Military Review

The very first blow is Russian. Order No.227

77
Most powerful in stories AUG strike on ships in the harbor was and remains, apparently, the strike of Japanese aircraft on Pearl Harbor.


But the first such attack-marine operation in history aviation As part of the AUG, it was precisely the Russian Imperial Black Sea Fleet that led the enemy ships hidden in the harbor. And it happened exactly one hundred years ago (anniversary!), February 6, 1916. In addition to hitting ships, an attack was carried out on port facilities, batteries and mines of the Turkish port of Zonguldak.

Zunguldak coal district was the second most important area of ​​attention and attacks of the Russian fleet (after the Bosphorus), because it played a crucial role in providing Istanbul with coal, since, due to the undeveloped railway network, Turks transported coal mainly by sea.

The very first blow is Russian. Order No.227


Directive of 9 September 1915, the rate ordered to interrupt the supply of coal by sea in the Bosphorus region.

In pursuance of this directive, the Black Sea Fleet carried out the following operations: several battleships of Zonguldak with battleships, 25 shelling by destroyers, attack by firefighters (unsuccessful), attacks by seaplanes of the Black Sea Fleet, attacks of Turkish coal by raiders, mine-laying (which destroyed dozens of Turkish ships).

However, shelling from the sea could not completely stop the export of coal from Zonguldak. It was decided to conduct a massive air strike by naval aviation. However, the Turkish port was out of range of ground aviation, so the fleet command decided to use the Alexander I and Nikolay I hydraulic aircraft, armed with M-5 flying boats. The seaplanes were ordered to strike the ships sheltered by the high pier, as well as the mines, port facilities, moorings, railway junction and enemy batteries in Zonguldak.

After the preliminary reconnaissance of Zonguldak and the detection of targets there, the strike group of the fleet (quite the AUG in the modern sense of the word) comprised of the most diverse ships (battleship "Empress Maria", the cruiser "Cahul", squadron destroyers "Zavetny" and "Enviable", submarines , “Alexander I” and “Nikolay I” transport aircraft with 14 aircraft M-5 designed by Russian engineer Grigorovich) went on a hike. 8 seaplanes M-5 (commander of the first naval detachment, marine pilot Lt. Raymond Fyodorovich von Essen) were placed on the Emperor Alexander I, 7 M-5 planes (commander of the second naval detachment, naval pilot, Lieutenant Alexander Konstantinovichychuk NI, X-NUMX) ).



After leaving Sevastopol to ensure surprise, the aircraft carriers separated from the squadron of warships of the main group and made the transition independently.




In the evening of February 5, the Hasty and Loud destroyers carrying out the blockade of the Zongulak port approached the harbor, found the ships and schooners behind the pier, opened artillery fire on them (did not reach success), and telegraphed all intelligence information to the AUG command.

6 February 1916 (according to other 7 data of February) the destroyers "Hasty" and "Loud" together with the aircraft carriers reached the point of deployment north of Zonguldak, where hydroplanes launched the seaplanes into the water. At this time, the main group of battleships carried out a reliable strategic cover for the aircraft carrier group from the sea — from attacks by the ships of the German and Turkish fleets.

The descent of all 14 aircraft was carried out in record time-36 minutes, after which the destroyers "Hasty" and "Loud" remained to patrol the descent site, and the air vehicles themselves moved a little further north.



The weather (and it was February, the time of storms on the Black Sea) in the area of ​​operation deteriorated sharply, low clouds curled, visibility was almost zero, the temperature dropped sharply, but it was too late to retreat.

In 10.30, the first aircraft, commanded by naval pilot Lt. Essen, with an observer of the first article mechanic Oleinikov, attacked Zonguldak.

From a report to the aviation chief of the Black Sea Fleet, the head of the first ship detachment von Essen: “I donate to your high honor that I received your order to bomb Zonguldak, and if there is a large steamer there behind the jetty, then him too. In 10 hours of 27 minutes I first flew on the 37 unit to Zonguldak, having an observer of the mechanic I of Oleinikov’s article, taking with me two poods and two ten-pound bombs on the apparatus. Flying up to Zonguldak, I saw in the harbor behind the pier a large, single-pipe, two-masted steamer standing nose to the exit, which smoked heavily. Having made three laps over the city and the harbor at a height of 900-1100 meters, my observer dropped all four bombs. The first one, a pound one, dropped on a steamer, exploded on the pier in front of the nose. The second, ten-pound, fell over the stern of the steamer among those who stood by and fired at one of them. The third, pudovaya, dropped on the railway junction, got into a large white building. The fourth fell to the shore behind the steamer. On the hill near Kilimli, I noticed a row of white haze, apparently shooting a battery. After completing the task, I returned to the “Emperor Alexander I” in 50 minutes and approached the board for the ascent. The ends were thrown to me, and they began to pull me to the board. At this time, the cars were given full speed ahead, and my device was demolished under the stern of the screws. Following this, the first shot rang out on the ship, the ends were thrown on the apparatus and entangled on the engine, breaking the exhaust valve for me. Being in two fathoms behind the stern of the ship, suddenly I and my observer noticed an underwater mine going to our vehicle. Mina walked rather slowly, touched the boat, stopped, then drifted it away from the propellers ... I could not catch it due to damage to the motor. Having unraveled the end of the engine wound up and discarding the broken valve, my mechanic started the engine, and on the 8 cylinders I pulled away from the water and began to search for a submarine and guard our ships. In 12 hours 2 minutes I sat down and was hoisted onto the ship. ”



What happened, where did the torpedo come from? It turned out that during the ascent of the first aircraft the aircraft carrier was attacked by the German UB-7 submarine, which was at Zonguldak’s position specifically to fight the Russians blocking the coal area with ships. The signalmen noticed the danger in time, and also the signals about the attack of the submarine, given by the Russian seaplane, gave the ship a turn and managed to turn it off, evading the torpedo. Simultaneously, the fire was opened from the guns of air transport diving shells. The attack of the boat was crumpled and, although she was able to launch a torpedo, she did it from a long distance and was forced to hastily retreat. Thus, thanks to the competent actions of the crew, seaplane and the commander of "Alexander I" captain 1 rank Peter Alekseevich Goering, the torpedo did not get into the ship! After working out her turn, she touched the plane, located at that moment behind the stern of the “Emperor Alexander I”, but the fuse did not have enough impact force to operate, and it sank safely. The captain was greatly helped by the information about the attack, timely transmitted by a seaplane under the command of pilot Kornilovich.

