Military Review

Alexander Marinesko: how to become a legend in eleven days

68
Alexander Marinesko: how to become a legend in eleven days



10 February 1945, the submarine C-13 sank its second largest transport - the German airliner "Steuben"

Alexander Marinesco became a legend during his lifetime, then he was forgotten and returned from oblivion only after decades. His figure is extremely contradictory, as are the results of his military campaigns. He was fired from the Navy. fleet after lowering the rank by two levels - from the captain of the third rank to senior lieutenant - and resigning from the post of commander of the ship, and a quarter century after his death, received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Of the six military campaigns that he carried out as a commander of submarines during the Great Patriotic War, four were unsuccessful - but for one of them he achieved the title of the most productive Soviet submariner.

Alexander Marinesko and his submarine C-13 made this amazing trip between January 9 and 15 February 1945. The first ship that the boat sank on January 30 was the giant liner Wilhelm Gustloff (25 484 gross registered tons), and the second, sunk in February 10, the Steuben liner (14 690 gross registered tons). The death of both airliners, turned into military transports, became a real tragedy for Germany. These ships, which were built as passenger cruise liners, after the outbreak of the war, were re-equipped to the needs of German submariners: the “Wilhelm Gustloff” became first a floating barracks, then a training ship, and Steuben a floating hotel for the highest officials krigsmarine. And only at the very end of the war, when the collapse of Nazi Germany became inevitable and obvious, both former airliners were involved in Operation Hannibal: the urgent evacuation of German refugees from East Prussia, which already included Red Army troops.

It was this circumstance in the post-war years that allowed many Western historians and researchers of the war at sea to directly or indirectly accuse Alexander Marinesko and the entire crew of C-13 for committing war crimes. Say, Soviet submariners attacked defenseless hospital ships, where the unfortunate Prussian refugees escaped the horrors of the Red Army offensive. There are exactly half of the truths here: indeed, Soviet submariners attacked, and indeed refugees escaped. As for the "helplessness" and "hospitalization", this is completely untrue. As auxiliary ships of the kriegsmarine, both the former airliners — the Gustloff and the Steuben — had military camouflage and on-board armament: 37-millimeter anti-aircraft guns and anti-aircraft guns. That is, according to all the conditions of the international rules of warfare at sea (which, by the way, Germany violated much more often than all other belligerent countries) that existed at the time, none of the two ex-liners could be considered a hospital ship or a ship carrying refugees. After all, neither of them had a red cross on board, either on board or on deck, both were part of a military convoy, both were armed, and both had active Wehrmacht and Krigsmarine soldiers on board.


Alexander Marinesko. Photo: wiki.wargaming.net

However, in the situation with the “Steuben” the matter was further complicated by the fact that at the time of the vessel’s discovery, the captain of the C-13 was quite sure that he had found the light cruiser Emden. Indeed, there are many similarities in their silhouettes, especially at night and at great distances. Both two-pipe, two-masted large ships, although on closer examination it can be seen that they are not so similar. But on attentive consideration of the purpose at the submariner of time, as a rule, it is a little. In addition, C-13 discovered not just a single ship, but a whole convoy: in addition to “Steuben”, it included the T-196 destroyer and the TF-10 minesweeper, and discovered it with the help of sonar equipment. That is, Marinesko dealt with the fact that in the language of submariners it is called “Group goal, following variable courses, tracking is carried out by sonar contacts”.

It is now known to all that the auxiliary ship Kriegsmarine "Steuben" (former Munich, after the fire in the port of New York and the restoration of 13, renamed "General von Steuben", got into the "view" field of acoustics C-1931, and in November 1938 of the year - in “Steuben”), involved in the operation “Hannibal” and set out on its last 9 flight in February 1945 from the Prussian port of Pillau to Kiel. It is now published updated data that on board were over 4000 people, most of whom were wounded soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht - 2680 people, as well as about a hundred healthy soldiers, nearly three hundred military doctors and nurses and about a thousand refugees. And then the Soviet submariners heard the noise of the propellers and vehicles of several ships that were marching without navigation lights and were performing anti-submarine maneuvers. From the noise and silhouette of the largest of the ships, it was concluded that the boat found the light cruiser Emden.

For such a delicious goal - after all, the cruiser, albeit a training one, with a displacement of more than 6000 tons! - The captain of the third rank Marinesko and his team watched the 4,5 hours. Only at five in the morning 10 February 1945, in the area south of the Stolpe-can C-13, surfaced in a surface position, attacked with a volley from two torpedo tubes what her crew considered the Emden cruiser. Both torpedoes hit the target, and after 15 minutes the ship sank. However, C-13 was not present at the last minutes of “Steuben”: in order not to undergo the same massive and dangerous attack of escort ships as after the attack of “Wilhelm Gustloff”, Alexander Marinesko ordered to move away from the scene of attack at full speed, making sure that the target amazed. He learned that it was not the Emden, but the auxiliary ship “Steuben”, only after the return of February 15 to the base in the Finnish port of Turku. Local newspapers had already published a message from the German media that the “Steuben” was sunk, that only about 660 people were saved, and the death toll ranged from 1100 to 4200 people. As always, in the confusion of emergency and general evacuation, few people kept accurate records of the people who boarded the ships participating in Operation Hannibal ...

