
    qwert 15 February 2016 10: 20
    Quote: air wolf
    It would be better if we developed 3M ....

    I agree. But for too long, Myasishev was short of range, and she, oh how needed, to get an adversary. But still, it was necessary to suffer a few more years before the dual-circuit engine, and with the same NK-8 or D-30 modifications, the 3MD aircraft would leave Tu-95 and B-52 far behind. Myasishev had a little lack of progmatism. Less effort was needed to develop supersonic and more to develop the existing 3M. For example, the development of a variant with the K-20 missile would give him the opportunity to continue serial construction. And there the engines would arrive.
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 15 February 2016 10: 48
      Quote: qwert
      But too long Myasishev missed the range

      Dear colleague Eduard, the reason for stopping the development of 3M was not "insufficient range", but a bicycle chassis, which excluded the use of missile weapons, which were gaining fashion at that time. If you remember, the country's leadership, headed by Khrushchev, was struck by the rocket marasmus virus.
      But the Tu-95, in which the chassis allows you to suspend any missiles under the fezuli and wings (and initially they were mainly cruise), was in demand. In addition, Myasischego did not have a relationship with Khrushchev, and therefore he was taken away from the OKB in 1960 (which was transferred to Chelomei). Rocketeer Chelomei was just entering Khrushchev, and besides, Khrushchev’s son worked for him.
      Well, when they signed the strategic arms reduction treaty with the Ami, the Myasishchev planes sacrificed politics, because there were more than four times less than the Tu-95, and they were used for the most part as a tanker.
  9. rubin6286
    rubin6286 15 February 2016 11: 06
    From the pilots of the long-range aviation, I heard the following phrase: “He (Tupolev) first made a car, and then he looked for where to put the crew in it.” This is because there was no crew ejection system on the Tu-95, and the chosen scheme for leaving the car hatches are inconvenient and does not exclude the death of pilots in the bow.
    1. goose
      goose 16 February 2016 10: 57
      Quote: rubin6286
      He (Tupolev) first made the car, and then looked for where to put the crew in it

      Not true, for all its odiousness, the Tupolevs always cared about the crew more than other design bureaus. And given the specifics of the aircraft, its tactics and reliability, the lack of catapults cannot be considered a big drawback.
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 16 February 2016 14: 52
        You wrote this because you personally did not have to leave the machine that had lost control with the help of a catapult and through the hatch. If you try, everything will become clear right away and nothing to do with the specifics of the aircraft, its tactics and reliability. Alas, everything that flies sometimes falls.
  10. Filxnumx
    Filxnumx 15 February 2016 11: 32
    Not a bad article, a plus for the author. But, judging by the format, the cycle is not provided, which is a pity. Talking, for example, about Tu-96, one could devote at least a couple of phrases to unique propellers for this aircraft. They were all-steel, unlike serial duralumin (high-strength alloy V-95, another hello from the German designers) AB-60K, and even hollow to lighten the total weight. This played a fatal role for them: microcracks appeared on the blades from constant alternating loads. It was not possible to bring the material of the blades "to mind", and even a rather complicated and expensive technology of their manufacture. And along with the loss of advantages in altitude, this also became a good reason for the termination of further work on the Tu-96. And the author also has several inaccuracies in the description of the design. For example, the movable floor is intended for those crew members to leave the aircraft (and these are only both pilots, the navigator-navigator and the flight engineer in the Tu-95MS; the navigator-operator and the communications operator are already sitting near the hatch and they simply do not need a movable floor) who cannot get there on their own to the entrance hatch (wounded or unconscious. In the latter case, they are pulled out of their chairs onto the floor by the rest). The performance characteristics table does not quite correctly indicate the modification of engines on the Tu-95MS: NK-12MV (4th series) were on the first MCs of the Taganrog plant, and even then, in my opinion, not at all. The main regular engine on the Tu-95MS is the NK-12MP (0 or 1 series). And in the disaster of 1957. What was envisaged for the first Tu-95s for feathering propellers was only called with the loud word "system". In reality, everything depended on the physical strength and endurance of the senior onboard technician. For the complete introduction of the propellers of one engine into the feathered position, he had to make more than 100 strokes with the manual hydraulic pump HP-01 (by the way, he still "flies" in the aircraft). And that time there was a failure of one engine and shutdown of the second engine and low flight altitude. There was simply not enough time to feather the propellers, the flight speed dropped below the stall speed, and then the Lord himself is powerless. After this disaster, the aircraft was equipped with an all-mode auto-feathering system (electro-hydraulic) and forced (emergency) entry into the feathered position (pneumatic). On each engine, a powerful FN-5K electric pump was installed, included in the oil system circuit, the engines were equipped with electric and hydraulic autofluging sensors, which were triggered at different engine operating modes according to the magnitude of the propeller thrust and duplicated by bleeding air from the 11th stage of the engine compressor. And checking the actuation of feathering has become a standard procedure at every engine race with the removal of parameters, as well as after replacing the engine, propellers, propeller speed governor, command-fuel unit or vane pump.
  11. FID
    FID 15 February 2016 11: 37
    Technician engineer - 4 suspension points under the WING - 10 missiles ... 10 by 4 is not completely divided ....
    1. opus
      opus 15 February 2016 13: 41
      Quote: SSI
      4 suspension points under the WING - 10 missiles ... 10 by 4 is not completely divided ....

