The spectacular launch of the rocket is fixed by camera flashes, but nothing is known about its entry into the target ship. The paradox has a simple explanation: no observer in his right mind would dare to be near the target.
It will take long hours before the sailors get to the “sacrifice” set in the open sea (a hundred kilometers from the launch site) and make some measurements. After that, the target, a rusty “galosh”, due to its dilapidated state, the consequences of getting PKR and the absence of any struggle for its vitality, will be sentenced to flooding on the spot.
As a result, "legends" are born about the incredible destructive power of the anti-ship missiles, capable of "churning the superstructure" and "cutting the destroyer along."
But what are the real consequences of getting PKR into ships? About this is another analysis of combat damage.
Punched armor of the cruiser “Nakhimov”
In June, the Nakhimov 1961 was towed from the Sevastopol bay on 45 - 50 miles towards Odessa and anchored. From a distance of 72 km, the rocket ship Prozorlivy launched a KSSC missile in inert equipment on the Nakhimov. The rocket hit the middle part of the cruiser in the surface part of the board and made a hole in the form of a figure eight with an area of about 15 м2. The warhead of the missile pierced the cruiser through and made a round hole with an area of about 8 m2 in the opposite side of the ship. The bottom edge of the hole was 40 cm below the waterline. The rocket engine exploded in the hull of the cruiser, resulting in a fire on the ship.
The following is a detailed description of the damage.
"The rocket hit the spardek and cruiser abutment joint. A hole in the shape of an inverted eight with a total area of about 15 м2 formed at the hitting point. Most of the hole fell at the spardek, the smaller part - on board. inert gear. The missile "pierced" a cruiser from side to side and left the starboard side of the cruiser just under the foremast. The exit hole was a nearly circular hole of about 8 m2. The lower cut of the hole was on 30 — 35 cm below the waterline, and, until the ships of the rescue service reached the cruiser, he managed to take in about 1600 t seawater. In addition, the remains of kerosene spilled on the cruiser, and this caused a fire that extinguished around the 12 hours. "
Do you find contradictions here? And they are.
The supersonic “soft-bodied” ammunition (sand enclosed in a light metal shell), unexpectedly for itself, flew through the ship’s hull (which is no less than 20 meters, diagonally, through all bulkheads) and, when meeting at a large angle, pierced the bottom armor decks (xnumx mm). After that, he easily overcame the armor belt (50 mm of armor), leaving a round hole with an area of 100 square in it. meters, whose bottom edge was at 8-30, see BELOW the waterline.
Question one: is there stories naval battles are examples of how much faster (2 mach) and durable (98% mass - metal) armor-piercing shells caused similar damage? Punch through 150 mm of armor at an angle, not counting the numerous bulkheads and deck decks of structural steel.
Question two: while the rescuers got to the cruiser, 1600 tons of water managed to flow into it. That inevitably caused a roll, which no one straightened with counter-floods of the compartments of the opposite side - due to the absence of a crew on the “Nakhimov”. Yes, and to the rescue firefighters who arrived in the first hours was not up to it.
Geometric problem for younger students.
The KSSH missile struck the cruiser in the area of the 62 th frame (“just under the foremast”) and immediately collapsed due to its layout into two parts (warhead and engine).
In the case, in the area of the foremast, ducts of the boilers passed through. Where, obviously, and flew the engine KSSH. From the same place - the shortest way to the bottom. Breaking through the duct cover, penetrating the shaft and finally losing energy, he fell on the grate and exploded. The explosion damaged a double bottom, which was no longer used to store fuel oil.
In the formed hole gushing water. Using the formula Q = 3600 * μ * f * [root of (2qH)], you can calculate the flow of water. Taking the hydrostatic head from the calculation for the depth of 6 meters, the hole radius of the entire 5 cm, and the coefficient. permeability (mu) per 0,6, we get impressive 240 tons of water per hour!
There was a roll, which is continuously growing. The ship sank deeper and deeper into the water and fell aside.
As a result, the lower edge of the outlet from the inert warhead of the rocket, which was originally OVER the waterline, by the time the rescuers arrived, managed to go under water at 30 centimeters.
The rocket did not penetrate either the armor deck or the Nakhimov armor belt. She flew higher through the lightweight hull structure. The question of the effect of RCC on armor remained open.
If you do not agree that everything was exactly that way, then shooting at Nakhimov was carried out in a non-Euclidean space. Where the supply of tons of outboard water by 1600 does not cause a heel and an increase in the draft of the ship.
It is worth noting that the KSSch rocket, by virtue of the 1950's technologies, possessed exorbitant mass and size dimensions, therefore, even being without a CU, it could cause a strong fire and cause serious damage. The emergence of such missiles in our time is excluded - a single, large target with a large EPR is too vulnerable when the air defense line is broken through.
As for the target itself, the layout and booking scheme of the Admiral Nakhimov cruiser was created under other types of threats and proved to be ineffective in the era of rocket weapons.
