Military Review

Reconstruction of the warriors of ancient Greece and Rome: large and small

29
It is very good that people are curious. Curiosity, coupled with laziness, counterbalance each other, contribute to the development of civilization, and also makes it work. After all, how else would you learn something without difficulty? Any knowledge, even the most trivial, is work! Well, as for the weapons of warriors of ancient Greece and Rome, there is almost everything to our complete satisfaction: archaeological finds, drawings on ceramic vases (and not only vases, of course), bas-reliefs, sculptures, and finally descriptions of contemporaries. This allows you to quite clearly imagine how everything was arranged with them. For example, archaeologists find a profiled patterned bronze strip. What is it? And we looked at the drawing on the amphora, “attached” to it - it turns out to be a bracket to hold the shield. And so literally in everything! Painted Roman shields and horse armor from scales were found, muscular cuirass and one (!) Iron breastplate, similar to a flax shell, were found - that was what was at that time, well, not to break through!


Reconstruction of the warriors of ancient Greece and Rome: large and small

Spartan hoplites in Matt Poitras armor. The letter L is visible on the billboards - “Lacedaemon”, the official name of Sparta.

And it is clear that this gave rise to the desire to recreate all this "in metal" today. In England, where their Roman traditions are piously honored, there is an organization called Ermine Street Guard - Ermine Street Guard. Its members are people of all ages and professions: doctors, lawyers, well, in short, whoever is not there. However, there is no “poor” there, since the armor of the Roman legionary, in which you dress there, costs about three thousand pounds sterling! There are cheaper, but you can be treated like “slaves”, “massage therapists”, which is not very interesting. They have a reconstructed fortress, where they come together for the weekend, they serve there, take pictures with tourists, act in films. Now there are a lot of such clubs and there’s just no one in them, but the “Ermine Guard” is one of the most professional ones.


Legionnaires Ermine Street Guard.

It was created back in the 1972 year and since then has not ceased to exist. All the details of the equipment are recreated according to real finds, and the work of making replicas was supervised by such a famous British historian like Russell Robinson. The armor of legionaries, standard-bearers of signifiers and imagiers, Syrian archers, auxiliaries and even cavalry were reconstructed, well, in a word, the entire Roman imperial legion of the conquest of Britain. By the way, becoming a member of the “Ermine Guard” is very simple: you pay 30 pounds per year and become their full member, that is, you can come to them, be in their fortresses, try on armors and learn to fight with swords and throw pilum. Associate membership is very cheap - 7 pounds. In this case, you will receive an interesting ESG newsletter. By the way, we have our own “legionaries” in St. Petersburg, but this topic is beyond the scope of this story.


Real Roman "turtle".


But this "turtle" from the column of Trajan and it is obvious that the sculptor has depicted the shields of the legionnaires disproportionately small, and the chain mail for some reason too short, so that they do not protect anything from the bottom!

There is a whole “brigade” of craftsmen who make it all up to them. Among them was one of the most famous British re-enactors - Michael Simkins. He is given a “green helmet” in the museum, and they get exactly the same, brand new and brilliant. Wrote a wonderful book: “Warriors of Rome: An Illustrated Military History of the Roman Legions” - “Warriors of Rome. Illustrated military история Roman legions. Moreover, the drawings for it were made by James Field (a very famous illustrator), but Michael himself completed the reconstruction of helmets, armor and weapons, and you can see that you have found a graphical drawing of what you found, then how it should look in metal, and, finally, how it all looked together in public! Despite the fact that the book was published in 1988 year, it is still on sale, but is expensive (about 50 $).


Ermine Street Guard Auxilaria


A real Signifier in a scaly shell and a bear skin!

Interestingly, the reenactors of the Greek and Roman armor also appeared across the ocean, in the same USA. And they make no less interesting armor and helmets than their UK counterparts. Among the re-enactors there should be mentioned first of all Matt Poitras from Austin, Texas. Here his works have already been described in the materials about the Trojan War. However, Matt is not limited to this topic. He made several sets of armor of ancient Greek warriors - the Spartan king Leonid and Alexander the Great himself, and used the famous mosaic from the National Archaeological Museum in Naples as a model. That's the source, so the source, is not it? This armor of Alexander was subsequently reconstructed for the Oliver Stone film “Alexander” and this, of course, is the most correct way that the director of a historical motion picture can and should go.


Alexander of Macedon in the armor of Matt Poitras.


Alexander's armor is made of many layers of glued fabric and metal scales.


Mosaic from the National Archaeological Museum in Naples with the image of Alexander the Great.

