But the first such attack-marine operation in history aviation As part of the AUG, it was precisely the Russian Imperial Black Sea Fleet that led the enemy ships hidden in the harbor. And it happened exactly one hundred years ago (anniversary!), February 6, 1916. In addition to hitting ships, an attack was carried out on port facilities, batteries and mines of the Turkish port of Zonguldak.
Zunguldak coal district was the second most important area of attention and attacks of the Russian fleet (after the Bosphorus), because it played a crucial role in providing Istanbul with coal, since, due to the undeveloped railway network, Turks transported coal mainly by sea.
Directive of 9 September 1915, the rate ordered to interrupt the supply of coal by sea in the Bosphorus region.
In pursuance of this directive, the Black Sea Fleet carried out the following operations: several battleships of Zonguldak with battleships, 25 shelling by destroyers, attack by firefighters (unsuccessful), attacks by seaplanes of the Black Sea Fleet, attacks of Turkish coal by raiders, mine-laying (which destroyed dozens of Turkish ships).
However, shelling from the sea could not completely stop the export of coal from Zonguldak. It was decided to conduct a massive air strike by naval aviation. However, the Turkish port was out of range of ground aviation, so the fleet command decided to use the Alexander I and Nikolay I hydraulic aircraft, armed with M-5 flying boats. The seaplanes were ordered to strike the ships sheltered by the high pier, as well as the mines, port facilities, moorings, railway junction and enemy batteries in Zonguldak.
After the preliminary reconnaissance of Zonguldak and the detection of targets there, the strike group of the fleet (quite the AUG in the modern sense of the word) comprised of the most diverse ships (battleship "Empress Maria", the cruiser "Cahul", squadron destroyers "Zavetny" and "Enviable", submarines , “Alexander I” and “Nikolay I” transport aircraft with 14 aircraft M-5 designed by Russian engineer Grigorovich) went on a hike. 8 seaplanes M-5 (commander of the first naval detachment, marine pilot Lt. Raymond Fyodorovich von Essen) were placed on the Emperor Alexander I, 7 M-5 planes (commander of the second naval detachment, naval pilot, Lieutenant Alexander Konstantinovichychuk NI, X-NUMX) ).
After leaving Sevastopol to ensure surprise, the aircraft carriers separated from the squadron of warships of the main group and made the transition independently.
In the evening of February 5, the Hasty and Loud destroyers carrying out the blockade of the Zongulak port approached the harbor, found the ships and schooners behind the pier, opened artillery fire on them (did not reach success), and telegraphed all intelligence information to the AUG command.
6 February 1916 (according to other 7 data of February) the destroyers "Hasty" and "Loud" together with the aircraft carriers reached the point of deployment north of Zonguldak, where hydroplanes launched the seaplanes into the water. At this time, the main group of battleships carried out a reliable strategic cover for the aircraft carrier group from the sea — from attacks by the ships of the German and Turkish fleets.
The descent of all 14 aircraft was carried out in record time-36 minutes, after which the destroyers "Hasty" and "Loud" remained to patrol the descent site, and the air vehicles themselves moved a little further north.
The weather (and it was February, the time of storms on the Black Sea) in the area of operation deteriorated sharply, low clouds curled, visibility was almost zero, the temperature dropped sharply, but it was too late to retreat.
In 10.30, the first aircraft, commanded by naval pilot Lt. Essen, with an observer of the first article mechanic Oleinikov, attacked Zonguldak.