It was the Black Sea pilots Lieutenant G. V. Kornilovich and Warrant Officer V. L. Bushmarin on an M-5 aircraft for the first time in the history of the Black Sea Fleet, found and attacked a submarine of the enemy. From Kornilovich's report: “Passing at a height of 200 meters in the distance of 4's cables from the Alexander and the destroyer of the towing plane, I discovered a periscope of a submarine approaching the destroyer. Immediately, warning smoke signals were dropped, and I began to describe the circle above the location of the submarine. Immediately, from the auxiliary vessel "Imperator Alexander I", fire was fired at the indicated place, and I saw one projectile close explode from the submarine. "



During the Zonguldak attack, the aircraft were subjected to strong artillery and rifle fire of coastal defenses.
Steamships were attacked by aviation, as well as a harbor, port facilities, a railway junction, anti-aircraft batteries, and Zonguldak mines.

Marine pilot V.M. Marchenko, who carried out the sniper bombing of the Turkish ship (which eventually sank), reported: "I hereby report to your Excellency that according to the orders of your excellency, I flew on the unit number 32 to 10 hours 22 minutes having observer ensign of Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky, with the aim of damaging vessels behind the mole of the Zonguldak harbor. Taking the height, I approached Zonguldak from Kilimli, having a height of 1500 meters. When I exceeded due to clouds, I noticed tears of shrapnel meters on 300 below me, and at the same time I saw up to 3's breaks, which suggests that there are anti-aircraft guns. Passing over the pier, behind which there were two steamboats: one about 1200 tons and the second about 2000 tons, the observer Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky dropped one bomb, 50-pound, into a large steamer. The bomb hit him near the pipe, and the steamer was clouded with a cloud of smoke and coal dust. Turning around, I passed a second time over the steamer, and the second bomb was dropped, which had fallen near the steamer into the water. Along the way, photographs were taken with a photographic apparatus, and those that failed were manifested. I consider it my duty to inform you that the behavior of ensign Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky during a very heavy shelling was impeccable, which should be attributed to the successful hit of the first bomb ”.



The pilot-observer V.S. Tkach denounced: “After pointing the direction according to the railway junction plan, and after going some distance, I saw many buildings, where I dropped the first pood bomb from the 1300 meters in height, after which you immediately dropped the second pood bomb, which hit the area according to the attached drawing. After the device described a curve according to my instructions, I noticed gunfire where the device was directed. Finding myself above the aforementioned place, I quickly dropped ten-pound bombs one after the other. At the end of the task took the direction to the base. The port was covered by clouds. Warrant Officer Tkach.

In total, the air raid lasted more than an hour. The observers of the hydro-avia ship "Emperor Alexander I" and "Emperor Nicholas I" discovered the return of the first flying boats, and the ships returned to their former place and quickly raised all the seaplanes on board.

For bombing the port, mines and ships, the Black Sea aviation used quite a lot of bombs: 9 - poods, 18 - fifty pounds and 21 - ten pounds.

The success of the operation was very significant:

- for the first time it was shown that naval aviation, capable of acting on targets inaccessible to artillery, became the strike force, and powerful warships now became only a means of their combat support;
- the enemy ship and several other schooners were sunk;
- for the first time, the Black Sea forces conducted anti-submarine defense of warships;
- for the first time in the anti-submarine defense of surface ships of the aircraft carrier "Emperor Alexander I", data of aerial reconnaissance carried out by the flying boat of Lieutenant G.V. Kornilovich;
- for the first time, diving shells were used to attack the German submarine UB-7;
- the loss of personnel and aircraft naval aviation of the Black Sea Fleet as a result of the attack on Zonguldak did not have.

The most important thing is that they gained invaluable experience in guiding and using an aviation strike group (which included a variety of ships, from huge battleships to submarines), as well as using seaplane connections and advanced methods of war at sea.

Not to mention the most unique in the history of world naval aviation case of taking an enemy ship to boarding! This case does not refer to the Zonguldak attack, but is characteristic of the Black Sea naval aviation. 3 March 1917, a seaplane under the command of Lieutenant Sergeev attacked and fired a Turkish schooner with a machine gun, forcing the crew to lie down on the deck. Then he splashed down, and while the navigator kept the team under the gun of the machine gun, Sergeyev climbed onto the deck and, threatening the revolver, locked the whole team in the hold. The nearest Russian destroyer delivered the prize to Sevastopol.

Russia's successes in the air naval warfare were not accidental: the Russian Empire was one of the world leaders in the theory of the use of aircraft at sea and the construction of seaplanes. Russian hydroplane "Gakkel-V" was built in 1911, one of the first in the world.



Since 1913, a large design and construction of domestic seaplanes has been carried out. Projects of sea planes were created that surpassed the foreign ones and soon displaced them from Russian naval aviation. This was done by the Russian engineers Grigorovich, Villish, Engels, Sedelnikov, Fride, Shishmarev, as well as the design office of the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works and the Aviation Test Station.

15% of the aircraft produced in Russia was of water purpose, this was not the case anywhere in the world, and Russia was second only to Great Britain in the number of aircraft carriers, and was the recognized leader among all countries in the success of naval aviation.

Just look at the fantastic and for much later times, the goals attacked by Russian naval pilots. Russian seaplanes bombed Constantinople (Istanbul), Bosphorus, Trapezund, Varna, Riza, Rumeliu, Sinop, etc., provided for the conduct and protection of dozens of small and large landing operations of ground forces, reconnaissance and bombing of enemy ships, patrolling enemy fields and patrolling their minefields, the adjustment of naval artillery fire on enemy fortifications on land, reconnaissance of these fortifications. It was an undoubted success!

The Russian fleet used one of the world's best seaplanes M-5 (reconnaissance, artillery spotter, bomber), M-9 (heavy seaplane for bombing land objects, batteries and ships), M-11 (the world's first flying boat fighter) all the planes were Russian-made, designer D. P. Grigorovich, some planes had unique equipment: radio stations with a range of more than 40 km and cameras were installed on them. The airplanes created by Grigorovich were very easy to control and maneuverable: their models were “blown through” in one of the world's best wind tunnels of that time, located in St. Petersburg.

By the beginning of 1917, the Black Sea Aviation had 120 aircraft, almost all of them were domestic, Russian-made.

The first famous order number 227 was not released at all in 1942, but December 31 and 1916 was signed by his remarkable Russian naval commander, Black Sea Fleet Commander Admiral Alexander V. Kolchak. The order of 227 was: "On the formation of the Black Sea Fleet Air Division." He stated the creation and existence of the most powerful strike force of the fleet and ensured the holding of new organizational measures for its further development. A full-fledged airborne unit, a detachment of naval aviation (later renamed the division of naval aviation), along with two air brigades, was part of the air division of the Black Sea Fleet. The uniqueness of the naval aviation division of the Black Sea Fleet air division consisted in the fact that it included four aircraft carriers along with the air division (1917 of these ships already had SIX: “Emperor Nicholas I”, “Emperor Alexander I”, “Almaz”, "Romania", "Dacia", and "King Carl". Preparations were under way for the Bosporus amphibious operation to inflict a decisive defeat on Turkey and withdraw it from the war ...

Thus, using advanced in the world (very complex) methods of warfare at sea, modern domestic, advanced aircraft in the world (even with radio and cameras), modern domestic dreadnoughts, aircraft carriers, advanced methods of building and managing ship and air units, fought "Lapotnaya", "illiterate", "backward" Russian Empire. Interestingly, the subsequent regime for several decades could not even repeat what was achieved by Russia at the beginning of the century ...

In compiling the essay materials were used articles:
http://www.airforce.ru/content/dovoennyi-period/648-pervye-avianoscy-rossii/
http://tsushima.su/forums/viewtopic.php?id=1821
https://maxpark.com/community/14/content/3271728
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Император_Александр_I_(гидроавиатранспорт)
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Император_Николай_I_(гидроавиатранспорт)
http://wiki.wargaming.net/ru/Navy:Российский_Черноморский_Флот_в_годы_Первой_мировой_войны
https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?id=695496460500852&story_fbid=941578459225983
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  1. Good cat
    Good cat 20 February 2016 06: 14
    10
    The beginning of glorious deeds!
    1. Vend
      Vend 20 February 2016 09: 25
      12
      The author is huge +.
      1. Proxima
        Proxima 20 February 2016 10: 13
        12
        Quote: Wend
        The author is huge +.

        Congratulations to the author on a wonderful debut! Article in the best traditions of the Military Review! If this is the "first pancake", then I can imagine what the subsequent publications will be. Keep it up!
        1. Fat
          Fat 20 February 2016 11: 06
          +6
          Quote: Proxima
          Quote: Wend
          The author is huge +.

          Congratulations to the author on a wonderful debut! Article in the best traditions of the Military Review! If this is the "first pancake", then I can imagine what the subsequent publications will be. Keep it up!

          Great stuff. Perfectly stated, Facts without comment. Thanks to the author, if he knew he did not "ignore it." Sharpened in a timely manner. Thanks again and again for raising the topic. The Russian fleet is not only Tsushima ...
          1. Proxima
            Proxima 20 February 2016 12: 31
            +8
            Quote: Thick
            The Russian fleet is not only Tsushima ...

            I would clarify that the Russian Imperial Fleet is not only Tsushima. Before that there were - Chesma, Sinop, Gangut, Grengam, (Tendra, Kaliakria, Fidonisi, Kerch = Ushakov). You can’t list everything!
  2. Sirocco
    Sirocco 20 February 2016 06: 35
    +9
    Thank you for the historically useful, informative article. good
  3. Griboedoff
    Griboedoff 20 February 2016 07: 06
    21
    How little we know about the First World War ... In Soviet history, this topic was simply hushed up. Meanwhile, there are many episodes in it, which one can and should be proud of, and which really show that everything is not so already and "rotted" ...
    Using completely new and revolutionary methods of attack is always difficult. And in the first raid such an excellent result. How many other similar stories do we know?
    1. aba
      aba 20 February 2016 07: 53
      +5
      Yes, I agree, there are many more blank spots in the history of our Fatherland.
  4. qwert
    qwert 20 February 2016 07: 06
    +5
    Quote: Sirocco
    Thank you for the historically useful, informative article.

    I'm joining. The right topic.
  5. Prometheus
    Prometheus 20 February 2016 07: 11
    +9
    Only an extreme sentence cuts a few rumors.