As for Tsar Leonid, Matt chose a very original pattern with horse knives for his helmet, but this is by no means a master's fantasy. This helmet is known! He also made two armor - the armor of Leonid and the second for his associate.


Helmet King Leonid.

Both shells adorn the heads of mythical monsters. In general, I personally did not have to see "anatomical shells" with such ... ornaments. But ... they could well be on them, why not, and who knows, maybe such cuirasses just did not reach us. Suppose they found their early Christians, well, and as the symbols of paganism, the first thing they did was to melt down!


Greek "Anatomical Breastplate" from the Metropolitan Museum, New York.

It must be said that Matt Poitras constantly emphasizes in his promotional materials that only the armor does - their reconstruction of his element, but for someone else’s weapon, go to someone else! But the main thing is that today it is no longer a problem either for filmmakers or for fans of historical reconstruction to get any armor for themselves, there would be only money.


The breastplate of Tsar Leonid, the work of Matt Poitras bears even traces of “combat” damage!


Armor with the image of Medusa Gorgon by Matt Poitras.

In addition, it is not necessary to go somewhere overseas. A few years ago, in Anapa, near the local history museum, I came across an amusing reconstructor (funny, because he had a whole arsenal of ancient weapons and armor for all tastes!), Which made pretty good armor, including muscular cuirass. Well, their weight was appropriate, which I did not fail to make sure then. So we also have masters and, while improving over the years, they may well reach and surpass the foreign level. There would be a desire, time and money!


Mark Anthony's armor by Matt Poitras.

Well, for those who can not afford “growth armor” today, they can withdraw their souls by collecting and painting polystyrene figures on the 1 scale: 16 of the Ukrainian company MiniArt. The company produces excellent prefabricated models and figures in scale 1: 35. Being painted with acrylic paints, these figures make a very strong impression.



A sample of a figure of a figure of a Greek hoplite and a Roman legionary of the Miniart company.

Well, large figures on the scale of 1: 16 are good because they are very carefully worked out and historically reliably detailed, packed in a colorful box, equipped with instructions and high-quality “decal” (decal). This makes it quite easy to create very realistic sculptures with drawings on the same shields that you simply cannot make up by hand.



Figurine from the set of the company "Miniart": Athenian hoplite.


Moreover, for the figures of the Spartan warrior, there are even two options for the design of the shield. One is presented in a photo courtesy of the Miniart company, and the other with the traditional letter L. By adding various homemade parts to them, you can redo them (in the language of modellers, convert) to soldiers of other eras, say the same Roman legionaries, turn into auxiliaries, for which it is necessary to equip them with oval shields. It is not difficult to make, on their basis, your own figures and cast them from epoxy resin in viksint forms.


The figure of the gladiator-samnita is still only preparing for mass release. And we must think that a Thrakian will be made to her as a couple. Well, skillful "conversionists" can easily make this guy gladiator ... gladiator ... woman! It is known that these were also known, their tombstones and even their names are known, so you, in turn, will be able to make good money on these conversions!

As for the images on the boxes themselves, they are drawn by the well-known artist Igor Dzys, who is well known from us in drawings in a number of publications.


Roman rostrum of the empire. Reconstruction of Matt Poitras.

Unfortunately, Matt Poitras did not dare to make a replica of this armor - the iron armor of the so-called Tomb of Philip. This is a very interesting sample of the cuirass, not from bronze, but from iron. In the museum where he is on display, such a person as Matt, of course, will not be denied and this will be a really significant contribution to the modern “applied history”!


Iron carapace from Philip's Tomb. Archaeological Museum in Thessaloniki.

The author is grateful to the company “Miniart” (http://www.miniart-models.com/menu_r.htm) for the photos provided.
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  1. Sars
    Sars 15 February 2016 07: 56
    +3
    And where is the armor of the Great Ukrov?
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 15 February 2016 11: 09
      +4
      In the ATO .... used for its intended purpose ...
  2. Humen
    Humen 15 February 2016 08: 02
    +4
    Reconstructors are very enthusiastic people and are sometimes difficult to understand. But their performances are very spectacular
    1. Sweles
      Sweles 15 February 2016 09: 18
      +1
      Quote: Humen
      Reconstructors are very enthusiastic people and are sometimes difficult to understand. But their performances are very spectacular


      that's just to the story, it has nothing to do, so fun for the plebs ...
      1. PSih2097
        PSih2097 15 February 2016 23: 55
        +2
        Quote: Sveles
        Quote: Humen
        Reconstructors are very enthusiastic people and are sometimes difficult to understand. But their performances are very spectacular


        that's just to the story, it has nothing to do, so fun for the plebs ...