From a report to the aviation chief of the Black Sea Fleet, the head of the first ship detachment von Essen: “I donate to your high honor that I received your order to bomb Zonguldak, and if there is a large steamer there behind the jetty, then him too. In 10 hours of 27 minutes I first flew on the 37 unit to Zonguldak, having an observer of the mechanic I of Oleinikov’s article, taking with me two poods and two ten-pound bombs on the apparatus. Flying up to Zonguldak, I saw in the harbor behind the pier a large, single-pipe, two-masted steamer standing nose to the exit, which smoked heavily. Having made three laps over the city and the harbor at a height of 900-1100 meters, my observer dropped all four bombs. The first one, a pound one, dropped on a steamer, exploded on the pier in front of the nose. The second, ten-pound, fell over the stern of the steamer among those who stood by and fired at one of them. The third, pudovaya, dropped on the railway junction, got into a large white building. The fourth fell to the shore behind the steamer. On the hill near Kilimli, I noticed a row of white haze, apparently shooting a battery. After completing the task, I returned to the “Emperor Alexander I” in 50 minutes and approached the board for the ascent. The ends were thrown to me, and they began to pull me to the board. At this time, the cars were given full speed ahead, and my device was demolished under the stern of the screws. Following this, the first shot rang out on the ship, the ends were thrown on the apparatus and entangled on the engine, breaking the exhaust valve for me. Being in two fathoms behind the stern of the ship, suddenly I and my observer noticed an underwater mine going to our vehicle. Mina walked rather slowly, touched the boat, stopped, then drifted it away from the propellers ... I could not catch it due to damage to the motor. Having unraveled the end of the engine wound up and discarding the broken valve, my mechanic started the engine, and on the 8 cylinders I pulled away from the water and began to search for a submarine and guard our ships. In 12 hours 2 minutes I sat down and was hoisted onto the ship. ”
What happened, where did the torpedo come from? It turned out that during the ascent of the first aircraft the aircraft carrier was attacked by the German UB-7 submarine, which was at Zonguldak’s position specifically to fight the Russians blocking the coal area with ships. The signalmen noticed the danger in time, and also the signals about the attack of the submarine, given by the Russian seaplane, gave the ship a turn and managed to turn it off, evading the torpedo. Simultaneously, the fire was opened from the guns of air transport diving shells. The attack of the boat was crumpled and, although she was able to launch a torpedo, she did it from a long distance and was forced to hastily retreat. Thus, thanks to the competent actions of the crew, seaplane and the commander of "Alexander I" captain 1 rank Peter Alekseevich Goering, the torpedo did not get into the ship! After working out her turn, she touched the plane, located at that moment behind the stern of the “Emperor Alexander I”, but the fuse did not have enough impact force to operate, and it sank safely. The captain was greatly helped by the information about the attack, timely transmitted by a seaplane under the command of pilot Kornilovich.
It was the Black Sea pilots Lieutenant G. V. Kornilovich and Warrant Officer V. L. Bushmarin on an M-5 aircraft for the first time in the history of the Black Sea Fleet, found and attacked a submarine of the enemy. From Kornilovich's report: “Passing at a height of 200 meters in the distance of 4's cables from the Alexander and the destroyer of the towing plane, I discovered a periscope of a submarine approaching the destroyer. Immediately, warning smoke signals were dropped, and I began to describe the circle above the location of the submarine. Immediately, from the auxiliary vessel "Imperator Alexander I", fire was fired at the indicated place, and I saw one projectile close explode from the submarine. "
During the Zonguldak attack, the aircraft were subjected to strong artillery and rifle fire of coastal defenses.
Steamships were attacked by aviation, as well as a harbor, port facilities, a railway junction, anti-aircraft batteries, and Zonguldak mines.
Marine pilot V.M. Marchenko, who carried out the sniper bombing of the Turkish ship (which eventually sank), reported: "I hereby report to your Excellency that according to the orders of your excellency, I flew on the unit number 32 to 10 hours 22 minutes having observer ensign of Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky, with the aim of damaging vessels behind the mole of the Zonguldak harbor. Taking the height, I approached Zonguldak from Kilimli, having a height of 1500 meters. When I exceeded due to clouds, I noticed tears of shrapnel meters on 300 below me, and at the same time I saw up to 3's breaks, which suggests that there are anti-aircraft guns. Passing over the pier, behind which there were two steamboats: one about 1200 tons and the second about 2000 tons, the observer Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky dropped one bomb, 50-pound, into a large steamer. The bomb hit him near the pipe, and the steamer was clouded with a cloud of smoke and coal dust. Turning around, I passed a second time over the steamer, and the second bomb was dropped, which had fallen near the steamer into the water. Along the way, photographs were taken with a photographic apparatus, and those that failed were manifested. I consider it my duty to inform you that the behavior of ensign Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky during a very heavy shelling was impeccable, which should be attributed to the successful hit of the first bomb ”.
The pilot-observer V.S. Tkach denounced: “After pointing the direction according to the railway junction plan, and after going some distance, I saw many buildings, where I dropped the first pood bomb from the 1300 meters in height, after which you immediately dropped the second pood bomb, which hit the area according to the attached drawing. After the device described a curve according to my instructions, I noticed gunfire where the device was directed. Finding myself above the aforementioned place, I quickly dropped ten-pound bombs one after the other. At the end of the task took the direction to the base. The port was covered by clouds. Warrant Officer Tkach.
In total, the air raid lasted more than an hour. The observers of the hydro-avia ship "Emperor Alexander I" and "Emperor Nicholas I" discovered the return of the first flying boats, and the ships returned to their former place and quickly raised all the seaplanes on board.
For bombing the port, mines and ships, the Black Sea aviation used quite a lot of bombs: 9 - poods, 18 - fifty pounds and 21 - ten pounds.