    "It is interesting that the subsequent regime for several decades could not even repeat what was achieved by Russia at the beginning of the century ..." - Civil war, devastation and then a long restoration of naval forces are the reason. Another strong blow was inflicted on the fleet at the beginning of the Second World War.
    1. sherp2015
      sherp2015 20 February 2016 09: 56
      13
      Quote: Prometheus
      "It is interesting that the subsequent regime for several decades could not even repeat what was achieved by Russia at the beginning of the century ..." - Civil war, devastation and then a long restoration of naval forces are the reason.


      The cause of the problems was the destruction of the country by the Trotskyist-usurious gang (the sons of pharmacists and watchmakers) and the Masons, who, under the pretext of justice, destroyed the state machine.
      In 91, these same "comrades" destroyed the USSR, sold and plundered industry and destroyed agriculture.
      And now they are not abandoning attempts to finish off and pull away the rest
    2. Julio Jurenito
      Julio Jurenito 20 February 2016 11: 20
      +4
      There would be no revolution - there would be no Civil War with subsequent disruption.
  6. Nikolay71
    Nikolay71 20 February 2016 07: 11
    11
    Very interesting article. Only scratched about the subsequent mode.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 20 February 2016 08: 55
      +5
      What is interesting, this regime was silent about the exploits of the First World War; the glory of Russian weapons in them began with Budenny. And before that there was nothing.
      1. starper
        starper 20 February 2016 10: 16
        +5
        Not your truth, many films since Alexander Nevsky talked about the heroism of our soldiers and the talent of military leaders! You just did not find them, or you are not looking right.
        1. Black Colonel
          Black Colonel 20 February 2016 16: 27
          +4
          Not your truth, many films since Alexander Nevsky talked about the heroism of our soldiers and the talent of military leaders! You just did not find them, or you are not looking right.
          The silence concerned precisely the First World War and the Japanese campaign, and in full. And if it was written, it was exclusively about the mediocrity of the commander of all levels. The only Brusilov breakthrough was mentioned in passing. There was too much ideology.
        2. Cap.Morgan
          Cap.Morgan 20 February 2016 16: 29
          +3
          In general, then, at the very end of the 30s, an understanding arose of the need to return to the glorious traditions of Russian history. I remember these films very well. Suvorov, Ushakov ...
          But the period of the First World War was still illuminated negatively - the generals were mediocre, the soldiers didn’t want to fight, there were no heroes, the imperialist war was unfair.
          This is understandable. Too many heroes of the First World War ended up in an enemy camp.
      2. Black Colonel
        Black Colonel 20 February 2016 16: 20
        +4
        What is interesting is this mode about the exploits of World War I was silent in a rag

        He was not just silent, but persecuted only because people were loyal to the Oath and fought for Faith, Tsar and Fatherland, showing courage and military valor. It was impossible to say out loud that you, your brother, father, grandfather are Cossacks, and even more so officers. For one photograph with epaulettes and crosses on the chest, they were dispossessed and, at best, sent to the development of Siberia or Kazakhstan. So everything is correct about the regime.
      3. Vadikkrsk
        Vadikkrsk 20 February 2016 20: 48
        0
        The fleet is a team. The captain is about 30 years old naval, and even since childhood. They trust him or leave. But if BATTLE - do not wait for mercy !!!
    2. starper
      starper 20 February 2016 10: 08
      0
      I agree, about the regime out of place.
  7. semirek
    semirek 20 February 2016 07: 16
    +9
    An excellent article once again demonstrating to skeptics about the excellent military equipment of the Russian imperial army.
  8. parusnik
    parusnik 20 February 2016 07: 22
    11
    Interestingly, the subsequent regime for several decades could not even repeat what Russia had achieved at the beginning of the century ...... Well, yes, of course ... if you consider that the "subsequent" regime started from scratch ... practically ..
    And for a detailed description of the attack on the Turkish port of Zonguldak, thanks and photos are interesting ..
    1. starper
      starper 20 February 2016 10: 21
      +1
      I wanted to put a plus sign, but in front of your figure for some reason there is no pole or minus, so I just agree with you :-)
  9. kvs207
    kvs207 20 February 2016 07: 46
    +4
    Quote: Griboedoff
    In Soviet history, this topic was simply hushed up.

    Not at all. Of course, there was not much material, but it was. In our regional library, for example, there was a book by Belli "The Fleet in the First World War", where this operation was described, though not in such detail.
    1. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 20 February 2016 09: 23
      +9
      Support.
      In my library there is a book by Grigoryev A.B. - Albatrosses: From the history of hydroaviation. M. Engineering. 1989.
      This book tells about the formation and development of hydroaviation, mainly Russian / Soviet. A fairly detailed account was given of the creation and development of seaplanes and the training of pilots in the Russian Empire, as well as the first combat use of seaplanes during the years of the Imperialist War, including and the operation described in the article on the combined attack of the Turkish Zunguldak.
      I have read about this operation as the unconditional priority of Russia / USSR in the combat use of naval aviation as a child and in other books. Including and in the book you mentioned, Belly V.A. - "Fleet in the First World War." From his books also happened to read - "The actions of foreign fleets in the First World War of 1914-1918."
      I have the honor.
      1. Black Colonel
        Black Colonel 20 February 2016 16: 48
        +4
        Not everyone had the opportunity to read good books.
    2. Vadikkrsk
      Vadikkrsk 20 February 2016 20: 58
      +3
      As I would like to find by chance, in childhood, in the regional library SUCH A BOOK ...
      1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 20 February 2016 21: 06
        +2
        They wanted to ask me ... I won the annual pile of Model Designer with MK found - I was happy all next year!
      2. The comment was deleted.
  10. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 20 February 2016 07: 52
    11
    It was on the Black Sea that the war developed successfully for Russia! High-quality planning and execution led by A.V. Kolchak led to the fact that the straits would be ours ... But history does not know the subjunctive mood.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 20 February 2016 09: 00
      +4
      Quote: Rurikovich
      It was on the Black Sea that the war developed successfully for Russia! High-quality planning and execution led by A.V. Kolchak led to the fact that the straits would be ours ... But history does not know the subjunctive mood.