During his fifth military campaign, which made him the most productive submariner, not only in the Baltic, but throughout the Soviet Navy, Captain 3 of rank Alexander Marinesko was nominated for the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. But the command of the submarine base in Turku, who knew well that on this campaign Marinesko and his crew actually left the tribunal - to earn forgiveness by exploits (which made the C-13 not only the only surviving boat of this type, but also the only “penalty” boat in USSR), this view is not supported. Instead, Marinesko 13 March 1945 received the Order of the Red Banner, and his boat was awarded the same award 20 on April 1945. Only in 1990, Alexander Marinesko was nevertheless assigned the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, which he deservedly deserved, after 27 years after his death. The commander of the C-13, the most productive Soviet submarine, died 1963 in November, just two months after his 50 anniversary.
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  1. kalibr
    kalibr 13 February 2016 08: 24
    +9
    And then there was a dismissal from the fleet, a prison on some nonsense charge of stealing ... a bed, and death from throat cancer. And that’s all! The hero was gone, and the uncles in large ranks and ranks did nothing to help him.
    1. Pig
      Pig 13 February 2016 08: 35
      15
      Marinesco had problems with discipline and subordination ... if you served in the army, then you understand that this is quite enough to "break the career" of any hero ...
      during the war they suffer all this, but in peacetime they are disposed of in spite of merit
      1. lukke
        lukke 13 February 2016 11: 36
        10
        Marinesco had problems with discipline and subordination
        Bold and resourceful by nature, Sasha Marinesko also had a good understanding of sails, the nature of the Black Sea winds, after receiving a membership card for a yacht club, he drove a yacht no worse than a yacht captain. Then he independently entered the Jung school. From the age of thirteen, after finishing the 6th grade, he began to swim as a sailor’s apprentice. For excellent success without exams he was accepted into the sailor. Studied Marinesco perfectly. In 1933, A. Marinesko graduated from the Odessa Naval College, sailed as assistant captain on the ships Ilich and the Red Fleet. Then he became an assistant to the captain of the Avanesov tanker. It should be noted that even the surname of the future hero was “marine” ... In the Navy, he began his service in 1933. He completed special courses for the command staff ahead of schedule, after which A. Marinesko appointed navigator of the submarine Sch-306 in the Baltic Fleet. True, in 1938, someone did not like the nationality of the father of the young submariner, and Senior Lieutenant Marinesco was fired from the fleet. Fortunately, this did not stop the spy of boyar Romania. Subsequently, Alexander Ivanovich managed to return to the fleet, and already in 1940 the submarine - “M-96” “Baby” under his command was recognized as the best in the Baltic, Marinesko was promoted, became captain-lieutenant. People's Commissar of the Navy Kuznetsov N.G. awarded the distinguished commander with a golden watch. Marinesco met the war commanding "Baby". In 1941, the boat was relocated to Tallinn, stood at a position in the Gulf of Riga, had no clashes with the enemy. Submarines of type "M" possessed a small resource of autonomous navigation and rather weak armament: only two bow torpedo tubes, a 45-mm gun and two remote 7.62-mm machine guns. However, on August 14, 1942, his “Baby” torpedoes sent German transport with a displacement of 7 thousand tons to the bottom. Marinesco was awarded the Order of Lenin and was soon awarded the rank of captain of the 3rd rank. etc.

        Or maybe just didn’t hit the stream ?! Well, like, not a licking and an opportunist.
        1. Pig
          Pig 13 February 2016 15: 58
          +1
          "" Or maybe you just didn't get into the jet ?! Well, not like a lick and a opportunist ""
          then, according to your logic, it turns out that all the others who "got into the stream" are assholes and opportunists?
          1. lukke
            lukke 13 February 2016 16: 06
            0
            then, according to your logic, it turns out that all the others who "got into the stream" are assholes and opportunists?
            who are these "all" and what do you specifically mean? at different stages, everyone developed in different ways and many fates had very sad ends on the occasion of falling under the command of the category "if you live according to the Charter, you will win honor and glory" ... I will characterize them mildly
          2. The comment was deleted.
      2. X Y Z
        X Y Z 13 February 2016 12: 23
        +7
        A huge number of films and books, both in Russia and in the United States, are devoted to this problem - the relationship between smart, aggressive and poorly controlled officers and "correct", obedient, but not winners. Of course, the former are most in demand during the war and in peacetime, few people love them. But the trick is not to meet the future war with some "obedient".
        1. Vasily Krylov
          Vasily Krylov 13 February 2016 14: 26
          +4
          Not so much to answer as to add. L.N. Gumilyov, whom I do not get tired of quoting, claims that states create pasionaries and then get rid of them, one way or another
          .
        2. Ostwest
          Ostwest 16 February 2016 22: 29
          0
          True thought, but what does the USA have to do with it? Do you really know winners besides cinema ones? Have they won at least one war? Their favorite methods: deceit and deceit. Like the smallpox-infected blankets they sent to the Indians.
          1. 24hours
            24hours 16 February 2016 23: 39
            0
            Quote: OstWest
            Have they won at least one war?

            Offhand I remembered a few: WW2, the war in Yugoslavia, in Iraq. In Korea, again, it’s not like losing. In Vietnam, pro ** ali. Still remember?
          2. The comment was deleted.
  2. Pig
    Pig 13 February 2016 08: 32
    14
    "They say that Soviet submariners attacked defenseless hospital ships, on which unfortunate Prussian refugees were fleeing from the horrors of the Red Army offensive."
    the Germans also did not hesitate to sink hospital ships ... this is all the return line for the Tallinn campaign, for the "Armenia" and many more massacres at sea!
    watched a Deutsch opus about "Gustlov" - just a song! the whole film shed crocodile tears about the dead "old men, sick, wounded and women with children" ... as "proof" of the presence of "women and children" by dragging the SSovka survivor of the crash from the SS Einsatz women's battalion ...
    1. svp67
      svp67 13 February 2016 11: 45
      +4
      Quote: Pig
      Say, Soviet submariners attacked defenseless hospital ships

      This is for them, at least a payback for "Armenia" ...
    2. Voodoo
      Voodoo 13 February 2016 12: 55
      -23 qualifying.
      All this is correct, but turning into a maddened and blood-thirsty animal is somehow not right ... deliberately sending 10 thousand refugees, women, children, old people, etc., "to the next world," you still need to "try". Even in revenge for "Armenia". Drown the warships! What have the refugees got to do with it ... But if you arrange everything "correctly", then we will assume that Marinesco drowned the warships ... Historians have already figured out everything.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. michell
        michell 13 February 2016 14: 08
        11
        Quote: Voodoo
        All this is correct, but turning into a maddened and blood-thirsty animal is somehow not right ... deliberately sending 10 thousand refugees, women, children, old people, etc., "to the next world," you still need to "try". Even in revenge for "Armenia". Drown the warships! What have the refugees got to do with it ...