The success of the operation was very significant:
- for the first time it was shown that naval aviation, capable of acting on targets inaccessible to artillery, became the strike force, and powerful warships now became only a means of their combat support;
- the enemy ship and several other schooners were sunk;
- for the first time, the Black Sea forces conducted anti-submarine defense of warships;
- for the first time in the anti-submarine defense of surface ships of the aircraft carrier "Emperor Alexander I", data of aerial reconnaissance carried out by the flying boat of Lieutenant G.V. Kornilovich;
- for the first time, diving shells were used to attack the German submarine UB-7;
- the loss of personnel and aircraft naval aviation of the Black Sea Fleet as a result of the attack on Zonguldak did not have.
The most important thing is that they gained invaluable experience in guiding and using an aviation strike group (which included a variety of ships, from huge battleships to submarines), as well as using seaplane connections and advanced methods of war at sea.
Not to mention the most unique in the history of world naval aviation case of taking an enemy ship to boarding! This case does not refer to the Zonguldak attack, but is characteristic of the Black Sea naval aviation. 3 March 1917, a seaplane under the command of Lieutenant Sergeev attacked and fired a Turkish schooner with a machine gun, forcing the crew to lie down on the deck. Then he splashed down, and while the navigator kept the team under the gun of the machine gun, Sergeyev climbed onto the deck and, threatening the revolver, locked the whole team in the hold. The nearest Russian destroyer delivered the prize to Sevastopol.
Russia's successes in the air naval warfare were not accidental: the Russian Empire was one of the world leaders in the theory of the use of aircraft at sea and the construction of seaplanes. Russian hydroplane "Gakkel-V" was built in 1911, one of the first in the world.
Since 1913, a large design and construction of domestic seaplanes has been carried out. Projects of sea planes were created that surpassed the foreign ones and soon displaced them from Russian naval aviation. This was done by the Russian engineers Grigorovich, Villish, Engels, Sedelnikov, Fride, Shishmarev, as well as the design office of the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works and the Aviation Test Station.
15% of the aircraft produced in Russia was of water purpose, this was not the case anywhere in the world, and Russia was second only to Great Britain in the number of aircraft carriers, and was the recognized leader among all countries in the success of naval aviation.
Just look at the fantastic and for much later times, the goals attacked by Russian naval pilots. Russian seaplanes bombed Constantinople (Istanbul), Bosphorus, Trapezund, Varna, Riza, Rumeliu, Sinop, etc., provided for the conduct and protection of dozens of small and large landing operations of ground forces, reconnaissance and bombing of enemy ships, patrolling enemy fields and patrolling their minefields, the adjustment of naval artillery fire on enemy fortifications on land, reconnaissance of these fortifications. It was an undoubted success!
The Russian fleet used one of the world's best seaplanes M-5 (reconnaissance, artillery spotter, bomber), M-9 (heavy seaplane for bombing land objects, batteries and ships), M-11 (the world's first flying boat fighter) all the planes were Russian-made, designer D. P. Grigorovich, some planes had unique equipment: radio stations with a range of more than 40 km and cameras were installed on them. The airplanes created by Grigorovich were very easy to control and maneuverable: their models were “blown through” in one of the world's best wind tunnels of that time, located in St. Petersburg.
By the beginning of 1917, the Black Sea Aviation had 120 aircraft, almost all of them were domestic, Russian-made.
The first famous order number 227 was not released at all in 1942, but December 31 and 1916 was signed by his remarkable Russian naval commander, Black Sea Fleet Commander Admiral Alexander V. Kolchak. The order of 227 was: "On the formation of the Black Sea Fleet Air Division." He stated the creation and existence of the most powerful strike force of the fleet and ensured the holding of new organizational measures for its further development. A full-fledged airborne unit, a detachment of naval aviation (later renamed the division of naval aviation), along with two air brigades, was part of the air division of the Black Sea Fleet. The uniqueness of the naval aviation division of the Black Sea Fleet air division consisted in the fact that it included four aircraft carriers along with the air division (1917 of these ships already had SIX: “Emperor Nicholas I”, “Emperor Alexander I”, “Almaz”, "Romania", "Dacia", and "King Carl". Preparations were under way for the Bosporus amphibious operation to inflict a decisive defeat on Turkey and withdraw it from the war ...
Thus, using advanced in the world (very complex) methods of warfare at sea, modern domestic, advanced aircraft in the world (even with radio and cameras), modern domestic dreadnoughts, aircraft carriers, advanced methods of building and managing ship and air units, fought "Lapotnaya", "illiterate", "backward" Russian Empire. Interestingly, the subsequent regime for several decades could not even repeat what was achieved by Russia at the beginning of the century ...
In compiling the essay materials were used articles: