Military Review

Cosmic danger

60
In the solar system, meteoroids, asteroids and comets are moving in the space between the planets.


Meteoroids are the smallest bodies of the solar system, whose dimensions can reach several meters. When they enter the atmosphere of the Earth, they burn (the speed of entry is of the order of 70 km / s) at altitudes up to 80 km (falling stars). Sometimes they are destroyed in the atmosphere, creating a bright flash. Experts call this phenomenon fireballs, and fragments falling to Earth are meteorites.

Asteroids rotate around the Sun, and due to the gravitational effects of the planets approach them, including the Earth.

Astronomers and astrophysicists to the class of asteroids include those asteroids that approach the Earth's orbit at a distance less than 0,3 astronomical units. The astronomical unit is 150 million km. Dimensions of asteroids can reach several hundred kilometers, and the density is up to 5,8 g / cm. cc When asteroids collide with the Earth, their speed can reach 72 km / s.

Cosmic danger

Photograph of asteroids, obtained using spacecraft


In space, comets move in elongated orbits. When approaching the Sun, they appear gas-dust shell with a "tail." Among comets there are those that cross the Earth's orbit and can collide with it. Comets are made of ice and dust. The density of the substance of comets reaches 1,5 g / cm3.


Flying comet


Studies of the solar system with the help of spacecraft have shown that the planets of the solar system are covered with craters of impact origin. One of the deep impact craters of Beringer is located in Arizona, its diameter is more than 1,3 km, and the depth is more than 170 m. It is very difficult to assess the consequences of the impacts of cosmic bodies. The power of the explosion is expressed through the TNT equivalent. It is equal to the mass of trinitrotoluene. So when 1 kg of trinitrotoluene explodes, 4,2 MJ of energy is released. This kinetic energy will have a cobblestone mass of 1 kg, moving at a speed of about 3 km / s. The energy from the explosion of an asteroid with a diameter of 2 km will be equivalent to the explosion of a million megaton nuclear charges.


Impact crater


The most powerful thermonuclear bomb in the world, tested in our country in 1961, had the power of 60 Mt. This is estimated to correspond to the explosion of the Tunguska meteorite. The total ammunition of all nuclear countries can be estimated in order in 10 000 MT, the explosion of which would lead to a global catastrophe. An asteroid of size 0,5 km and moving at a speed of 30 km / s, has kinetic energy, commensurate with the explosion of a nuclear warhead accumulated by mankind by now. Astronomers call such asteroids "killer bodies." Evaluation of the Earth's surface allowed to fix impact craters on it over 140. Impact craters experts call astrobleme (star wounds). 25 of such craters has been recorded in the Russian Federation.


Impact Craters on the Earth's Surface


When a celestial body fell on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, a significant part of the Earth’s biosphere was destroyed by an explosion. The diameter of the celestial body was about 10 km. Studies conducted by scientists in a number of countries have made it possible to state that 12900 years ago the mammoths of North America were burned out by a comet that exploded over the mainland. The comet had a diameter of several kilometers; the absence of a crater made it possible to assume that it was an air explosion like the Tungussky meteorite. Due to the reduction of the ice sheet, cold waters poured into North America, which in turn led to a strong cooling across the whole hemisphere.

Already at the beginning of the 21 century, five events took place related to the fall of celestial bodies to Earth, including in the Chelyabinsk region. Several people suffered from the explosion of this celestial body, and a number of industrial enterprises and housing stock were damaged.

The problem of the asteroid-comet hazard is real and needs to be resolved. In particular, in the USA attempts are being made to solve this problem at the legislative level. So in the 2005 year, the NASA Authorization Act was passed, which provided NASA forces to provide detection, tracking, cataloging near-earth asteroids and comets in order to warn of possible danger. According to NASA, the 30-meter 2013 TX68 asteroid is approaching Earth. The trajectory of its movement has not yet been calculated, but according to preliminary estimates it will pass from the Earth at a distance of 14 million km.

