Military Review

PRC: “diplomacy in soft slippers”

24
In the modern global world, “soft power” is becoming an increasingly important tool in promoting states of their interests. Now this term is firmly entrenched in scientific and political circles, because the indisputable advantage of “soft power” over “hard power” is that the first one, without any coercion and associated risks, allows the possessing state to promote its interests in such a way that objects of “soft power” are able to voluntarily submit to the aspirations of the “aggressor”.


The world has developed an understanding that trying to resolve many contradictions through confrontation, using only “hard power”, is counterproductive.

"Soft power". This term was introduced in 1990 by an American political scientist, a professor at Harvard University, Joseph Nye, who later introduced 2004 to the book Soft Power. Nye identifies the three pillars of the policy of "soft power" - ideology, diplomacy and culture. It is the modern culture that is the key direction. And here the state, capable of offering the world something worthwhile, can achieve its goals by persuasion using intangible sources, and not by coercion and a set of leverage. At the same time, “soft power” is a tool not only for states, but also for all sorts of non-governmental organizations, religious denominations, and even terrorist groups. On the contrary, “hard power” is an opportunity to force and impose one’s will on the basis of economic and military power. At the moment, Nye is developing a new concept - the concept of "smart power", which is a symbiosis of Yin and Yang, that is, the optimal combination of the subject of "rigidity" and "softness" to achieve maximum efficiency.

Far back are the times when “soft power” was mainly the prerogative of the West, on the one hand, and the Soviet bloc, on the other. Now, in the era of globalization, where ideology has faded into the background, many independent actors have appeared: South Korea, Japan, China, India ...

Take Japan and South Korea. The ancient cultures of these countries are closely intertwined with the Chinese. Both countries have created unique and globally recognized mass cultures. In Japan, it is manga and anime. In Korea - Hallyu. The term Hallyu, or Korean wave, appeared in the second half of the 1990-ies in the wake of a sharp increase in the popularity of Korean culture in Asian countries. Hallyu is a multifaceted phenomenon that includes cinema, pop music, Korean cuisine, language, etc.

Unlike many, China relies on its traditional culture, which has always had a special attraction for foreigners: language, ancient medicine, martial arts, philosophy, literature. As for its mass culture, it is hardly competitive, especially against the background of its neighbors. Thus, there are restrictions on the broadcast of Korean TV products on the national air. However, it does not seem that this is particularly worried about the Chinese side.

PRC: “diplomacy in soft slippers”Institutions of Confucius play the main role in increasing Chinese influence through its language and traditional culture. The expansion of the world network of these institutions is considered in the PRC as a very important state task; it is not by chance that the Institute is supervised by the Ministry of Education of the PRC.

As an experiment, the first Confucius Institute was opened in June 2004 of the year in Tashkent. Officially, the first establishment was opened in Seoul in November of the same year. Now, through 11 years since its foundation, the planet has more than 480 Institutes in more than 120 countries. By the 2020 year, it is expected that approximately 1000 Institutes will function in the world.

Chinese language is gaining popularity in all continents. He is an important part of the policy of “soft power” of China, which holds various events for the promotion and promotion of Chinese throughout the world, the most important of which was the creation of Chinese language and culture centers under the banner of the Confucius Institute.

The work of the Institute is far from being limited to language teaching and includes a wide range of tasks. In these institutions, there are: state testing in Chinese (HSK, YCT, BCT), support for Sinology studies, organization of lectures and exhibitions, demonstration of Chinese films, calligraphy courses, wushu, paper cutting and tea ceremony.

The organization is coordinated through its headquarters in Beijing. She is responsible for developing rules, creating new departments of the Institute, approving programs and budgets, sending teachers abroad.

The Confucius Institute is not just a cultural tool of Chinese politics, but also a strong agent of influence. With the increasing presence of the country on all continents, it becomes necessary to show the peaceful nature of its foreign policy, to endear other countries through the formation of an attractive image, smoothing out the feeling of the “yellow threat” that is being talked about more and more in the world. In this regard, many point out that the Institute is trying to control the discourse around China. The organization is accused of promoting Beijing’s position on Taiwan, Tibet, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, as well as a number of other sensitive issues. Periodically voiced and much more serious accusations. The institute is suspected of collecting intelligence, spying on overseas Chinese students.

In addition to the Confucius Institute, a significant instrument of the Chinese "soft power" is the holding of various international events in the territory of the PRC. First of all, these are the Beijing Olympics in 2008, the Universiade in Harbin in 2009, and the World Expo in Shanghai in 2010. It is also indicative that CCTV broadcasts in dozens of languages ​​around the world. Chinese television and radio broadcasting is the world leader in the number of foreign languages ​​broadcasting and the number of Chinese TV channels in foreign languages. The long-standing world leaders in this respect, the countries of the Anglo-Saxon world (USA and Great Britain), were “moved”.

Cultural expansion is a feature of China throughout its stories. The reason lies in the concept of China-centrism, according to which the world is divided into the “center of the world” - China and the “world of barbarians”, because the economic, political and cultural development of the rest of the world is at an incomparably lower level. The messianic role of the Celestial Empire is to "civilize" and "re-educate" the surrounding nations, introducing them to Chinese culture. A sense of superiority and exclusivity has been cultivated in the Chinese people for thousands of years, and today even the poorest segments of the population believe in this unshakably.

The Middle Kingdom (Zhongguo) - this is how the Chinese name of this country is translated. The middle one, that is, the strongest and richest state can exist only under Heaven, which is why it is called the Celestial. Everything else - the periphery, because the Sons of Heaven - the emperors, always extremely reluctant, even under the threat of destruction, went to the creation of alliances with neighbors. Nowadays, in the 2009 year, Washington has proposed to Beijing to form a US-Chinese duumvirate for managing the world, in a different way, G-2. China, of course, was assigned the fate of his younger brother. Chinese elites rejected the proposal.

In recent decades, the Chinese have significantly changed their attitude. Growing awareness of their own strength. Civilization is gradually moving away from centuries-old introversion and again begins to see in itself the center of the world, just as it was in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, before the influx of Europeans and subsequent military and trade interventions.

There is no doubt that the nationally oriented political establishment in the PRC professes precisely the Chinese-centric point of view on the place of its state in the world, and the distribution of cultural influence is given no less than the strengthening of the economic and military components.

It is worth remembering the ancient Chinese military theorist Sun Tzu and his work "The Art of War", where it is said that war is an endless path of cunning, and victory by peaceful means without declaring war is the highest military skill.
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  1. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 9 February 2016 15: 34
    +4
    Washington made an offer to Beijing to form an American-Chinese duumvirate for world governance, in another G-2. China, of course, was given the fate of a younger brother. The Chinese elite rejected the offer.
    Well, this is from the realm of conjecture and speculation. What we agreed on at the ranch we cannot know for sure. Decisions of such super-global scale and supreme political competence are known only to contracting parties and third-party foreign intelligence (if you are lucky and all the work is done on 5 +). It remains only to draw conclusions on indirect signs of the behavior of the United States and China.
  2. L. A. A.
    L. A. A. 9 February 2016 15: 34
    +7
    Russia is fighting the villains, and China is quietly on the sidelines.
    1. valera
      valera 9 February 2016 15: 36
      +6
      Quote: L.A. A.
      Russia is fighting the villains, and China is quietly on the sidelines.

      And when it was different? They could not throw the Japanese out with their billionth bass. Until the USSR came and punished the full length of the Kwantung organized crime group.
    2. Mikhail Krapivin
      Mikhail Krapivin 9 February 2016 15: 37
      +4
      China has long been on the spot at the Americans. China likes it or not, but it will not work to sit aside. And if they crush us, then China will be left face to face with the United States and its affiliates, and comrade Kim Jong-un will not help them here.
    3. 33 Watcher
      33 Watcher 9 February 2016 15: 45
      +3
      They have the following wisdom: If you sit on the river for a very long time, then sooner or later, the corpse of your enemy will float along it.
      This is the essence of Chinese politics ... laughing
      1. sharp-lad
        sharp-lad 9 February 2016 22: 31
        0
        It is only during the Japanese occupation that hundreds of thousands of Chinese corpses swam along this coast, and now China has begun to move away from this "wisdom".
    4. oldseaman1957
      oldseaman1957 9 February 2016 15: 59
      +3
      Quote: L.A. A.
      Russia is fighting the villains, and China is quietly on the sidelines.
      - Until now, they have succeeded, and now China will keep aside to the last, (and who dares to dare to off-topic one and a half billion?), And will enter the battle only when it feels a clear advantage. But Russia always has to puff all the time all the time — our country is too fat for the adversaries, and the people are not enough, the economy is too cold, the fifth column (Berezovsky and K) has only recently been moved away from the taxi. So we’re still walking along the blade ...
  3. MIKHALYCH1
    MIKHALYCH1 9 February 2016 15: 36
    0
    war is an endless path of cunning, and victory by peaceful means without declaring war is the highest military skill.

    Not in Russian, it’s like that ... In Russia, since childhood, it’s been brutally beaten, too cunning!
    1. Trailer
      Trailer 9 February 2016 15: 44
      0
      Quote: MIKHALYCHXNNX
      Not in Russian


      Not in Russian with a hyphen.
      1. KBR109
        KBR109 9 February 2016 15: 58
        +2
        Yeah - start Mikhalych1 to beat China. laughing
  4. Altona
    Altona 9 February 2016 15: 41
    +2
    China is generally an interesting civilization, similar to a shaggy pompom. The pompom under the influence of rain becomes small, and under the sun it dries and becomes magnificent. Having such formidable, but meager in terms of population, countries, Russia and Japan in comparison with him, he managed to get a damn from both and could not oppose anything. Even now he carries his formidable army in parades, and he is trying to solve many issues through trade.
    1. Pirogov
      Pirogov 9 February 2016 17: 46
      +1
      Let it be so, otherwise we can get tired of burying!
  5. Trailer
    Trailer 9 February 2016 15: 43
    +4
    Sun Tzu seemed to say that you first need to behave with the enemy like an innocent little sheep, and when he relaxes, like a rabbit rabbit. They are true to the teacher's testaments.
    1. omsbon
      omsbon 9 February 2016 15: 56
      +3
      Quote: Karavan
      Sun Tzu seemed to say that you first need to behave with the enemy like an innocent little sheep, and when he relaxes, like a rabbit rabbit. They are true to the teacher's testaments.


      Did I understand you correctly? Are rabbits rabid at furious speed?
      1. sharp-lad
        sharp-lad 9 February 2016 22: 35
        0
        As far as I understand the latest reports on Chinese demography, they are also slowly moving away from this pace! laughing
        1. marshes
          marshes 9 February 2016 22: 53
          0
          Quote: sharp-lad
          As far as I understand the latest reports on Chinese demography, they are also slowly moving away from this pace!

          At the expense of demography, the Han people are limited but not other nations, but they allowed two each. laughing
          Russia should not be bothered while the Communists in China are in power, the Kuomintang is another matter.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  6. marshes
    marshes 9 February 2016 16: 18
    +2
    They are afraid of China; one must not understand it.
    Paradoxically, in Kazakhstan, the farther from the border the more they are afraid of China. In those who live on the border, they have long been moving to China, once a week. smile Than far from the border of the type of "epiphany", although the Chinese, Dungan, are seen every day and live in the neighborhood, and for family holidays they order different "snacks" laughing, I'm talking about Taraz.
    And the Chinese Kazakhs, previously up to 5 tons of different things once a month could bring them under preferential customs clearance, and without it, they could bring everything ... "disposable" quadrics of 800 Baku, scooters from 300 and above, etc.
    Oh time!
    1. Mjohn
      Mjohn 9 February 2016 17: 53
      0
      I wonder where the Kazakhs came from what
      1. marshes
        marshes 9 February 2016 18: 05
        0
        Quote: MJohn
        I wonder where the Kazakhs came from

        It’s strange, but from Russians, given that Kazakhs live in China under 1.5 lemons. They are also represented in the authorities, TV, RADIO, Newspapers. There’s an old type of saying about black Chinese and red Russian. Yet from where. But since 69 Kazakhs were not taken to the border, until the age of 80.
        And those who are in Taraz are ethnic Germans Russophiles. laughing , the parents of my wife. On the other hand, the cousin is married to an oralman from China, now there are seven children and do not live in poverty. laughing
      2. Humpty
        Humpty 9 February 2016 18: 11
        +1
        Quote: MJohn
        I wonder where the Kazakhs came from what

        She is, sometimes not quite motivated. Only sometimes . Look from different directions on the roads from south to north in China, grass-covered trenches and bunkers with concrete reinforcement in the north of the border. Bullet holes in some places. You look, the picture of the world will become somewhat more integral.
      3. Weyland
        Weyland 10 February 2016 01: 38
        0
        Quote: MJohn
        I wonder where the Kazakhs came from


        Have you studied the history of Kazakhstan? And what did the Chinese at one time reach the Caspian, in the know?
      4. The comment was deleted.
    2. Humpty
      Humpty 9 February 2016 18: 05
      +1
      Hello zyoma! It's a pity the Ili region is only accessible with a visa, it's deeply personal. But "corridor Russia" and the innumerable Chinese in the Dzhunar gates (for 5 days of resistance) make me laugh honestly. It is better to simply keep silent about our possessed figures, otherwise the public of the "Russians" (I do not want to offend the adequate ones) in the brain will become clouded by the realization of the realities of the CSTO.
      Under the Soviet Union, the look at the Dzungar gates was more sane, it was not for nothing that 4 airfields and spare lanes were located in the Chu-Talas interfluve, and the vanguard of the former Panfilov division in Rybachye (Balykchy). And now it's worth looking at the roads and "empty villages. "on the southern slope.
      Not hinting at anything what , but the stash of the southern neighbors has long been framed.
      1. marshes
        marshes 9 February 2016 18: 45
        +1
        Quote: Humpty
        Hi zema! It is a pity the Ili region only with a visa is available

        Yes, there was such a thing, uncle, earthenware, an official from our side said that there was no problem on the other side to go with an individual, there an official of his rank would accept. smile
        Quote: Humpty
        .But "corridor Russia" and the innumerable Chinese in the Dzhunar gates (for 5 days of resistance) make me laugh honestly

        Well, there is a rumor that from our side the "land mines" are buried and like they could not take it out, in one year. And so there are 12.5 km, from our side, engineering structures are buried with sand if we take into account the climate ... Reinforced concrete does not collapse.
        And so in essence, while the Communists are in power in China, they have no one to jump on. Another thing is if the Han nationalists, the Kuomintang, come to power. We don’t have anything, but the Russians, if the Manzhur separate, another scenario will fit in if their investment is in danger .Example-Kazakhstan annexes the northern part of Kyrgyzstan or the Russian Federation annexes the western part, a lot of money is invested, or the northern part of Kazakhstan, there is also a lot of money there, the investment geography is interesting.
        1. Humpty
          Humpty 9 February 2016 19: 08
          +2
          In fact of the matter . While the Chinese in adekat, everyone around seems to be calm. This is not always the case. Practicing the experience of neighborhood with China implies various possibilities.
          There are all kinds of fountains, socialist brothels on the 2-3 floors, without a professional mullah who marries and bred for an hour, houses made of glass without tenants, this is probably modern, but the soul is somehow closer to free parks, pensions for the elderly, GAI- schnicks .. g..dy, and border guards bribe takers.
          1. marshes
            marshes 9 February 2016 19: 27
            +1
            Quote: Humpty
            In fact of the matter . While the Chinese in adekat, everyone around seems to be calm

            The Chinese will not let anyone warm up. Not even if they fit in with Afghanistan. By the way, the Austrian deceased said, I don’t know what to rekindle, about 300 thousand Chinese bayonets.
            Quote: Humpty
            , Traffic police ... g..dy

            By the way, install video cameras around the city, disciplines. laughing Himself on a bolt of 20 pcs.vidio got a fixation and you will not scout a pancake. laughing Of course, it was better to grind with a traffic cop. And if, as in the army, according to the "regulations" it turns out very painful, that's about hazing and the concept you remember. laughing
            1. Humpty
              Humpty 9 February 2016 19: 43
              +1
              On the border with Tajikistan, the Afghan border is also nearby, the Chinese are now in serious construction. Cascade of hydroelectric power stations on Gezdarya, mines, attempts to improve the territory, landscaping, villages. Solar panels in yurts, etc. Something can be seen even in the photographs on Karakoram Highway. One in the spring traveled from Tibet. Says along the road for 700 km an artificial forest planted. Takla-Makan himself had seen the drip irrigation more than once. The bearded there were clearly not at the box office to the Chinese.
              1. marshes
                marshes 9 February 2016 20: 08
                +1
                Quote: Humpty
                Solar panels in yurts

                There is one, also brought from China, from an uncle from Ili.
                Quote: Humpty
                Says along the road for 700 km an artificial forest planted

                They, the Chinese, even in our country want to finance saksaul because the sands from the Aral Sea go to them.
                In short, the Chinese want to see adequate and not poor neighbors, and they will have investments from this.
                I will not praise but the most adequate neighbors, there is one more question, but that is later.
                By the way, is snow Bishkek chalky? Almaty yes. Still, a high-speed train between the two cities would not hurt.
                By the way, the picture is like in CINEMA. SNOW,
  7. Papapg
    Papapg 9 February 2016 20: 33
    +1
    Quote: Humpty
    In fact of the matter . While the Chinese in adekat, everyone around seems to be calm. This is not always the case. Practicing the Neighborhood Experience with China Means Various Opportunities

    Here is a fresh example of Ukraine, one moronic Goebbels and everyone will jump, except for the mask .. In the foreseeable past, there was a cultural revolution in China, then Father Damansky, then demarcation, for some reason not a meter was left to us, everything was only a minus. It’s sad to think about the future, Russia grew up as a village, there children were born, there were large families, and there were no large families in the cities.