      The article is interesting and the material used is rather rare. I read about the First World War in the Black Sea in fragments: Underwater mine-blocking "Crab", excerpts from I. Tsvetkov's books "Battleship October Revolution" and "Destroyers Novik", a number of publications. Everyone knows about Kolchak here as about the Supreme ruler of Siberia and nothing like a hydrographic scientist, explorer of the Arctic, a naval sailor who distinguished himself in 1904 in Port Arthur and in the First World War in the Baltic. I also know that there was a raid on Varna and that hydroaviation was widely used in the Black Sea and the Baltic , but it was only a few mentions. True, more mentions were about the Black Sea.
  11. Irbis77
    Irbis77 20 February 2016 08: 36
    16
    *** The descent of all 14 aircraft was carried out in a record-breaking short time-36 minutes, *** - less than 3 minutes per aircraft, this is training !!! and one more moment struck - *** “I’m informing your high nobility that according to the order of your high nobility, I flew out on the apparatus number 32 at 10 hours 22 minutes having an observer of the ensign Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky ... *** - and modern *** princes *** in our army or navy serve in the rank of warrant officers or warrant officers ???
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 20 February 2016 08: 52
      0
      The last-year-old Minister of Defense, son - deputy before Gasprom. If only for decency he served in some sort of ceremonial regiment, but no.
    2. Riv
      Riv 20 February 2016 08: 52
      +6
      Well, for example, with Stalin, one son died in captivity, the second fought in aviation throughout the war. On the enemy side, we can recall Reich Minister Speer, whose brother died near Stalingrad.

      But now either the princes have gone wrong, or something else ... But patriotism is a national idea. It used to be competitive.
      1. PHANTOM-AS
        PHANTOM-AS 20 February 2016 09: 45
        +3
        Quote: Riv
        Well, for example, with Stalin, one son died in captivity, the second fought in aviation throughout the war. On the enemy side, we can recall Reich Minister Speer, whose brother died near Stalingrad.

        N-yes, there were People, if they sent their children over the hill, only with an international mission, to Spain for example.
        Quote: Irbis77
        observer of the ensign Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky ... ***

        The direct duty of the nobility in the Republic of Ingushetia was to protect and serve the Fatherland.
        Quote: Irbis77
        and modern *** princes *** in our army or navy serve in the rank of ensigns or warrant officers ???

        What the hell are they princes? cosmopolitans.
      2. Black Colonel
        Black Colonel 20 February 2016 16: 51
        +3
        Vasily Stalin did not fight the whole war. But at the front he was not timid and made his contribution to the development of the country's air fleet.
    3. Tihas
      Tihas 20 February 2016 12: 00
      +6
      Just to say cho. Bold minus.
      Needless to say, how many "general's sons" served and are serving now?
      1. PHANTOM-AS
        PHANTOM-AS 20 February 2016 12: 12
        +2
        Quote: Tihas
        Just to say cho. Bold minus.
        Needless to say, how many "general's sons" served and are serving now?

        Koment was about children in power, and not about army dynasties.
        Read carefully hi
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan 20 February 2016 16: 35
        -1
        The son of Sergei Ivanov, the mine of defense, now the head of the administration, died in the United Arab Emirates under unclear circumstances.
  12. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 20 February 2016 08: 50
    0
    In World War I, the Turks did not show themselves at all. In the Caucasus, we dominated.
    Unless the Dardanelles kept the British from attacking. On this all their exploits ended.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 20 February 2016 09: 20
      0
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      Unless the Dardanelles kept the British from attacking.

      Read the book by Herbert Wilson "Battleships in battle". There is a kind of plug the Turks and Germans put in the Dardanelles. It was problematic to knock out this plug from the sea with ships.
    2. Aleksander
      20 February 2016 09: 28
      +5
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      In World War I, the Turks did not show themselves at all. In the Caucasus, we dominated. Only the Dardanelles kept the British from attacking. On this all their exploits ended.


      You contradict yourself, if they defeated the most powerful united Anglo-French group in the Dardanelles, how could they be "nobody"? It's just that the Russian troops and their commander Yudenich turned out to be more skillful and strong than the British and Turks. By the way, from the Dardanelles the troops were transferred against Yudenich, but the victory was still for the Russians.
      1. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan 20 February 2016 16: 42
        -1
        Quote: Aleksander
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        In World War I, the Turks did not show themselves at all. In the Caucasus, we dominated. Only the Dardanelles kept the British from attacking. On this all their exploits ended.


        You contradict yourself, if they defeated the most powerful united Anglo-French group in the Dardanelles, how could they be "nobody"? It's just that the Russian troops and their commander Yudenich turned out to be more skillful and strong than the British and Turks. By the way, from the Dardanelles the troops were transferred against Yudenich, but the victory was still for the Russians.

        Sorry the Turks were only able to HOLD the straits. There was no question of any victory over the allies. Yes, the British could not take the straits due to the complexity of the situation, but the English group was not defeated. It was just an unsuccessful operation.
        Well, then they fought like that. Verdun for example.
        1. Aleksander
          20 February 2016 20: 21
          +2
          Quote: Cap.Morgan
          Sorry the Turks were only able to HOLD the straits. There was no question of any victory over the allies.


          It was pure touch, IMHO. It was precisely the victory of the Turks, as a result of which the Anglo-French after heavy losses were forced to evacuate the landing troops. It was on the basis of this victory that Bulgaria entered the war on the side of the Central Powers.
          Last year, Turkey solemnly celebrated the 100 anniversary of the victory over the Angles, with the ... Prince of Wales! belay lol
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. jktu66
          jktu66 20 February 2016 20: 42
          +1
          The Turks not only kept the straits, but also inflicted a serious defeat on the British, who suffered heavy losses in the Dardanelles operation and were able to evacuate the landing forces only due to a successful combination of circumstances. By the way, Churchill lost his ministerial portfolio because of this failure.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  13. Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 20 February 2016 09: 02
    +7
    It seems that I know quite well the history of the Russian state, but I know almost nothing about the First World War. Sad I have never heard of this attack.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 20 February 2016 16: 42
      +1
      Here I am about that.
  14. kirpich
    kirpich 20 February 2016 09: 17
    +3
    Quote: Irbis77
    - And modern *** princes *** in our army or navy serve in the rank of ensigns or warrant officers ???



    Modern "princes" do not serve in the army. For it is not a princely business to smell footcloths. She's more about logistics. It seems that he served and started his business.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Aleksander
      20 February 2016 09: 40
      +5
      Quote: kirpich
      Modern "princes" do not serve in the army. For it is not a princely business to smell footcloths. She's more about logistics. It seems that he served and started his business.


      Five great-grandchildren of Nicholas I (sons of Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich Romanov) fought in the Great War 1914 at the front, in the front lines.
      One of them, Oleg Konstantinovich Romanov, 21 year, is the cornet of the Life Guards of the Hussar Regiment -platoon commander(!), publisher of Pushkin, poet.
      He led a platoon into the attack, the first to cut into the ranks of the enemy, won, but was mortally wounded at the end of the battle with a shot from the ground. He died in the arms of his father. Father, Grand Duke, could not stand this blow and also died.
      1. kirpich
        kirpich 20 February 2016 10: 00
        +1
        Alexander, you still remind me of the son of V.V. Margelov.
        I spoke about modern "princes".
  15. Vadim Zhivov
    Vadim Zhivov 20 February 2016 09: 37
    +2
    Thanks for the article. Very interesting. ++++
  16. triglav
    triglav 20 February 2016 10: 15
    +2
    And now we have one aircraft carrier. It would be necessary to build another two-three-four. And ekranoplanes, of course.
  17. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 20 February 2016 10: 22
    +5
    Thanks so much for the article. That's what is interesting - after all, of course, I knew about this attack, but with all that, I CONSTANTLY cite the Black Sea Fleet of the WWII as an example of how to fight at sea, I almost never mention this attack. Blind spot, some kind of thing :)))
    Thank you for reminding me. Even someone who is seriously keen on the history of the fleet can forget something.
    1. Aleksander
      20 February 2016 10: 34
      +4
      Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
      Thanks for reminding me

      So after all these days it turned out exactly A HUNDRED YEARS (!) this attack is a sin not to remember the wonderful affairs of the Black Sea.
      1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 20 February 2016 11: 53
        +3
        Quote: Aleksander
        So after all, these days exactly one hundred years (!) Turned out to this attack

        This is yes ... drinks and for me personally, the special piquancy of this event is that it happened on my birthday :))) Not in the sense that I was born in 1916, but in the fact that on February 6 :))) We can say - born in honor of naval aviation :)))) But I was somewhat confused - why would I have such a craving for aircraft carriers? laughing
        1. Aleksander
          20 February 2016 12: 29
          +1
          Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
          and for me personally, the special piquancy of this event is that it happened on my birthday:

          Wow! Indeed, some kind of mysticism. With your past and all the best hi (now I will not forget yes ) ....
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 20 February 2016 12: 45
            +1
            Thank you, dear Alexander! drinks
    2. The comment was deleted.
  18. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 20 February 2016 11: 06
    +3
    The bottom line: during the raid of the ship hydroaviation on the port of Zonguldak on February 6, 1916, damage to the port infrastructure was caused and the steamer Irmingard was sunk. This steamer was raised on February 25.

    Irmingard was generally lucky. But all luck comes to an end. On October 2, 1916, a Russian mine was in the way of the ship. The ship, despite the damage, managed to run aground. It would seem that everything, as always, will cost - the steamer will be raised again, repaired ... but on October 16, the submarine "Narwhal" put an end to the history of the ship, finishing off the stranded "Irmingard" with a torpedo.

    By the way, the situation "got damaged-stranded-raised-put back into operation"It was extremely widespread on the Black Sea - both here and among the Turks. Therefore, a" test shot "with a torpedo at the ship was absolutely justified. Moreover, it was not some kind of scow, but a fairly large Turkish transport with a capacity of 4200 brt.
  19. Nicola Bari
    Nicola Bari 20 February 2016 11: 15
    +1
    Wow. Thanks to the author very much, very interesting.
  20. rJIiOK
    rJIiOK 20 February 2016 11: 24
    +1
    The subsequent "regime" for the next several decades had to simply save the country. And then the Soviet "regime" began to make the best aircraft in the world.
    The author is clearly a monarchist, and "oh, if not for the Bolsheviks."
    1. alean245
      alean245 20 February 2016 17: 36
      +2
      "The Bolsheviks create difficulties for themselves, which they then overcome with success."
      W. Churchill
      1. Massik
        Massik 21 February 2016 00: 45
        -1
        Quote: alean245
        "The Bolsheviks create difficulties for themselves, which they then overcome with success."
        W. Churchill
        The same one, from the very country that in 1904-05 fed the Japanese, and in 1917-18 landed on our Sakhalin and Kamchatka for intervention.
        1. alean245
          alean245 21 February 2016 01: 03
          -1
          The same one, from the very country that in 1904-05 fed the Japanese, and in 1917-18 landed on our Sakhalin and Kamchatka for intervention.

          So what? I am aware that Britain often mislead Russia. I am aware that this man was far from an angel. But, in my opinion, he spoke quite accurately about the Bolsheviks.
          1. starper
            starper 21 February 2016 01: 14
            +1
            As for themselves, it’s debatable, but on the bill, with success, I agree :-)
            1. alean245
              alean245 21 February 2016 01: 17
              -2
              As for themselves, it's debatable

              And what, are these aliens from Mars staged a civil war in Russia?
        2. Amurets
          Amurets 21 February 2016 10: 19
          0
          Quote: Marssik
          The same one, from the very country that in 1904-05 fed the Japanese, and in 1917-18 landed on our Sakhalin and Kamchatka for intervention.

          I will not look for dates and clarifications, and even so, minuses and reproaches will pour on me now in the absence of patriotism, but in the construction of the modern fleet of Japan of that time, Russian money played a big role. After Japan was forced to abandon Port Arthur and surrender it To lease Russia, Russia began to pay compensation for Port Arthur to Japan through a specially created Russian-Asian bank that conducted all of Russia's financial affairs in the Far East. Japan began building an armored fleet in England with money from compensation for Port Arthur and a special loan.
          1. Massik
            Massik 21 February 2016 16: 08
            0
            Quote: Amurets

            I will not look for dates and clarifications, and even so, minuses and reproaches will pour on me now in the absence of patriotism, but in the construction of the modern fleet of Japan of that time, Russian money played a big role. After Japan was forced to abandon Port Arthur and surrender it To lease Russia, Russia began to pay compensation for Port Arthur to Japan through a specially created Russian-Asian bank that conducted all of Russia's financial affairs in the Far East. Japan began building an armored fleet in England with money from compensation for Port Arthur and a special loan.

            It is not enough to build a fleet, it also needs to be supplied, coal, shells, powder components and much more. Japan for the first year almost fizzled out and here a saving "trickle" opened thanks to England and America, which, thanks to the efforts of the Vladivostok cruiser brigade, managed to hold back.
  21. goody
    goody 20 February 2016 11: 54
    +2
    Great article! Thank you!
  22. iouris
    iouris 20 February 2016 11: 54
    +3
    I draw attention to the names of the city of G. officers (!) Especially in connection with the sweeping accusations of the Germans of espionage during the course of 1 MV.
  23. SIT
    SIT 20 February 2016 13: 34
    +4
    In general, the operations of the Black Sea Fleet in World War I deserve a thorough study. Here the author of the article showed that the combat use of the AUG was first carried out precisely by the Black Sea Fleet. Immediately on VO there was information about the landing of naval assault forces in the rear of the Turks. For 1 minutes 20tys landed from minesweepers of the Elpidifor type. infantrymen! Damn this for our time is very good. This experience would be great in WWII.
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 20 February 2016 14: 05
      +6
      Quote: SIT
      In general, the Black Sea Fleet operations in the 1 world deserve careful study. Here the author of the article showed that the combat use of the AUG was first carried out precisely by the Black Sea Fleet. Immediately on VO there was information about the landing of naval assault forces in the rear of the Turks. For 20min 6tys landed from minesweepers such as Elpidifor. infantrymen!

      Strictly speaking, the Russian Black Sea Fleet:
      1) For the first time in the history of the fleets, he switched to the concept of systematic combat operations on enemy communications. Prior to this, all the fleets of the world during the war went to sea only as part of individual operations.
      2) For the first time in the history of the fleets, he accepted the organization of groups of diverse forces. Those. in all the fleets of the world before this it was like this - there are formations of destroyers (flotillas there, or divisions), there are formations of cruisers, formations of battleships. Those. ships of the same class were reduced to organizational units of the fleet. When necessary to conduct operations from several such groups, a squadron was formed.
      And ours for the first time combined ships of different classes into one unit (maneuvering group). Those. battleship, cruisers and destroyers formed a single organizational structure with a single command. Of course, with this approach, fusion and training in joint operations is where it grew, as well as the quality of supplying ships with everything necessary. The Americans went the same way - their famous TF, but it was the second world war ... and not the first wink
      3) The Black Sea Fleet is the ONLY fleet of all the belligerent powers, which was able to conduct a large and successful landing operation.
      4) The Black Sea people have established, I am not afraid of this word, exemplary interaction with the coastal flank of the army. Joint operations of the fleet and army are provided for at the planning stage of operations
      5) AUG :)))) Well, about this a respected author told me much better than me.
      On the whole, the Black Sea Fleet solved almost all the tasks that it faced and completely fulfilled its mission in the WWII
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 20 February 2016 14: 15
        +4
        Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
        The Black Sea people have established, I am not afraid of the word, exemplary interaction with the coastal flank of the army. Joint operations of the fleet and army are provided for at the planning stage of operations

        Oh yes ... Batumi detachment annealed in full. The description of an armadillo approaching the shore for machine-gun fire on Turkish trenches simply killed me at one time. smile
        Well, frog jumping along the coast is just a classic. Landing in the rear of the Turks, wait for the enemy to flee, surrender the position of the army, boot, move to a new point on the coast in the rear of the Turks, goto begin.
        1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          Andrei from Chelyabinsk 20 February 2016 14: 38
          +3
          Quote: Alexey RA
          The description of an armadillo approaching the coast for machine-gun fire on Turkish trenches simply killed me at one time

          And imagine what an indelible impression it made on the Turkish infantry! laughing
          I can’t, I don’t have enough imagination laughing Well, if the tank is approaching the distance of machine-gun fire, it’s understandable, but ... ARMOR? !! good
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 20 February 2016 17: 26
            +3
            Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
            Well, if the tank is approaching the distance of machine-gun fire, it’s understandable, but ... ARMOR? !!