European countries have offered our country to create a joint system of protection against asteroids. This is a specific method of action associated with the deviation of an asteroid from a dangerous orbit using a nuclear explosion. At present, there are already proposals to change the orbit of the celestial bodies approaching the Earth by the gravitational tractor method in the form of a jet engine placed on it. This problem should be solved by a complex method, providing for the integration of the efforts of specialists from various countries and branches of knowledge. Given that the Pulkovo Observatory is located in St. Petersburg, it is advisable to set up a Center for these studies in St. Petersburg under the guidance of well-known astrophysicists.

8 February 2016 in the US a meteor hit one of the inhabitants of this country. Prior to that, in 1972, an animal was also hit by a meteor falling to the ground. What's next?

PS This article was prepared using materials based on the results of research in this area, which were published by the authors in the journal "Alert of Aerospace Defense" No. 1, 2014.
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  1. Pereira
    Pereira 11 February 2016 12: 37
    12
    We have been scared so many times by asteroids that will destroy all life, which is no longer scary. Rather, all life will be destroyed by man.
    1. Wheel
      Wheel 11 February 2016 12: 49
      +4
      Quote: Pereira
      We've been scared of asteroids so many times

      And they continue to scare with enviable persistence ...
      An example is this article.
      True, there are a lot of mistakes in it, but this does not bother the authors - the main thing is to frighten harder.
      1. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 11 February 2016 13: 17
        +2
        Quote: Pereira
        that will destroy all life
        Money should be invested in defense from bipedal neighbors that live in Europe and America, and not from space "guests". These gentlemen will be more dangerous than huge iron bodies approaching us at a speed of 70 km / s.
      2. Lone wolf
        Lone wolf 11 February 2016 16: 59
        0
        Quote: Wheel
        8 February 2016 in the US a meteor hit one of the inhabitants of this country. Prior to that, in 1972, an animal was also hit by a meteor falling to the ground. What's next?

        And in the internet was from February of this year, something about the meteorite, the bus driver, who died from the blow, in India, and not in the USA ..
    2. Alexander Romanov
      Alexander Romanov 11 February 2016 12: 59
      +9
      Quote: Pereira
      . Rather, all life will be destroyed by man.

      Humanity sends into space vehicles that seek intelligence in other galaxies.
      I propose sending two apparatuses to Europe and the USA that will seek intelligence there.
      And according to the article, we will all die!
      1. Tusv
        Tusv 11 February 2016 13: 18
        +2
        Quote: Alexander Romanov
        I propose sending two apparatuses to Europe and the USA that will seek intelligence there.

        Alas, 2 pluses can not be put.
        According to the article. 1987 Astronomy Course
      2. Name classified
        Name classified 11 February 2016 13: 23
        +1
        Money transfer. Reason in the USA and the EU cannot be found during the day with fire ...
        1. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 12 February 2016 10: 19
          0
          There is plenty of reason there. The cream was imported from all over the world.
          There are problems with the soul and conscience
      3. Mikhail Krapivin
        Mikhail Krapivin 11 February 2016 14: 23
        +2
        Quote: Alexander Romanov

        And according to the article, we will all die!


        - Doctor, I will live ?!
        - And the meaning ...?
    3. Al1977
      Al1977 11 February 2016 14: 13
      +1
      Quote: Pereira
      We have been scared so many times by asteroids that will destroy all life, which is no longer scary.

      The dinosaur said, looking at the approaching red dot in the sky))))
    4. Dam
      Dam 11 February 2016 14: 14
      +1
      That's for sure, we can do pretty well without meteors.
  2. RUSS
    RUSS 11 February 2016 12: 39
    +1
    It is strange why there are almost no craters in the equator region?
    1. Reserve officer
      Reserve officer 11 February 2016 12: 52
      +2
      "The countries of Europe have offered our country to create a joint system of protection against asteroids. This is a specific method of impact associated with the deviation of an asteroid from a dangerous orbit using a nuclear explosion."

      Countries of Europe? In the USSR, such developments were carried out independently, the results have not gone away. In the 90's, of course, a lot of things were given to the Americans for nothing, having declassified serious developments by simple orders of directors of industry institutes (since it was they who headed the expert councils). But that is another topic.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Aleksander
        Aleksander 11 February 2016 13: 54
        +2
        Quote: Reserve officer
        The countries of Europe have proposed to our country to create a joint defense system against asteroids. We are talking about a specific method of impact associated with the deviation of an asteroid from a dangerous orbit, using a nuclear explosion "


        This year, Russia refused to participate in these programs (no money).
    2. cap
      cap 11 February 2016 13: 17
      +6
      Quote: RUSS
      It is strange why there are almost no craters in the equator region?


      On the water surface they do not remain.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. RUSS
        RUSS 11 February 2016 13: 26
        +3
        Quote: cap
        Quote: RUSS
        It is strange why there are almost no craters in the equator region?


        On the water surface they do not remain.

        And not on the water? The equator bisects Africa, passes through South America and no craters request
    3. guzik007
      guzik007 11 February 2016 13: 22
      +4
      It is strange why there are almost no craters in the equator region?
      -------------------------------------------------- ----
      But because there the rotation speed is the most. The conclusion is cleverly dodging: =)
    4. TUNISIA
      TUNISIA 11 February 2016 13: 26
      +2
      Have you noticed that real "empires of evil" are subjected to space bombardment much more intensively in density than Russia?
      1. Ezhaak
        Ezhaak 11 February 2016 16: 56
        +1
        Quote: TUNISIA
        "empires of evil" are undergoing space bombardment much more intensively

        So I think, why is Australia so small, and there are almost no places without craters. Yes, and European states, most often babies. Especially from those that took part in the Warsaw Pact. God is not a fraer, he sees everything.
    5. Aleksey_K
      Aleksey_K 11 February 2016 13: 48
      +1
      Quote: RUSS
      It is strange why there are almost no craters in the equator region?

      In the area of ​​the equator, in addition to the water surface, there are also little explored jungle. Nothing is visible from space or from an airplane. In addition, you probably noticed that in Alaska, in Greenland and in Antarctica, there seems to be nothing either. This is because all the tracks are covered with snow and ice. These places are impassable and there are very few people there to fix such formations. There is nothing at the North Pole for obvious reasons.
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 12 February 2016 10: 32
        +1
        In fact, it is worth considering that astroblems have very different ages. From thousands (Arizona crater) to ~ 2 billion years (the Yarrabubb astroblem, Australia and the Wredefort astroblem, South Africa).
        Due to the drift of the continents for such a long time, in order to assess the plane in which the impacts occurred in relation to the plane of the Earth’s orbit, it is necessary to reconstruct the position of the continents at the time of each impact separately.
        Also, in order to assess the approximate direction of impact relative to the vertical (and hence the inclination of the asteroid’s orbit), a detailed study of astro-problem data is needed. After all, rocks from that moment often changed beyond recognition as a result of natural processes.
    6. Mr. Pip
      Mr. Pip 11 February 2016 16: 26
      +1
      Quote: RUSS
      It is strange why there are almost no craters in the equator region?

      Absolutely nothing strange:
      1. "Garbage" falls in a random order, respectively, in some part of the world it will always fall more than in another - this is mathematics.
      2. The water surface area in the equator region is the most significant relative to land compared to other latitudes, excluding the Southern Ocean, of course, recognized for some reason by everyone except Soviet scientists request
  3. Samen
    Samen 11 February 2016 12: 40
    +2
    I did not understand the couple how pro-powerfully: metioryTy or metioryIDy? One thing in the text, another in the picture ... Oh, they make a fool of us!
    1. Tatar 174
      Tatar 174 11 February 2016 12: 51
      +2
      Meteorites are already fallen to Earth. Meteoroids are still flying in space.
    2. Nikolay K
      Nikolay K 11 February 2016 13: 05
      +5
      The celestial bodies are called MeteorOIDS, and their fragments falling to the Earth
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Samen
        Samen 11 February 2016 14: 02
        0
        bodies are called MeteorOIDS, and their fragments falling to the ground