        in vain you are so, a very spectacular action ... A strike of 1 people is resting ...
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 15 February 2016 08: 03
    +8
    The author is grateful to the company “Miniart” (http://www.miniart-models.com/menu_r.htm) for the photos provided.... And I thank the author ..
  4. King, just king
    King, just king 15 February 2016 08: 26
    +6
    If the armor from Vergina is iron, then why is it not dust and dust? He was not in a sealed capsule.
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 16 February 2016 07: 43
      +2
      Apparently there was no access to oxygen, and without it, iron does not oxidize, plus it was correctly removed.
      As for the capsule, even birch bark in swamp mud can lie for 1000 years and not be damaged, but when it is found and not properly removed, it is very quickly destroyed, moreover, iron objects are often found in swamps and river mud in good condition.
      1. King, just king
        King, just king 16 February 2016 11: 45
        +4
        About 3 years ago, I read a monograph about Philip, simultaneously inspecting the Internet on the subject. I rummaged in my archive, here is the link http://rec.gerodot.ru/vergina/andronikos01.htm. Infa from the Bulletin of Ancient History, 1990, No. 1. The excavation was in the 77th, nothing special was undertaken. The armor lay on the floor. It’s hard to say for oxygen access, but! wooden furniture was self-destructive (woodworkers? rotted?). Moreover, more pieces of iron were found in the tomb.

        So in the swamp and organic matter is preserved. They still find ancient people.
  5. Velizariy
    Velizariy 15 February 2016 08: 49
    +2
    Quote: SarS
    And where is the armor of the Great Ukrov?

    In the same place as the armor of proto-vetors
    1. Glot
      Glot 15 February 2016 10: 10
      +5
      In the same place as the armor of proto-vetors


      Nah, they didn't wear armor. They were protected by the force field of the Death Star that hung in orbit. laughing
    2. The comment was deleted.
  6. guzik007
    guzik007 15 February 2016 11: 02
    -1
    Interesting! Particularly cool man with a shovel behind blue shields. Probably an ancient building battalion. Right now, the Black Sea will dig.
  7. Nexus 6
    Nexus 6 15 February 2016 13: 33
    +1
    With the proportions of Alexander's armor, Matt Poitras was clearly wrong. Compared to the mosaic, the replica looks kind of "funny".
  8. igordok
    igordok 15 February 2016 13: 37
    +2
    Anatomical cuirasses for what?
    I have two options.
    1. Mislead the enemy. Say, I'm not protected. Hit the open torso. No.
    2. Psychologically push. Say, that's how I'm pumped up. Under the cuirass, the same thing. Do not come bite. angry

    Maybe right, maybe not. Your options?
    1. Glot
      Glot 15 February 2016 13: 47
      +1
      Anatomical cuirasses for what?
      I have two options.
      1. To mislead the enemy. Say, I'm not protected. Hit the open torso. no
      2. Psychologically push. Say, that's how I'm pumped up. Under the cuirass, the same thing. Do not come bite. angry

      Maybe right, maybe not. Your options?


      Everything is much simpler.
      A purely aesthetic approach. Well, they loved beauty in everything, including the beauty of the body. That's all.
      And beauty is more expensive. This is for the price of armor, or a vase or something else. Accordingly, who made this, more money received.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Riv
      Riv 15 February 2016 17: 53
      +1
      Neither aesthetics nor psychology. Pure physics. Armor layers that resist breakdown in different ways create a composite effect. To do this, they must fit snugly together. And vice versa: loose-fitting armor makes it easier to break through.

      Try it yourself. Put a piece of roofing sheet on the ground and poke with a knife. Punched through? Now the same tin - on a piece of coarse fabric, or felt. A knife with the same force will not penetrate so deeply. In our case, earth is the human body, felt is lining, and tin is armor. If the carapace is not tightly attached to the body, then the spear, before reaching the body, simply pushes the lining and manages to make a hole in the armor of sufficient size.