Pacific exercise scandal fleet
The command and staff exercises of the Pacific Fleet held in September 2011 made a depressing impression on the Kamchatka journalists. According to one version, none of the fired missiles could hit the target. Quite an expected result. The coastal defense complex “Redoubt” was put into service in 1966 and, by now, the weapon has fully developed its resource.
On the following day, a “analysis of the zheltyachka” from representatives of the patriotic media appeared, in which all previous statements about the failure of the exercises were refuted. Rockets successfully completed the flight mission. Proof - photographs of targets.
But the flywheel sensation has already been promoted. The number of questions has not decreased. Observers have noted the following oddities in this story:
First, the negligible impact of ammunition on the design of targets. The P-35 rocket of the Redut complex belongs to the family of super-heavy Soviet anti-ship missiles. With a length of ten meters and a starting weight of 4,5 tons, it is twice as heavy as the popular “Caliber” and 8 times heavier than any modern Western RCC!
Even being equipped with an inert warhead, this supersonic “cudgel”, logically, must tear down everything in its path, causing irreversible damage to the structure. Accompanied by the ignition of the pierced target from the torch of the working main engine RCC and an abrupt pressure jump inside the target body.
In reality, even the glass blocks of the portholes, which were in close proximity to the places of entry of the missiles, survived on the target of the PKZ-35 swimming pool.
Even more paradoxically, the second target looked like the PZhK-3 fireboat, which, according to the official version, was knocked down by the setting. In the first photo in the dark nothing is visible. On the second, made in the afternoon, the tiny boat bears no traces of missile hits.
Also, observers were confused by the time factor. According to official figures, the shooting took place on the night of September 17. The target was located two hundred kilometers from the coast. In the pictures submitted for refutation, dated the 17 day of September, the target with traces of the missile was already against the shore. How, in a matter of hours, the sailors managed to get to the place of execution of the PZK-35, take it in tow and drag it to Avacha Bay. In this case, the non-self-propelled barracks were supposed to move across the ocean at the speed of the squalling torpedo.
If there were no hits, then everything is clear, without question.
It is much more surprising if, despite defamation, the missiles did hit the targets. The nature of the damage is contrary to the legends of the great destructive power of the RCC.
Even without combat units, the strikes of multi-ton supersonic discs should have cut the boat and the floating gear in half. Such horror stories tell about the tests of the first subsonic CRPs, which allegedly cut the destroyer along and left a hole with an area of 55 square. m. in the armor of the unfinished battleship “Stalingrad”.
A rocket hit at Vereshchagino
A curious incident occurred on April 24 of 2000. In the course of training firing, the 854 coastal missile regiment of the Black Sea Fleet “covered” the Ukrainian ship “Vereshchagino”, which was carrying out a charter flight on the route Skadovsk - Istanbul.
In spite of timely notification, the cargo-passenger ship ignored the message for an unknown reason and, having missed the 13-s of the escort ships, penetrated into the closed area for navigation.
The homing missile did not know the difference between a warship and a civilian vessel. Released with m. Chersonese, the P-35 immediately targeted the radio-contrast object and successfully hit the target. Exactly! The results of hitting the P-35 in the superstructure are evidenced by a picture with a picturesque hole corresponding to the rocket contours. It remains to add that the small ship survived and safely reached Skadovsk on its own. The fire started was eliminated by the crew. The only victim was the third mechanic V. Ponomarenko, urgently taken to the hospital of the Black Sea Fleet.
Coordinated Force Attack aviation and fleet
Finally, a photo report from the international exercises RIMPAC 2010. Purely for aesthetic pleasure.
The old New Orleans helicopter carrier (of the Iwo Jima type, 1968 year) was used as a target. The length of its hull was 182 meters, the width of the flight deck 26 m, overall dimensions corresponded to the rocket cruiser of the Cold War era.
In the "New Orleans" got seven anti-ship missiles "Harpoon". Following it, the B-52 bombers struck it, hitting a helicopter carrier with five 900-kg guided bombs GBU-10. Finally, the doomed ship was attacked by an Australian frigate “Varramunga”, which threw seventy 127 mm shells into it.
For all the obviousness of the result, it is necessary to recognize that the sinking of the “old galosh” took an indecently long time. With the fact that real ammunition was used, and the content of explosives in the 900 kg bomb (429 kilogram of tritonal) exceeds its content in warheads of any, even the heaviest anti-ship missile.
For comparison, the 165-kilogram warhead of the popular Exeset rocket contains just 56 kg of explosives.
The modern Russian “Caliber” has several options for combat equipment: combat units with a mass of 200 and 450 kg. The features of their design, the number and type of explosives are classified, but the content of explosives of them is obviously less than in the 900-kg aerial bomb.
Half a century ago, in the little destroyer Eilat (1700 tons, less than a modern corvette), within an hour, three P-15 missiles were carried, carrying combat units weighing 500 kg. Although it seemed to be enough alone. As a result, Eilat was drowning for an hour, and from 200 the people of its crew survived 153.
How much time will it take and missiles and other means of air attack to destroy a large, well-tailored ship with developed constructive protection?