        Okay, thank you!
        Then, how sideways do these stone stoves relate to F1 cars?
        Or, here's another: "methiorism" in the stomach from what space kamenyuk comes from ???
      3. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 12 February 2016 10: 37
        +2
        More precisely:
        meteorOIDS - medium-sized cosmic bodies (such as a product, as you see it in the order catalog)
        meteors - they are also in the process of falling to Earth during the passage of the atmosphere (goods, in the process of delivery to your home)
        meteorites - their remnants that could reach the surface (the contents of the delivered and opened parcels are already at your place)
        smile
    3. Aleksey_K
      Aleksey_K 11 February 2016 14: 00
      +3
      Quote: Semen
      I did not understand the couple how pro-powerfully: metioryTy or metioryIDy? One thing in the text, another in the picture ... Oh, they make a fool of us!

      The visible trace of a meteoroid entering the Earth’s atmosphere is called a meteor, and a meteoroid falling on the Earth’s surface is called a meteorite.
      So nobody, nobody "makes a fool".
      It is a pity that astronomy is no longer taught at school. And the teacher of the Russian language, apparently, is no longer a teacher of the Russian language: "Couple", "metiori", "metiori", "make a fool".
      1. Samen
        Samen 11 February 2016 14: 09
        +2
        Quote: Алексей_К
        It is a pity that astronomy is no longer studied at school. And the teachers of the Russian language, apparently, are no longer teachers of the Russian language:

        That is yes! You can’t even imagine how I agree with you! Ignoramus! The missing generation ...
        Whether business is our generation! Ali nitak?
  4. pavelty
    pavelty 11 February 2016 12: 44
    +1
    Bruce Willis will save everyone ...) no need to panic
  5. avva2012
    avva2012 11 February 2016 12: 44
    +8
    "The Fifth Angel sounded his trumpet, and I saw a star falling from heaven to earth, and a key was given to her from the pit of the abyss."
    About TNT equivalent, have not heard. But they knew.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  6. Mama_Cholli
    Mama_Cholli 11 February 2016 12: 46
    +6
    When looking at the map of meteorite falls, the question arises about the accuracy of the shelling of the territories of America and Europe by aliens. In any case, they did not hit Russia as aimed. Apparently those "democrats" got more ...

    Correctors in the past were also pros.
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 11 February 2016 13: 01
      +3
      Quote: Mama_Cholli
      When you look at the map of meteorite falls, the question arises of the accuracy of shelling by aliens of America's territories

      Train like us at the dash laughing
      1. Mama_Cholli
        Mama_Cholli 11 February 2016 14: 41
        +1
        Exactly. However, the area of ​​Russia is much larger than the area of ​​Europe or the United States, and hits on them are much larger. So firing was more for potential partners.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. aleksey980
      aleksey980 11 February 2016 13: 03
      +5
      good
      For some reason, I also immediately thought about the accuracy of the shelling. laughing
  7. kapitan92
    kapitan92 11 February 2016 12: 46
    +6
    ". And generally to our land, unknown so far,
    A huge comet is approaching.
    So to us in this world
    nothing else shines
    And there is no escape from this comet.

    I hugged my wife, sobbing, I say: "I'm sorry dear,
    That at the wedding I got drunk to hell .... "(Trofim)
  8. Wolverine
    Wolverine 11 February 2016 12: 48
    +1
    February 2016 in the United States, a meteor hit one of the inhabitants of this country. Prior to this, in 1972, an animal was also struck by a meteor that fell to the ground. What's next?