            Duc ... this ... there is armor, there are guns - it means this is also a tank. Just very big and floating. smile

            In general, “Rostislav” was just lucky that the opponents were the Turks. In the Baltic, the Germans did not allow this - the Slava EDR, which supported our infantry, received 7 hits and lost its commander without even approaching the shore.
            Three side compartments were flooded again, and at 06:20 from a distance of 32 cable “Glory” opened fire from 152- and 75-mm guns at German positions. Corrected fire seaplanes "Eaglet".
            At 09:05 a shrapnel 152-mm shell fired from a disguised German battery fell into the conning tower of Glory. He killed the commander of the ship S. S. Vyazemsky, the flagship artilleryman, captain of the 2nd rank V. A. Svinin and four sailors with his fragments through the sighting slot. The wounded senior officer, senior lieutenant V.N. Markov, entered command. In this duel, “Glory” received six more hits, after which the ship left the sphere of fire of German batteries.
            1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
              Andrei from Chelyabinsk 20 February 2016 21: 09
              +1
              Quote: Alexey RA
              In general, “Rostislav” was just lucky that the opponents were the Turks. In the Baltic, the Germans did not allow this

              No offense to "Slava" if it were said - it would be very interesting to see where the German artillerymen would be looking, if there were "Rostislav" and if there was an organization between the fleet and the army like the Black Sea.
        2. The comment was deleted.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 20 February 2016 14: 06
      +5
      Quote: SIT
      For 20 minutes 6tys landed from minesweepers of the Elpidifor type. infantrymen!

      Actually, Elps were not only minesweepers. They were multipurpose small ships - minesweepers, gunboats, landing craft. The most interesting thing is that these ships had a civil ancestor - a steam grain scow, used to load large transports in the roadstead, unable to enter shallow ports, as well as for local cabotage. From her, the "Elps" inherited the opportunity to be washed ashore for unloading.

      In large landings, the Elpidifors solved the most important problem of the WWII landings - how to quickly deliver people, horses and heavy weapons from large transports to an unequipped coast, if there are no ports nearby. While enlightened sailors were perverted with the transport of paratroopers by boats and barges, the Russian Black Sea Fleet found for this operation a special vessel (and then a ship) with two bow infantry ramps, capable of sailing on the high seas and throwing ashore:
      Often caught by the storm, the Elpidifors successfully completed their tasks and defended themselves well on the open raids of Lazistan.
      Having the ability to take a significant amount of landing (from 500 to 1 people) and cargo (up to 000 tons), the Elpidifors were invaluable assistants in large landing operations, as a unloading vessel, transferring people and supplies to the coast from sea transports. In the old days, when performing landing operations, for landing, they usually used special landing barges or bots, moving with the help of oars or in tow boats. Possessing small capacity and poor seaworthiness, such bots were of little help in unloading, especially in the presence of swell or surf, why unloading was a very long task. This slowness and the expense of a lot of time during the landings greatly constrained all operational plans and calculations, making landing operations a very difficult, dangerous and prone to failure business. With the involvement of Elpidiforov, these conditions have changed to a large extent, reducing the unloading time by several times. The experience of landings on the banks of Lazistan at Rize (two brigades) and at Trapezond (1 divisions) showed that if there were a sufficient number of Elpidifors, landing a significant landing on the coast would be a matter of several hours, whereas in the past this operation would have taken several days.


      However, our British experience was widely used. Along with the "Elps" at the World Cup, there appeared analogs of British landing barges - "bolinders": self-propelled landing barges equipped with a wide bow ramp. These are the ancestors of LCT.
      Quote: SIT
      This experience would be great in WWII.

      And they used it. In the same landing in Ozereyka, gunboats-elpidifors landed personnel, and bolders - M3L tanks. Alas, it was not possible to suppress the coastal defense in time - and most of the equipment could not be planted damaged boulders.
      1. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 20 February 2016 19: 44
        +1
        You are right - it was the small draft that made these ships capable of both minesweeping and practically landing smile
  24. Taoist
    Taoist 20 February 2016 13: 38
    +8
    By the way, a really little-known story ... when I met her doing research for writing an essay at the Naval Aviation History School, I even devoted poetry to this event ...

    TRAPESUND. 1916.
    Like a dinosaur predatory flock
    The squadron went into darkness.
    Hand touching the spotlight
    Gray, foamy wave.
    So they walked in a wake column
    Having driven steel death into the trunks ...
    Already palm signalmen
    We managed to warm the handrails.
    And the city knew nothing
    Closing tired eyes ...
    When from the CKP is prickly
    Devices dropped:
    VOLLEY!
  25. Jurec
    Jurec 20 February 2016 14: 08
    +2
    Thanks to the author. Continue in the same spirit!
  26. Massik
    Massik 20 February 2016 22: 40
    0
    The author spoiled everything in the final paragraph. Him would be at that time. Our current regime is no better, just like 20 years, it was falling apart and only recently came to its senses, although there was no civil war or intervention.
  27. Archivarius
    Archivarius 21 February 2016 14: 46
    +1
    Some personalities can be viewed on my website:

    The book of memory "The Black Sea Fleet in the Great War of 1914-1918"
    Section 12. Naval Pilots and Black Sea Fleet Observers

    http://genrogge.ru/black_sea_fleet_1914-1918/index.htm

    Yours faithfully,
    site author Rogge noble family
  28. Hurray
    Hurray 23 February 2016 16: 52
    +1
    That's interesting.