        I didn’t put you a minus, but I think you are fundamentally wrong. In order:
        1. Crazed, bloodthirsty animal - aren't you ashamed? Why do you think so?
        2. Deliberately send 10 thousand refugees to the next world - I have not read anywhere that on board the ships sunk by Marinesco was written in large letters a list of passengers indicating their status - a refugee, a wounded, a submarine officer. But I read that at the time of its death there were 80 (eighty) combat-ready submarine crews on board the Gustlof - damn refugees ...
        3. Sinking warships is, of course, great, only, as far as I understand, any commander of a submarine should, if possible, avoid contact with warships in order to save the boat and crew. The main goal of submariners is to disrupt sea traffic, and this is achieved precisely by hunting for transports. Read about how the K-22 commander drowned a German transport carrying 10 thousand sets of winter uniforms for the German corps preparing to attack Murmansk with one torpedo salvo, and thereby thwarted the corps offensive (!), Which, in fact, saved Murmansk ... The only transports that were prohibited from attacking were hospital ships, but they were required to carry Red Cross insignia. Neither the Gustlof nor the Steuben had the identification marks of hospital ships, so Marinesko never deviated from the rules of waging war at sea, and in the attack on Gustlof he proved himself not only decisive, but also very competent commander, attacking the ship from the shallow coast, thereby misleading the ships of the convoy, which allowed him to leave the place of attack in time.
        1. Voodoo
          Voodoo 13 February 2016 14: 32
          +3
          You probably haven’t fully read what I wrote. I meant that knowing that there were refugees on Gustav, Marinesco would hardly have drowned him. And judging by what they write here, Marinesco knew about this and drowned Gustov in revenge for Armenia. I doubt it. As for the rules of warfare, everything was done correctly ...
          1. Ostwest
            Ostwest 16 February 2016 22: 38
            +1
            Who writes that Marinesco knew? Any Reason or bloody pastors Turchinov?
            Especially funny is their suffering in today's bombing of terrorist bandits from Syria. Everything is the same. They destroyed Dresden, with it 200 civilians, but silent. They dropped atomic bombs on peaceful cities, silence, military necessity. Destroyed by a Russian submarine ship with Hitler's thugs. Ah, peaceful people !!! The rules of war are violated !!!!
      3. Fitter65
        Fitter65 13 February 2016 14: 39
        +9
        So these are animals mad with blood on JUNE 22, 1941, early in the morning bombed our sleeping cities, it was their pilots who shot them at low columns of refugees, their tanks were crushing our field hospitals ... Well, or if it comes to that, how many refugees burned down in burning Dresden , which was bombed by the "allies" -or they can because they are the civilized west, and we are wild and bloodthirsty? !!!
        1. Voodoo
          Voodoo 13 February 2016 14: 52
          -2
          Well, you’re already already) Piled everything to the heap ... It’s not that you write, but the fact that even knowing the tragedy of Armenia, with what cruelty and cynicism its animals drowned, not eventually turn into the same beast and kill on Gustav innocent civilians, albeit an enemy country !! Or isn’t it ?? I’m sure that Marinesco didn’t know about it, and it was military transport that fired a torpedo.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Pancho
            Pancho 13 February 2016 16: 51
            +4
            Quote: Voodoo
            kill on Gustav innocent civilians, albeit an enemy country!

            Of our 27 million dead, only 8 million are military, and the rest are civilians. And therefore I do not mind German civilians, I even think that our troops treated the Germans and their allies too humanely.
      4. Pig
        Pig 13 February 2016 16: 05
        +5
        there were no "women and children" on "Gustlov"! mainly employees of the administration, the SS, as well as the most valuable and combat-ready units like the school of submariners
        Before the last cruise, "Gustlov" was loaded for three days at a distant pier, cordoned off by the SS, and was allowed on it only with special passes! so if there were "women and children", it was mainly family members of Prussian officials and officers and not at all simple refugees
        there were also a limited number of wounded on "Guslov"
        1. cumastra1
          cumastra1 13 February 2016 16: 25
          +7
          I think that even knowing the presence of women and children on board, neither Marinesco’s hand would tremble. People have too different perceptions in peacetime now and in the meat grinder that was then. And he is a hero. Drowning such a transport is a great success, even if it is empty, and with the crews of submarines, what kind of children? to the bottom! Moreover, I do not blame him for knowing about Armenia and about the sunken Luftwaffe of Leningrad schoolchildren during the crossing. There is another barge and meets hundreds of children’s panamas on the surface of the water. You’ll get mad.
        2. Looking for
          Looking for 13 February 2016 19: 59
          -3
          All this information about 80 crews and the like has been featured for 40 years in all publications - from notes in school wall newspapers to the works of "venerable" fleet historians. Information about the civilian population appeared quite recently. Moreover, I read that the Germans were to protect themselves from possible underwater danger. loaded on the ship "human shield" - prisoners of war and disseminated this information more or less openly so that they became known to Soviet intelligence. I think Marinesco knew about all this. and it is unknown. he would have made an attack knowing that in front of him was "General Steuben." And in general, only one person knew the whole truth - this is Marinesco himself, but he took this truth with him. And my personal opinion, his whole unsuccessful post-war life was a reflection of his remorse.
    3. Akuzenka
      Akuzenka 13 February 2016 23: 01
      +2
      Ahahahah. "They did not disdain ..." Yes, they were engaged in the genocide of OUR people. And these Germans died in battle. Let them be glad that they did not arrange genocide. And the attacks on our hospitals and hospital ships, in general, the Nazis have a common practice.
  3. lilian
    lilian 13 February 2016 08: 51
    +1
    He had a strange fate. Either neglected his duties, or talented.

    But this is another case of a transition from one extreme to another.
    If the future Greoy had misdeeds, what do you think the "command" should have done, patted on the head, conducted educational conversations?
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 13 February 2016 10: 23
      13
      Quote: lilian
      If the future Greoy had misdeeds, what do you think the "command" should have done, patted on the head, conducted educational conversations?

      The legendary Admiral Nikolai Kuznetsov, one of the founders of the Soviet Navy, a man who personally decided to demine Marinesco, and himself twice demoted by the highest state leadership, wrote in the journal Neva in 1968: “In the complex and restless nature of the commander“ C -13 "high heroism, desperate courage got along with many shortcomings and weaknesses. Today he could accomplish a heroic feat, and tomorrow he could be late for his ship, preparing to enter a combat mission, or in any other way rudely violate military discipline. To the numerous serious misconduct of Marinesco in the service and at home, I, as the admiral, have a very definite negative attitude. But knowing his courage, decisiveness and ability to achieve major military successes, I am ready to forgive a lot for him and pay tribute to his services to the Motherland. ”
      1. 24hours
        24hours 14 February 2016 21: 58
        -1
        Quote: Serg65
        The legendary Admiral Nikolai Kuznetsov

        Legendary? What is its legend?
        Quote: Serg65
        Dean of the creators of the Soviet Navy

        He was back in early 1938. was a captain of 1 rank. And the Navy headed for the first time in 1939. An experienced admiral, you can’t say anything.
        The Navy of the USSR in various forms existed from 1918.
        1. Serg65
          Serg65 15 February 2016 07: 41
          +2
          Quote: 24hours
          The Navy of the USSR in various forms existed from 1918.

          The USSR was formed on December 30, 1922, until 1923 the Navy was called the "Naval Forces of the RSFSR" and until 1938 the "Naval Forces of the Red Army of the USSR". Since the 1918 you mentioned, the Chief of the Naval Forces of the Republic have consistently been "outstanding naval commanders" non-commissioned officer Dybenko, "very respected in the navy", promoted by Lenin to Rear Admiral Ivanov, Rear Admiral Altvater, 1st Rank Captain Berens, Rear Admiral Nemitz, lieutenant Panzerzhansky, professional revolutionary Zof, non-commissioned officer Muklevich, midshipman Orlov, lieutenant Viktorov, ground commissar 1st rank Smirnov, writer-commissar with a dizzying naval career Smirnov-Svetlovsky and, at the end, the most interesting character on this list. ..one of the closest employees of the People's Commissar of the NKVD Yezhov and the main organizers of the great terror, the head of the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD of the USSR Comrade Frinovsky. A question for you, sir 24hours. Of the above comrades, who and what did the outstanding ones for the development of the USSR Navy? By the way, the Soviet Navy began to be called that only in 1938.
          Quote: 24hours
          Legendary? What is its legend?

          The legend of Kuznetsov is that. what exactly he created the structure of the Navy of the USSR, which to this day has not lost its relevance.
          1. Ostwest
            Ostwest 16 February 2016 22: 50
            0
            For one cast of the garrison of Sevastopol in full battle on June 22, 1941. , which did not allow the Fritz without punishment to bomb, as they did, for example, in Belarus, the best memory and thanks to Kuznetsov, and yet he did not follow the order not to provoke the Germans.
            1. 24hours
              24hours 16 February 2016 23: 18
              0
              Quote: OstWest
              not allowing the Fritz to bomb without punishment

              Do not exaggerate. The Germans bombed everything they wanted, where they wanted and when they wanted. If they did not interfere with the Red Army aviation, and at the beginning of the war this happened extremely rarely. This situation was due to the almost complete absence in the Red Army of adequate air defense systems. Do you think these balloons on the ropes are from a good life? Not at all.
              Quote: OstWest
              but he did not follow the order not to provoke the Germans.

              Actually, the order to open fire was given by Rear Admiral I. D. Eliseev, Chief of Staff of the Black Sea Fleet. At one's own risk. And then he reported this to Moscow.
          2. 24hours
            24hours 16 February 2016 23: 36
            0
            Quote: Serg65
            Of the above comrades, who and what outstanding did for the development of the Navy of the USSR?

            And what, they were something worse than Kuznetsov? He also did not shine with experience. School graduated in 1926. The fleet headed in 1939. adroitly advanced in 13 years.
            As for the command and staff service, for 5 months he was deputy commander of the Pacific Fleet, 14 months. commanded the Pacific Fleet. The month was the deputy commissar of the Navy. That is his whole experience. 20 months. Where does the experience come from?
            Quote: Serg65
            The legend of Kuznetsov is that. what exactly he created the structure of the Navy of the USSR, which to this day has not lost its relevance.

            "Do not make yourself an idol". Especially out of the blue. 60 years since he was dismissed from the service. In addition, in 1948. only miraculously did not sit down. For the cause, it seems. Because all the other accomplices sat down.
        2. Ostwest
          Ostwest 16 February 2016 22: 45
          0
          The USSR was formed on December 30, 1922. As a rule, almost all the commanders of the civil war did not survive until 1941. Or no longer served.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 13 February 2016 08: 53
    +9
    Say, Soviet submariners attacked defenseless hospital ships, on which unfortunate Prussian refugees escaped from the horrors of the Red Army offensive... Yeah, the Red Army carried horrors to Europe .. and the Nazis all over Europe, civilization .. candy and honey gingerbread ..
  5. Valery 1966
    Valery 1966 13 February 2016 09: 03
    16
    Marinesco is a hero, his attacks are unique, everything else is dust. Transport with refugees under such protection do not go. In this case, the Germans did not have the right to drown the PQ-17, especially since no one guarded it. Yes, you still blame him for the fact that he did not look into the wardroom of the ship and did not count how many soldiers there were, but how many refugees. Stop the delirium. His memory is sacred for Russia and its people.
    1. AK64
      AK64 13 February 2016 09: 31
      -25 qualifying.
      Marinesco is a hero, his attacks are unique

      What is "unique" about this particular attack?
      (Except, of course, the goal is a passenger ship)

      If the Germans Guslav normally guarded, Marinescu could not have attacked him
      1. Razvedka_Boem
        Razvedka_Boem 13 February 2016 09: 45
        14
        The former passenger ship, at the time of the attack, was an auxiliary vessel of the navy, armed and in the appropriate color. And the fact that there were fleeing citizens of Germany, it was not his fault.
        As for the fact that if the Germans well guarded Guslav .. If the grandmother had ..., she would be a grandfather.
        1. AK64
          AK64 13 February 2016 17: 55
          -3
          The former passenger ship, at the time of the attack, was an auxiliary vessel of the navy, armed and in the appropriate color.



          For God's sake. The question was what is "unique" in this particular attack, besides the target? "Unique" what? The answer is yes, nothing "unique".
      2. Gomunkul
        Gomunkul 13 February 2016 15: 36
        +6
        If the Germans Guslav normally guarded, Marinescu could not have attacked him
        And if Germany had not attacked the USSR in 1945, then this episode would not have happened. And 27 million Soviet citizens would not have died in this war.
        1. AK64
          AK64 13 February 2016 18: 04
          -5
          It's not about the death of Guslav (there was also "Armenia"), but about the "uniqueness of attacks" by Marinescu. There is nothing "unique" about Marinescu's attacks.
          This is already a commander promoted under Khrushchev, and already awarded with Khrushchev, who in 1945, following fresh traces, was not even given an order. (Just do not need that something was removed "for discipline" - to remove it, you must first give it.)
          1. Gomunkul
            Gomunkul 13 February 2016 18: 45
            +2
            It's not about the death of Guslav (there was also "Armenia"), but about the "uniqueness of attacks" by Marinescu. There is nothing "unique" about Marinescu's attacks.
            This is already a commander promoted under Khrushchev, and already awarded with Khrushchev, who in 1945, following fresh traces, was not even given an order. (Just do not need that something was removed "for discipline" - to remove it, you must first give it.)

            By the beginning of the Finnish campaign, Marinesco commanded the M-96 submarine. He achieved excellent combat training for the crew, for example, he successfully lowered the emergency diving standard from 35 seconds to 19,5 seconds. The commanders of other boats took over his experience, which helped them more than once in sudden encounters with enemy ships and aircraft and in torpedo attacks.
            For these achievements, the fleet commander rewarded the crew of the M-96 with a prize of 3900 rubles (the amount was huge at that time), and the People's Commissar of the Navy awarded the boat commander Marinesco with an inscribed golden watch.
        2. AK64
          AK64 13 February 2016 18: 04
          -4
          It's not about the death of Guslav (there was also "Armenia"), but about the "uniqueness of attacks" by Marinescu. There is nothing "unique" about Marinescu's attacks.
          This is already a commander promoted under Khrushchev, and already awarded with Khrushchev, who in 1945, following fresh traces, was not even given an order. (Just do not need that something was removed "for discipline" - to remove it, you must first give it.)
          1. Gomunkul
            Gomunkul 13 February 2016 18: 51
            +2
            On the evening of August 10, 1942, a group of ships left Kronstadt. Ahead were three minesweepers, followed by a submarine L-3 under the command of P.D. Grishchenko, then M-96, and two marine hunters closed the column.
            From August 12 to 14, Tallinn Marinesco conducted reconnaissance in the Helsinki area. On the first day, when crossing the Gogland anti-submarine position, the boat was discovered by fascist patrol ships, which began to pursue it. A dangerous situation was created, and to get out of it, Marinesco came up with a risky plan. He made several daring maneuvers in a clean section of the sea, and then he suddenly directed the boat into a minefield, causing the sentinel ships to lag behind him, after which he safely went to the depths, then the boat continued to carry out the mission of the headquarters - the tack followed the tack covered the entire route.
            At the return crossing with the breakthrough of the anti-submarine obstacle off the coast of Porkkala-Udd, the acoustics reported that he hears frequent explosions.
            What did that mean?
            Marinesco lifted the periscope and saw a transport with a displacement of about 7000 tons and two schooners, guarded by three combat boats. These boats, as a preventive measure, threw deep bombs, that is, they “scared” them, and thereby issued the movement of their convoy.
            There was a convenient situation for a torpedo attack. Marinesco launched an attack and fired a salvo from the right torpedo tube.
            An explosion thundered, and through the periscope the commander saw a stern of transport raised above the sea with a rotating propeller. Transport sank.
            The boats first got together in a heap, and then rushed to bomb the area. They dropped twelve deep-seated bombs, from which hydraulic gauges were damaged on the boat, the lights went out in some compartments, in the area of ​​the fourth tank of the main ballast, the seam of the strong hull burst and the hydraulic compass failed.
            The commander of the fifth warhead A.V. Novikov immediately organized a struggle for the survivability of the ship.
            From the place of attack, the boat, according to the Nazis, was supposed to depart towards Kronstadt, so anti-submarine boats went in this direction. But Marinesko did the opposite, he led the boat in the direction of Paldiski, that is, where the enemy himself was located, and thanks to this bold tactics he broke away from the bombing.
            According to updated data, the Helena transport turned out to be flooded. Then the M-96 maneuvered around the enemy, while the crew restored damaged equipment and eliminated other problems.
            For four days, the commander collected information about the movement of enemy ships, about the watch system at sea, about the fairway, and then headed for Kronstadt.
            The return journey was difficult. Half of his boat went underwater, she had to very carefully cross over 20 minefields, the boat touched the minesweepers three times and was on the verge of destruction each time.
            During this campaign, the entire crew of the submarine was awarded orders and medals, and the commander of Marinesco was awarded the Order of Lenin. He was very proud of him and wore it on his chest all his life.
          2. Gomunkul
            Gomunkul 13 February 2016 19: 00
            +3
            On the eve of the 45th anniversary of the Great Victory, the Military Council of the twice-red-flagged Baltic Fleet petitioned the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for the assignment of A.I. Marinesco deserved title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
            The same decision was made by the Military Council of the Navy of the USSR.
            And finally, by decree of the President of the USSR M.S. Gorbachev May 5, 1990, the captain of the 3rd rank Alexander Ivanovich Marinesko was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union (posthumous).
            45 years after the exploits!
            A symbolic award took place in the White Hall of the Mariinsky Palace in Leningrad. Lensoviet Chairman Anatoly Sobchak presented the daughters of Alexander Ivanovich Marinesko, Leonora and Tatyana, the Order of Lenin and the Golden Star of the Hero.
            Daughters transferred them to eternal storage at the Central Naval Museum.
            ... At the Theological Cemetery of St. Petersburg there is a granite obelisk with the inscription: "To the commander of the submarine S-13 Hero of the Soviet Union Alexander Ivanovich Marinesko."
          3. KakoVedi
            KakoVedi 14 February 2016 00: 12
            +2
            And what is the uniqueness of a submarine attack for you ?! Fall out of the clouds and in a steep peak crumble the adversary with screws?
      3. your1970
        your1970 13 February 2016 16: 45
        +4
        If you sank at least one enemy ship, I would listen to your opinion, but thank God, alas, ah ....
      4. Leksander
        Leksander 14 February 2016 00: 53
        +3
        Quote: AK64
        (Except, of course, the goal is a passenger ship)

        tell me, my dear, since when did "Gustov" become passenger at the time of flooding?
      5. Ostwest
        Ostwest 16 February 2016 22: 59
        0
        The one who is smarter, more resourceful and risky wins the war.
        The Germans had everything to repulse the attack of a lone submarine, but Marinesco found an option and worked as a lesser, but not a number, as Alexander Vasilievich taught.
        What are you all-a passenger ship, a passenger ship! It was a tansport carrying Charles. it doesn’t matter in the war: a truck, a cart, a train, and a ship, all of this is subject to destruction, because the LIVING FORCE OF THE ENEMY is being driven, which will kill ours tomorrow. Do you not understand this?
      6. Squelcher
        Squelcher 21 December 2016 11: 07
        0
        Each combat exit was unique. The Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Finland were crammed with many barriers. It was almost impossible to get out on a combat boat and return to the Baltic during the Second World War. I have a direct relationship with the underwater fleet. Plus, the small depth of the sea did not accompany the work of the boats. This is not the Atlantic, where the # wolves from the Kingsmarin were shameful # drowned any vessels and had complete freedom of action.
    2. Alex
      Alex 13 February 2016 11: 28
      +4
      Quote: Valery 1966
      Yes, you still blame him for the fact that he did not look into the wardroom of the ship and did not count how many soldiers there were, but how many refugees. Stop the delirium. His memory is sacred for Russia and its people.

      Valery, I absolutely agree with you.
  6. In100gram
    In100gram 13 February 2016 09: 19
    +6
    What and how then was known only to Marinescu. But the feat was, and the reward is deserved
  7. AK64
    AK64 13 February 2016 09: 30
    -28 qualifying.
    Marinescu was no "legend".
    He was not even awarded for this drowning - that is, in the 45th, the authorities understood that there was no feat here, there was nothing to reward.
    Hero Marinescu received from Khrushchev, many years later.
    1. Razvedka_Boem
      Razvedka_Boem 13 February 2016 09: 46
      +3
      Everything is written in the article. Apparently you did not read it. Only the name Marinescu saw and went to scribble their comments.
    2. KBR109
      KBR109 13 February 2016 10: 46
      +6
      Aha - from Khrushchev! In 1990 ... The fact that the Fuehrer declared him his personal enemy also does not matter? Do you know thousands of such "enemies"?
      1. AK64
        AK64 13 February 2016 18: 09
        -1
        The fact that the Fuehrer declared him his personal enemy also does not matter? Do you know thousands of such "enemies"?


        Calm down already. This is an invention, the Fuehrer did not "declare" anyone a "personal enemy".
        This was invented by the writer Kron (strongly for some reason Marinescu PR)
  8. engineer
    engineer 13 February 2016 09: 47
    +2
    he received the hero in 1990 after death. Gorbachev taxied at this time.
    1. AK64
      AK64 13 February 2016 18: 14
      -11 qualifying.
      he received the hero in 1990 after death. Gorbachev taxied at this time.


      Well, okay. And the writer Kron began to promote Marinescu. And it was Krohn who invented the "personal enemy of the entire Reich." And while Marinescu served, he did not particularly stand out from other commanders.

      Well, he drowned and drowned Guslav, I do not mind (and I am aware of "Armenia", and even about "Lusitania" I am aware). The point is that, in comparison, say, with the commanders and crews of the Northern Fleet, who worked in a very difficult situation, Marinesco acted in virtually greenhouse conditions. Evacuation and panic, "Drown them all!"

      So why promote one, and even as "the greatest of all times and peoples"? Because they don't know other names, so the record is spinning
      1. KakoVedi
        KakoVedi 14 February 2016 00: 17
        +2
        And enlighten ?! For other names ... And most importantly - indicating unique attacks. With the application of cripples for attacking, relevant extracts from logbooks ... People should know unique exploits!
  9. Xenos
    Xenos 13 February 2016 10: 21
    +3
    A man thumped, but he knew his job tightly ...
    1. Shadowcat
      Shadowcat 13 February 2016 13: 42
      0
      Alcoholism is not good
  10. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 13 February 2016 11: 22
    +7
    Such attacks require recklessness, courage bordering on recklessness. Of course, such a person could not have had problems with discipline, because this is a certain type of character.
    And the air ace - Pokryshkin also constantly clashed.
    A calm, quiet person is unlikely to be able to desperately, having forgotten everything in the world to rush at the enemy, here it is necessary to be a good reckless daredevil. Hence the inanimity in peaceful life.
    It’s better for Germans to keep silent about war crimes. How much they put to the bottom in the 41st, not counting.
  11. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 13 February 2016 11: 39
    +5
    Soviet children had few toys. The most common is a plastic baby doll. Every baby had it. A small doll, known to everyone, light, hollow, does not sink.
    One and a half bread and bread went to Leningrad along the road of life. Back with people. Cars fell through the ice, bombed the road, fired. In the spring, when the ice went ashore, a huge number of these dolls were nailed. Remaining from the dead, drowned children. People gathered them in a large tank. Terrible evidence of the activities of German barbarians in our land ...
    1. Lone wolf
      Lone wolf 13 February 2016 18: 49
      +1
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      Soviet children had few toys. The most common is a plastic baby doll. Every baby had it. A small doll, known to everyone, light, hollow, does not sink.
      One and a half bread and bread went to Leningrad along the road of life. Back with people. Cars fell through the ice, bombed the road, fired. In the spring, when the ice went ashore, a huge number of these dolls were nailed. Remaining from the dead, drowned children. People gathered them in a large tank. Terrible evidence of the activities of German barbarians in our land ...
      Yes, it was, about it in the military and in the military archive .. Read, we know. AND REMEMBER
  12. King, just king
    King, just king 13 February 2016 11: 48
    +1
    Both vehicles were in camouflage, armed, without lights and Red Cross markings? It was - it was! Then, in general, what are the questions, especially from the West, where ships flying the civil flag were used as trap ships, which was one of the reasons for the principle of "swamp everyone in a row."

    And about Marinesco ... It's hard to talk to us, not contemporaries and not colleagues, but judging by the facts - sloppiness, and vodka ... An experienced submarine commander - go look, and "just like that" is not removed.
  13. kig
    kig 13 February 2016 12: 17
    +7
    What do you mean "the results of his military campaigns are contradictory"? In my opinion, everything is clear here. At least, it is much clearer than the results of the same Lunin. And as for the efficiency ... Well this is necessary, out of six campaigns four were unsuccessful! The author should be better prepared before writing any nonsense. Read at least Vicky: firstly, at first, Marinesko commanded a boat of the Malyutka type, and it was very difficult to achieve significant victories on it. It was officially intended only for reconnaissance and protection of coastal areas. In addition, the boat stuck in Leningrad was damaged by artillery fire. The S-13, which he commanded after M-ki, did not go to sea for a whole year. So it is better not to poke at the lack of effectiveness of his campaigns. The same Lunin, during his command of Pike, made 6 trips and sank one ship.
  14. akm8226
    akm8226 13 February 2016 12: 59
    +7
    I already noticed twice - as soon as our enemies get in the face, a howl about the "inhumanity" of our actions immediately begins.
    We didn’t come to bomb Berlin - if anyone forgot, I’ll remind you. And since they’re not called, don’t complain! When the Nazis drowned the ships of the Red Cross, none of them resented this.
    I will say one thing in addition - in vain did we liberate Europe and lay our soldiers there. It was necessary to plow all this viper nest without leaving a single inhabitant, and plant territories with potatoes and cabbage. That is exactly what the Nazis did in our territory. Khatyn is a confirmation of this.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  15. unknown
    unknown 13 February 2016 13: 07
    +2
    The fleet is a very sophisticated tool. Reconstructing it is more difficult. And if quantitatively this partially succeeded ... then qualitatively ... During the war years the losses were enormous and unjustified. One Tallinn crossing turned into the Baltic Tsushima is worth what. Against this background, the actions of the Marinesco-occasion, for which it was possible to cling to, used in propaganda.

    Quote: Pig
    Marinesco had problems with discipline and subordination ... if you served in the army, then you understand that this is quite enough to "break the career" of any hero ...
    during the war they suffer all this, but in peacetime they are disposed of in spite of merit


    Father-in-law talked about the same hero. But in aviation. The complete lack of discipline and respect for superiors. For this reason, only Hero. But in the air ... The Germans pounded more than a hundred. But...
    for officialdom is not pleasing.
  16. HaByxoDaBHocep
    HaByxoDaBHocep 13 February 2016 14: 08
    +2
    awesome picture in the article, in my childhood I had a book about the development of the submarine fleet of the Soviet Union and there was this picture, sorry with all the transfers, etc., I lost the book (
    1. KakoVedi
      KakoVedi 15 February 2016 23: 31
      0
      In addition to the book, this reproduction is in a series of postcards about the Baltic Fleet in the Great Patriotic War ... And I came across different magazines.
  17. Alexey T. (Oper)
    Alexey T. (Oper) 13 February 2016 18: 04
    +4
    1. The very attack that "Gustlov" or "Steuben" is not a masterpiece or even qualified. Both ships sailed without the use of an anti-torpedo maneuver without changing speed (moreover, "Gustlov" actually went without protection), so it was not particularly difficult to get into them. Any more or less competent submarine commander could calculate the torpedo triangle without difficulty.

    2. Marnesco in both cases attacked a legitimate target. Both transports were listed on the Karigsmarine as military transports. Those. neither hospital nor civilian courts.

    3. Marinesco did not appear on the lists of Hitler's personal enemies. If only because such lists did not exist at all. There were lists of people wanted by the Reich, but the names of Marinesco do not appear on these lists. And it could not appear, since the Germans did not advertise the sinking of "Gustlov" so as not to raise panic, and the sinking of "Steuben" did not cause any special reaction from Hitler - at that time he had more important concerns.

    4. Marinesco’s behavior in bases, in between campaigns, according to the laws of wartime, qualified as a war crime. He repeatedly went into binge for long periods, so they could not find him corny, as a result of which the boat’s exit on a military campaign was disrupted. Now put yourself in the place of command of the flotilla: for example, there is information that the Germans are sending a large convoy, the arrival of which at the destination can radically decide the fate of the most important strategic operation. And the commander, who could disrupt the dispatch of this convoy by his actions, cannot be found because he deigned to rest in an unknown place when drunk.

    And how to qualify the actions of this commander?
    1. iouris
      iouris 13 February 2016 18: 50
      -1
      The behavior of Marinesco in all manifestations should be qualified as a manifestation of talent in a specific situation. The problem is that the behavior of a talented person does not lend itself to an understanding of mediocrity.
      This was noticed by A.S. Pushkin, who was clearly aware of his talent: "I am also nasty. But otherwise!"
    2. AK64
      AK64 14 February 2016 12: 44
      -4
      1. The very attack that "Gustlov" or "Steuben" is not a masterpiece or even qualified.

      So

      2. Marnesco in both cases attacked a legitimate target.

      So

      3. In the lists of personal enemies of Hitler, Marinesco was not listed. If only because such lists did not exist at all.

      So.
      It's funny, of course, where do the legs of this fairy tale come from ...
      But it does not apply to the topic: there were no "personal enemies"

      4. The behavior of Marinesco in bases, in between campaigns, according to the laws of wartime, was qualified as a war crime. ABOUT

      And here is the Tode:
      an alcoholic, and if he was a "legend", then only in this.
      an alcoholic commander is generally very bad: in addition to the inadequacy of actions in general, this sort of people often begin to risk the ship and subordinates - in order to protect their carcass from bossy anger about discipline.


      But I am surprised that shkolota did not give you minuses
      1. Ostwest
        Ostwest 16 February 2016 23: 26
        0
        I put you one more minus.
        It seems impossible to surprise you even with the fact that Marinesco sent to the bottom for one campaign a whole division of the enemy. Is it really enough? Maybe it became a pity? Maybe this was normal practice? Destroy an enemy division in one trip. Where else is there a similar case?
        Marinesco had problems with discipline, and by doing this he first of all punished himself, but what he accomplished, his contribution to our victory over the enemy, is an order of magnitude greater than the efforts of any or almost any warrior of that war. The fact that you do not understand this is your problem.
    3. Ostwest
      Ostwest 16 February 2016 23: 15
      0
      Everything is true about discipline, but to get out on enemy vehicles, i.e. to find the enemy, not to flinch and hit the target for sure, this is the highest skill of the hunter, plus an extraordinary flair. There are very few of them, few, for that they are valued, loved and remembered. Marinesco- turned out to be one such, and then the envy of the rest. Also a strong feeling .. And so everything is simple, only who repeated it?
      What, nobody wanted? There were no others.
  18. Volgobalt
    Volgobalt 13 February 2016 18: 18
    +2
    "We fled from the horrors of the offensive of the Red Army!" The abomination of Western hacks knows no boundaries! They brought in killers who turned a huge part of the USSR into ruins. They burned women and children, marauded, and they are trying to expose them as innocent sheep! I'm sorry that too many of them were saved, and nothing more! Marinesco is a hero, no matter what the unfinished fascists try to say! DO NOT HAVE THE RIGHT to condemn our soldiers!
    1. King, just king
      King, just king 13 February 2016 21: 00
      +1
      Yeah, Operation Hannibal. It's a pity! It is a Pity that it was held at such a level, and this is in the 45th. Where the hell was our aviation. I will not vainly recall the Tallinn passage, but for the surrender of Sevastopol it is insulting to the point of impossibility ...
  19. xoma58
    xoma58 13 February 2016 21: 49
    +5
    I don’t understand what the question is. Marinesco drowned the enemy. Honor and glory to him. There was a war and howl about the ruined lives of ordinary SS guys, in my opinion, is not appropriate. There is a road to this tv ar yam.
  20. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 14 February 2016 16: 58
    0
    Eternal Glory to the Hero!
  21. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 15 February 2016 13: 16
    0
    After what the Hans have done, discussing poorly or well did Marinescu does not make sense! This is a war and not the USSR began it! And I have 6 people from my family in that war, including a one-year-old baby who died of hunger in the besieged Leningrad. And there is no desire to feel sorry for the enemy who, for fear of his deeds, made legs! Judging by the gay European press, they still do not consider us people! So deep gratitude to the Soviet people!
  22. Geser
    Geser 13 March 2016 16: 01
    0
    Marinesco may have violated discipline in some way, but this does not diminish his feat - an attack on the transport ship "Wilhelm Gustlov", which was transporting selected crews for new submarines. The fact that such submarines existed is evidenced by the fact that when Hitler learned about the death of "Gustlov" he ordered Marinesko to be included in the list of Hitler's personal enemies. After all, the Soviet submariner in one salvo destroyed an entire division of the submarine fleet of Nazi Germany. What if these submariners had not died? They would go to sea in new, quieter and more advanced submarines, armed with the latest torpedoes. And then the war would have dragged on for no one knows how long, and no one knows how many more Russian sailors and soldiers would have died. And it is also possible and Anglo-American soldiers during the landing in Normandy, only Western historians prefer to remain silent about this.