      why divide by 4?
      10 missiles / 2 (wings) = 5 missiles per wing
      3 + 2 under each wing (left and right) = 10 is obtained wink

      Sprut system (MKU-6-5 + 2 * AKU + 2 * AKU-3) and modified APP-95 "Oak"

      The envisaged possibility of equipping the aircraft with underwing suspensions led to the release of two versions of the Tu-95MS-6, which carried six X-55s in the cargo compartment on the MKU-6-5 multi-position ejection unit and Tu-95MS-16, additionally armed with ten more missiles - two each on the AKU-2 internal underwing ejection units near the fuselage and three on the AKU-3 external installations located between the engines.

      Tu-95MS-16 with underwing pylons for ten X-55MS missiles

      Tu-95MS-16 with underwing pylons removed

      Due to the increased combat load and the deterioration of aerodynamics, the flight data for the second option (Tu-95MS-16) were worse than for the first (Tu-95MS-6)
      For example, the flight range without refueling in flight was reduced from 10500 km for the Tu-95MS-6, to 8500km for the Tu-95MS-16.

      Tu-95M-55 flying laboratory to create Tu-95MS-16

      Under the SALT-2 agreement, out of the terms of the total number of nuclear warheads allowed for each of the contracting parties, all underwing ejection installations and the Sprut SPRT were dismantled from the Tu-95MS-16.
      1. FID
        FID 15 February 2016 15: 48
        Thank! It became very old, about the external suspension (3 missiles), and I do not remember ....
        1. opus
          opus 15 February 2016 16: 32
          Quote: SSI
          It’s become very old,

          Okay, stoop something.
          Everyone would be so "old". Are you still at the wheel? wink
          "Octopus" was not very common "ate a lot", and OSV-2, again, no one remembers

          The main thing BASIC to remember is that it wouldn’t turn out like this (like those who don’t remember anything and don’t want to remember):
          TU-95 and variations are unique. The same is Tu-95P.
          1. There was a Monument Tu-114 (board the USSR-76464)

          2. STEEL The remains of the Tu-114 monument in Domodedovo (2006 Russian Federation).

          the pride of the Soviet aviation industry, broke foreign special equipment companies with foreign participation (JV, East Line, operator and owner of Domodedovo Airport), making room for foreign cars.

          It would be better to sell, any museum (them) tore off with arms and legs
          the workplace of the navigator Tu-114 (board of the USSR-76485, Kryvyi Rih)

          The navigator of the Tu-114 aircraft was located in front, in the nose of the fuselage, in the "glass cockpit". Due to good visibility from his place, he could also provide corrective assistance to the crew during taxiing, because the visibility of the pilots on the ground was clearly insufficient due to the high and slightly “bulged” nose of the aircraft ..

          -------------------------------------------------- -----------------------
          1. opus
            opus 15 February 2016 16: 35
            And this?

            Coupe Tu-114 in the sleeping version (3 people)

            Landing of course yes .... impressive

          2. aba
            aba 15 February 2016 19: 29
            2. STEEL The remains of the Tu-114 monument in Domodedovo (2006 Russian Federation).

            Yes-ah-ah-ah ... And here the law on Patriotism, about which they began to talk, would not help, since the "golden calf" rules now. Everything is sacrificed for him. sad
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 15 February 2016 17: 31
        Quote: opus
        Under the SALT-2 treaty, out of the terms of the total number of nuclear warheads allowed for each of the contracting parties, all underwing ejection installations and the Sprut SZR from the Tu-95MS-16 were dismantled.

        That's how it is. Here are just the underwing suspensions on the Tu-95MS began to return.
        First, supposedly only for testing the X-101:

        And then they were found on ordinary serial boards after modernization:
        1. opus
          opus 15 February 2016 17: 50
          Quote: Alexey RA
          Here are just the underwing suspensions on the Tu-95MS began to return.
          First, supposedly only for testing the X-101:

          1. The agreement referred to the number of nuclear weapons. We donated a pylon in favor of ICBMs (ground and nuclear submarines)

          2. The SALT-2 treaty was never ratified by the US Senate

          3.This is not AKU-3
          and AKU-2
          3 X-101 units are not placed.

          The upgraded subsonic strategic carrier aircraft of the X-101/102 (Kh-101/102) cruise missiles, suspended on four underwing suspension mounts (each with two cruise missiles) with four NK-12MP turboprop engines with take-off power of 15000 hp each. The first flight of the modernized stratgic bomber Tu-95 MSM was completed in 1999.
          4. In my opinion, our scored on the US, as they are on us on missile defense
      3. goose
        goose 16 February 2016 10: 59
        Quote: opus
        Sprut system (MKU-6-5 + 2 * AKU + 2 * AKU-3) and modified APP-95 "Oak"

        But doesn’t it fit into his bomb bay, that all suspension options are only external?
        1. opus
          opus 16 February 2016 12: 33
          Quote: goose
          But doesn’t it fit into his bomb bay, that all suspension options are only external?

          well, that CAREFULLY read and look weakly:
          Quote: SSI
          system "Sprut" (MKU-6-5 + 2 * AKU + 2 * AKU-3) and modified APP-95 "Oak"

          6 + 10 = 16, well, for very short distances and with "good" EPO.
          But this was not "done" in practice (heavy), although the APP-95 "Dub" allowed.
          or TU-95-MS-6 (what is the same) only MKU-6-5 revolving ejection device with 6 KR

          long range and with low EPO.
  12. kirgudu
    kirgudu 15 February 2016 12: 22
    Red stars look good.
  13. fa2998
    fa2998 15 February 2016 13: 17
    In my opinion, the Tu-95 belongs to the family of the most beautiful aircraft of the 20th century! That would stir up such an aircraft in the 21st century. Composites, modern theaters with coaxial "sickles." modern turbofan engines show an example of the efficiency of the turbojet engine. hi
    1. ferro4
      ferro4 15 February 2016 14: 02
      but there is a reason. only screws made of composites
    2. goose
      goose 16 February 2016 11: 04
      I support that the "new" Tu-95 could have a maximum take-off weight of 120-150 tons, and an empty side of no more than 50 tons, which would greatly simplify construction and operation, and reduce the cost of re-equipping the army. Perhaps for the price it would have come out as 1 Su-34.
  14. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 15 February 2016 13: 54
    I flew as a passenger on the Tu-114, I still remember the impressions.)
  15. Max40
    Max40 15 February 2016 15: 55
    Quote: chunga-changa
    I flew as a passenger on the Tu-114, I still remember the impressions.)

    So share it please?
    1. chunga-changa
      chunga-changa 15 February 2016 18: 11
      Is logical. He was a child, generally flew a lot, his father was often transferred. He flew all Soviet aircraft to IL-86, including some military vehicles, where pilots often allowed them into the cockpit to see, well, helicopters. Three flights were remembered - on the An-2, Tu-144 and Tu-114.
      The flight on Tu-114 was unbearably long, noisy, there were a lot of mothers with children, the children cried, ran, and in general the mess went on increasing. And I remembered that if you open your mouth and make a sound A or P, you could get into resonance with the noise of the engines and the teeth begin to vibrate, and if you close your mouth and say M, the whole head starts to vibrate, it was interesting, well, it contributed to the mess.
      I’ll go straight through Tu-144. Another boring flight for the child, I got good places, because of speed I put my ears a little, but after the stewardess gave candy without question at the first request - her ears began to be laid up strongly and constantly.) Everything went when she offered lemonade instead of lollipops, in general it was boring but tasty. And then, even at the airport terminal in Moscow, he was lost, distracted by a fountain with fish and went for the first officer in his uniform. Then he watched in surprise as a completely alien uncle in a buffet eats sandwiches. Of course, I found it, my mother got a little nuts, I got it that day.)
      An-2 just fell into a thunderstorm, it was very scary and hellish air holes.
  16. iouris
    iouris 15 February 2016 20: 49
    I watched both the Tu-126 and Tu-95 nearby. These are relatives, but not very close. The external difference is very noticeable. Tu-126 is made on the basis of Tu-114.
    The plane is wonderful. But.
    Few airfields in the country are capable of receiving these aircraft.
    I suppose the noise and vibration of the engines negatively affect the psychophysiological state of the crew.
    They say that in the early versions of the Tu-95 there was not even a toilet. I do not think that the working conditions of the crew have changed significantly for the better.
    Conclusion: the hardware has been changing for a long time and we need to actively work on it.
  17. doework
    doework 15 February 2016 21: 53
    Handsome, simply handsome, especially in civilian "livery"!
    A powerful machine built with a huge reserve for the future. Tupolevites - cheers, carcasses crews - low bow for their hard military work!
  18. Е2 - Е4
    Е2 - Е4 29 December 2018 18: 16
    What can I say my favorite plane. The plane is still operational today and tomorrow and for many years to come.