    Is that a great problem? Every day in the world they die from the activities of the man himself, especially a democratic one, the article is another horror story ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. RUSS
      RUSS 11 February 2016 13: 03
      +2
      Quote: Wolverine
      February 2016 in the United States, a meteor hit one of the inhabitants of this country. Prior to this, in 1972, an animal was also struck by a meteor that fell to the ground. What's next?

      In India, recorded the world's first case of human death as a result of a meteorite fall. This was confirmed by the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu, Jayaram Jayalalitha.

      A meteorite that fell near one of the buildings of an engineering college in the Indian city of Velluru caused an explosion that killed a bus driver who worked in an educational institution. The explosion also injured three gardeners, damaged the building.

      Rescuers discovered a funnel and meteorite fragments near the college building
      1. Ezhaak
        Ezhaak 11 February 2016 17: 05
        +1
        Quote: RUSS
        In India, recorded the world's first case of human death as a result of a meteorite fall

        Forgot to write that this is the first case in the modern history of mankind. Has not a single person died from previous falls and explosions of meteorites? There was probably something, but people did not know and did not know. The reason is the lack of internet.
  9. Tatar 174
    Tatar 174 11 February 2016 12: 49
    +3
    On February 8, 2016 in the USA, a meteor hit one of the inhabitants of this country.

    Like in India it was ...
    Quote: RUSS
    It is strange why there are almost no craters in the equator region?

    Unexplored area, there are no craters, as in our Siberia.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. RUSS
      RUSS 11 February 2016 13: 04
      +1
      Quote: Tatar 174
      Quote: RUSSIAN It is strange why there are almost no craters in the equator region? Unexplored terrain, here there are no craters, as in our Siberia.

      So everything seems to be visible from the satellites, not as before, you need to comb the entire area to look for something ...
      1. ssergn
        ssergn 11 February 2016 14: 20
        +2
        In the jungle, everything is quickly overgrown with vegetation - you see such a climate.
  10. Gormenghast
    Gormenghast 11 February 2016 12: 55
    +1
    Such a fantastic picture. laughing

    A small asteroid has been discovered that threatens the Earth .. Panic!

    But here Russia, using incredible experience in space and nuclear weapons (surpassing the experience of all other states laughing ) designs with collects a scary fake.

    The firing starts; goes onto the falling trajectory; but when approaching the object in the calculations a small error creeps in laughing . Alas, the blow is not destructive and not crushing, but deflecting. laughing

    By coincidence laughing crashed asteroid falls on the USA. Russia expresses deep condolences 3000 surviving Americans. laughing Fate, there's nothing to be done.
    1. midivan
      midivan 11 February 2016 13: 10
      +3
      Quote: Gormengast
      Such a fantastic picture.

      Quote: Gormengast
      By coincidence, a crashed asteroid falls on the United States. Russia expresses deep condolences to the 3000 surviving Americans. Fate, there's nothing to be done.

      is there? wassat Well, in the sense of a plan destroying and not crushing, but rejecting. repeat laughing
    2. Name classified
      Name classified 11 February 2016 13: 29
      +2
      And it would be necessary to do it so that even in England of sufficient size a piece would break away. Because in the USA, of course, the strength of Anglo-Saxon civilization, but in England - the brain ... He will survive - and everything will start again, say, in Australia - do we need it?
      1. ssergn
        ssergn 11 February 2016 14: 22
        +1
        In Australia, it won’t start - far away (logistics you know), and the area is for the most part not very friendly. It was not for nothing that at first the British used the whole mainland as a prison.
  11. smith7
    smith7 11 February 2016 12: 57
    +1
    All the will of God. Do astronomers need money? "At the legislative level in the United States ..." And we need it? How to collect the monthly fees "for counteracting the asteroid hazard" for the overhaul of housing? And let's also tax the vaccine against AIDS, swine flu, the "No. 1 threat to the United States" and the European Union, and so on. etc.
  12. Temer
    Temer 11 February 2016 13: 08
    +1
    Nadergany quotes from the school textbook on astronomy and articles in recent years are that way 20-30. The general impression of the article: button accordion !!!
    1. ssergn
      ssergn 11 February 2016 14: 24
      +3
      Current residents of Chelyaba bayan it did not seem. And so yes - the probability is small, but it exists. And God forbid ...
  13. triglav
    triglav 11 February 2016 13: 15
    +3
    An interesting science is astronomy. Only listen and read must be professional astronomers.
  14. An64
    An64 11 February 2016 13: 23
    +2
    Why is this article here? Very similar to an article for a children's encyclopedia.
  15. ayuric
    ayuric 11 February 2016 13: 45
    +3
    when our Chelyabinsk flew over and landed, it wasn’t even fun, everyone thought that the plane crashed first, such a buzz was UUUUUUUU ... if the angle or speed was different - Chelyabinsk is in ruin, a lot of victims and destruction, no, better light heads think how to change the orbit of these stones.
  16. Mikhail Krapivin
    Mikhail Krapivin 11 February 2016 14: 21
    +4
    In the USA, please, one asteroid, and larger.
    1. Mama_Cholli
      Mama_Cholli 11 February 2016 14: 46
      0
      Big should not be asked ... It will not seem to everyone.
      A lot of small ones that cleanse the earth from filth ...
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 12 February 2016 10: 44
        +1
        Why not? Worth it. But to be fragile. So that he fell apart and walked like buckshot. Commercials several dozen "buckshot" size 10 Chelyabinsk each and KVO in a couple of thousand km. But to let the whole charge to an exceptional country
    2. Mama_Cholli
      Mama_Cholli 11 February 2016 14: 46
      +1
      Big should not be asked ... It will not seem to everyone.
      A lot of small ones that cleanse the earth from filth ...
  17. Evgeny K.
    Evgeny K. 11 February 2016 14: 45
    +1
    Given that the Pulkovo Observatory is located in St. Petersburg, it is advisable to create a Center for these studies in St. Petersburg


    Recently, a plot about the Pulkovo Observatory was shown by a zombie man. The problems are there: the building is constantly approaching the observatory and its lights at night interfere with observation. When approving a construction project, developers take on the obligation to install special lights, but after accepting the objects, it turns out that the lights are the most ordinary. For the same reason, all observatories in the world located in the city limits have already been closed. Our last and unique, many types of observations are performed only in it.
  18. sledge
    sledge 11 February 2016 15: 34
    +1
    The most terrible and most real threat to planet Earth is man!
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 12 February 2016 10: 46
      +1
      Come on. Earth, like a huge piece of stone, a man on a drum. But the biosphere in its current form can come cranes.
  19. Old26
    Old26 11 February 2016 20: 53
    +2
    Quote: Wolverine
    Is that a great problem?

    And if now, at the moment, this is not a problem, is it not necessary to solve it?
    Or will we decide when a couple of months are left before the collision?
    The article put a plus. A serious problem is being raised, although of course one could write more fully
  20. akula
    akula 11 February 2016 21: 18
    +1
    Quote: Alexander Romanov
    Quote: Pereira
    . Rather, all life will be destroyed by man.

    Humanity sends into space vehicles that seek intelligence in other galaxies.
    I propose sending two apparatuses to Europe and the USA that will seek intelligence there.
    And according to the article, we will all die!

    Quote: Alexander Romanov
    Quote: Pereira
    . Rather, all life will be destroyed by man.

    Humanity sends into space vehicles that seek intelligence in other galaxies.
    I propose sending two apparatuses to Europe and the USA that will seek intelligence there.
    And according to the article, we will all die!

    Of course, like mammoths, it’s still not clear whether their asteroid killed or people ate, but we haven’t eaten all the animals yet, we’ve just finished eating, now we’ll finish and die.