      The Abrams has depleted uranium inserts in its frontal armor. The same principle: "hard - flexible - soft".
  9. brn521
    brn521 15 February 2016 18: 44
    +1
    The equipment of the reconstructors is puzzling. On the legs almost slippers. And this is the type of legionnaires who need to keep the system, and not look at what’s under their feet. With such protection, even a pointed piece of wood can rinse well with a shin. Yes, and if they flutter, they will first try to cut their legs, because they will have neither strength, nor space for full swing.
    1. Riv
      Riv 15 February 2016 19: 15
      0
      The uncles are tempered. :)
    2. kalibr
      15 February 2016 21: 01
      0
      The equipment is very accurate. Look at the shoes on the column of Trajan. Moreover, they found the remains of soldier's shoes and accurately reconstructed it.
      1. brn521
        brn521 16 February 2016 10: 33
        +2
        On the column by the way, which is just not there, even the leggings. I looked at the same Wikipedia on soldier’s shoes. They write, the main shoes - caligi, consisting of leather stockings and sandals, cover the lower legs to the middle. Theoretically, it seems to be normal, for example, you can run through the forest, for example, the strength of the skin is enough to not tear your feet on the felling. But almost again, they draw only sandals :).
  10. Oprychnik
    Oprychnik 15 February 2016 18: 46
    0
    I don’t know about everyone else, but to me the "anatomical cuirass" seems to be an unquestionable complete excess, hardly explained by any arguments. Either you are a "superman" to whom any expenditure of labor seems insufficient to ennoble yourself, your beloved, this is clearly a piece a single product, practically inaccessible to the majority of the villagers, who constituted the majority of the then army.
    Rather, it is a ritual armor to show off, and not a mass and popular consumer goods.
    Therefore, it seems to me that it is not worthwhile to exhibit this rare artifact in the form of standard protective armament inherent in the Greeks and Romans. This is how to compare the Kalashnikov assault rifle and the deafness.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 15 February 2016 19: 59
      +2
      Anatomy of cuirass is a very loose concept.
      Only the most expensive piece cuirasses had an ideal embossed torso.
      Mass products were more schematic.
      Here are two examples:

      Better (in the sense of anatomy).
      http://i.kinja-img.com/gawker-media/image/upload/s--fSESeRU6--/loqjhyf3rl
      g2nedlw8jv.jpg

      And easier.
      http://www.web-l.com/metropolitan-museum-of-art/Greek-bronze-cuirass-from
      -late-7th-century-BC.jpg
    3. kalibr
      15 February 2016 21: 05
      +1
      The Romans of the era of the Republic of the Republic armor - chain mail, Empire - lorika segmental and chain mail (lorika gamata), muscle cuirasses were worn by generals. The Greeks were typical linothorax, the muscle cuirasses were primarily worn by the Spartans. And judging by the finds, then this is not such a rare thing.
  11. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 15 February 2016 19: 53
    +2
    The author, I hope you at least share with the administration of the site deductions for advertising from these kookaker. The first article could have been an accident, but this is a golem advertisement, almost without anything. And the merchant then ... not really ...
    1. Sweles
      Sweles 15 February 2016 21: 07
      0
      Quote: Mikhail3
      moreover, the merchant then ... not really ...


      according to information theory, the storage of information (say TI) in the form of common concepts in the sources of information storage (say the heads) of the media is created by a continuous stream of this information. Moreover, the quality can be of any kind (we are interested in the historical field of application) from reliable (archaeological, annalistic) to the most unreliable - primitive in the form of - I say something - it's funny, but if you add color pictures, you can say that working with people carried out (people hawala). So here's a glass of vodka and a nickle in silver, have fun man ...
    2. kalibr
      15 February 2016 21: 09
      +1
      Imagine I won’t take anything from anyone. Knowledge belongs to God, and not just to people and to inform people is a very good thing. And ... what indecent manner to measure everything for money? By the way, why didn’t you like the Miniart figures? The fact that they are from Ukraine?
  12. Stilet
    Stilet 15 February 2016 23: 16
    +1
    In addition to beauty, the anatomical cuirass formed stiffening ribs with its relief, which favorably affected the well-being of its owner. It should be borne in mind that the copies and mahyirs of the hoplites were mainly chopping weapons, in contrast to the stabbing Spanish sword of the legionnaires. Accordingly, a stiffener is a necessary thing in hoplite armor. The disadvantage of the anatomical cuirass is the infantryman's inability to use it in the cavalry, so in addition to them appeared short cuirasses of horsemen, which were later adopted by the Roman officers of the legion. The anatomical cuirass was heavier than the linen shell -7-8 kilograms against 3-3,5 and more difficult. Moreover, flaxseed is not so hot. Hoplites of the Macedonian phalanx used such, often with reinforcing plates of copper or iron. And what kind of helmets did they have .....!
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 16 February 2016 08: 07
      0
      The main weapon of the hoplite is a spear, and given that the policies constantly fought with themselves, the main purpose is to protect them from the spear, although the shield is much better for this.
    2. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 16 February 2016 08: 49
      +1
      The most important advantage of linothorax (flax shell) is its radically lower cost. Indeed, the relatively few militias of city-states, in which hoplites are quite prosperous citizens (and even then, most likely, the armor was inherited), were replaced by much more numerous professional armies, armed uniformly at the expense of the ruler. Even if the ruler wanted to arm everyone without exception in anatomical bronze, it was impossible to do this even just for the money.
      In addition, by this era, bronze began to rise in price. If copper deposits were not uncommon, and ore reserves were plentiful, then the Cornish tin mines began to be depleted. But these mines were mainly the source of tin for the Mediterranean throughout the Bronze Age.
      Iron of course has become ubiquitous, but its processing is more complicated. It at that time could not be molded like bronze. So, forged thorax will also be very expensive.
  13. VSkilled
    VSkilled 16 February 2016 00: 24
    0
    Quote: parusnik
    The author is grateful to the company “Miniart” (http://www.miniart-models.com/menu_r.htm) for the photos provided.... And I thank the author ..

    Pictures are colorful.

    And, everything would be fine, but ... it smells like free advertising above the aforementioned company.

    By advertising - due to the VO website.

    At what - it smells strongly ... Usually - it is severely punished, well ... if the company
    I didn’t pay for the advertisement, directly to the site administration.

    And, if, indeed, she did not pay, then the whole "gesheft" should receive "as it were Shpakovsky".
    Among the "kind of Shpakovskys", this is a common practice ("golden calf" - THEIR God), but then, the site was "naturally lit" ...
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 16 February 2016 08: 51
      +1
      I apologize wildly, but from your post I immediately recall the proverb "who is talking about what, but lousy about the bath", that is, about gesheft.
    2. brn521
      brn521 16 February 2016 10: 26
      0
      Quote: VSkilled
      Pictures are colorful.
      And, everything would be fine, but ... it smells like free advertising above the aforementioned company.

      The author has already mentioned this moment more than once. He, as an official historian, has to take permission to publish for each image, or pay real money for them. Christmas trees, have you ever visited Wikipedia? There is the same situation.
    3. kalibr
      16 February 2016 13: 13
      +1
      How caring you are for the administration of the site. But there is a very important point: each author’s photo or picture is paid! Want to insert - pay! Not everyone adheres to the practice of the Metropolitan Museum, especially the company. The same Matt Potrais doesn’t need advertising in Russia at all, but VO readers are certainly interested in his work. Also with the company Miniart. Neither the site administration nor I can pay for their photos (and, of course, the site), I can print them without permission - copyright infringement. We have to compromise - they are permission to publish, we thank them with the address at the end. This is universal normal practice. But I am glad that you are talking about money! I always tell my students that we have a lot of people who measure everything with money. It is very easy with them, because they are easily bought not even with money, but with stories about money, which means ... they will work with whom and with whom we will earn!
  14. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 16 February 2016 07: 26
    0
    What is interesting for the British legionnaires are red tunics, although in a previous article it was argued that they were white, is this a mismatch in the reconstruction or should it be so? Knowing the reenactors are very concerned people, you can say the fanatics of their craft. Just like Don Quixote, while you talk about planes and cars all is well, but only about reconstruction, everything .. it’s better to run.
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 16 February 2016 08: 54
      0
      As was indicated in a previous article on the topic, it was clearly established that the red color of the tunic was only among the officers and command, was only recently. Most likely these are older photos. After all, just recently there was a point of view that this is how it should be.
      In other moments everything is very well done
      1. TaunT
        TaunT 28 February 2017 08: 17
        0
        "As indicated in a previous article on the topic, it was clearly established that only officers and command had a red tunic color"
        Can I have proof? Links to sources? Have you forgotten that the Roman Republic + the Roman Empire is a very large period? And from the first century, legionnaires are always depicted in red tunics
  15. TaunT
    TaunT 28 February 2017 08: 08
    0
    Our club of Roman reconstruction took part in international festivals, in addition, they walked in a parade in Rome on the occasion of the birthday of this glorious city, there was a "darkness" of darkness, and yet what I want to tell you is God's fear)) Compared to Russian reenactors (St. Petersburg, Moscow, Novgorod) - in the West they’re generally bullshit, they buy all the equipment from Deepika, and half of them are in the souvenir shop, and we would be cut off. A lot of people came up along the way, asking who we were and where, we were very surprised that we were doing all the armor ourselves. They asked if we were from Poland, because the guys there also make armor and weapons themselves, we went to Dumarki, but everything isn’t the same there - Rapax is mostly in a souvenir (after the first fight, half of them went off and crumpled , it didn’t work out a lot - they were afraid for their equipment) and there are 14 - normal guys, in normal armor, fight no worse than ours
  16. Molot1979
    Molot1979 6 March 2018 11: 25
    0
    I noticed that in the turtle the legs of the legionnaires are completely open. Could the adversaries not have guessed to use this in battle?