Crimean events and the subsequent breakdown in relations with Turkey can hardly be called interconnected, but they lead to interesting thoughts and are pulled out of historical commemorating the events of bygone years.
Russia fought the Ottoman Empire for several centuries. Ivan III was still building the walls of the Moscow Kremlin when detachments of the Turkish Islamic empire appeared on the southern borders, which destroyed Byzantium and enslaved almost all the Orthodox peoples of Europe for a long time. From then until the very 1919 of the year, which marked the final disintegration of the Ottoman state, the Russians fought with the Turks for the liberation of their Orthodox brothers, for Russia's access to the Black Sea, for the glory of the Russian weapons.
As a farewell to the descendants in 1839, in Sevastopol, in honor of Lieutenant Commander Kazarsky, commander of the brig Mercury, and his crew, a monument was erected (authored by Academician of Architecture A. Bryullov), glorifying the feat in the name of Russia. On the pedestal there is a laconic inscription: “to Kazarsky. Progeny as an example. ”
It so happened that the greatest feat, the tragic death at the hands of the extortionists and its dishonor are associated with this name. naval co-worker. The history of fate is in the spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies.
FEAT - CLEANING EXAMPLE
The Russian-Turkish war of 1828 – 1829 went on in the Caucasus and the Balkans. One of the main tasks of the Black Sea Fleet is to prevent the Turks from leaving the Bosphorus to the Black Sea. 14 May 1829 at dawn three Russian ships: the frigate Shtandart, the brigs Orpheus and Mercury were on patrol at the Bosphorus. While cruising abeam Penderaklia, they noticed the approaching Turkish squadron as part of the 14 pennants.
The sentries hurried to warn the command. The commander of the "Standard" captain-lieutenant Sakhnovsky gave a signal: "Take a course in which the ship has the best course." At this time, the sea was a gentle breeze. Two high-speed Russian ships immediately went ahead. "Mercury" did not differ such playfulness. They set up all the sails on the brig, set sail and seven oars into the course, but did not succeed in developing speed for separation from the Turks.
The wind freshened up, and the brig for the best Turkish ships seemed easy prey. The Mercury was armed with 18 24-pounder melee coronads and two portable long-range 8-pound long-barreled cannons. In the era of the sailing fleet, brig type ships were used mainly on "packages", for escorting merchant ships, patrol or reconnaissance activities.
The Russian ship followed the 110-gun frigate "Selimiye" under the flag of the commander of the Turkish fleet, where there was a kapan-pasha, and the 74-gun "Real Bay" under the flag of the junior flagship. One successful onboard volley of these powerful battleships would be enough to turn a brig into floating wrecks or sink. Before the crew of the "Mercury" loomed the prospect of death or captivity and the descent of the flag. If we turn to the Sea Regulations, written by Peter I, then his 90 article directly indicated the captain of the Russian fleet: “In the event of a battle, the captain or the ship’s commander should, not only bravely fight against the enemy, but also more than giving an image to oneself, to induce, so that they would courageously fight to the last possible opportunity, and should not give the enemy back to the enemy, in no case, under the loss of belly and honor. ”
Seeing that they could not get away from the Turkish ships, the commander convened a military council, where, traditionally, the first ranks were junior ranks, so that they could express their opinion without fear of looking at the authorities. The lieutenant of the naval navigator's body, Ivan Prokofiev, offered to fight to the last, and when the spars were hit, a strong leak would open or the brig would be unable to resist, approach the admiral's ship and, having grappled with it, blow up the Mercury. All voted unanimously for the fight.
Shouting "Hurray" met the decision on the fight and the sailors. According to maritime custom, the sailors put on clean shirts, and officers - ceremonial uniforms, because before the Creator it is supposed to appear in the "clean". The stern flag in the brig was nailed to the gaff (oblique ray) so that it could not descend during the battle. A loaded pistol was put on the steeple, and the last of the living officers had to fire a crew-chamber in a shot where the barrels of gunpowder were kept in order to blow up the ship. Approximately at 14.30, the Turks approached at a distance of a shot and opened fire on running guns. Their shells began to fall into the sails and rigging of the brig. One shot hit the oars and knocked out the rowers from the seats between two adjacent guns.
Kazarsky knew his ship well - he was heavy on the move. Rescue people and "Mercury" could skillful maneuvering and marksmanship. Skillfully maneuvering and using sails and oars for this, he did not allow the enemy to take advantage of the multiple superiority in artillery and made it difficult for the enemy to conduct aimed fire. The brig avoided getting hit by Turkish ships under onboard salvoes, which would be like death for him. But the Turks still managed to circumvent it from two sides and take in ticks. Each of them made two side shots on the “Mercury”. In addition to the cores, the brigade in the volley flew knippels - chain cores to destroy the rigging and the sails, and also the fireballs - incendiary projectiles. Nevertheless, the masts remained unharmed, and "Mercury" remained mobile, and the resulting fires were extinguished. From the ship, the Kapudan-Pasha shouted in Russian: “Surrender, remove the sails!” In response to the brig, there was a loud “hurray” and fire was fired from all the guns and rifles. As a result, the Turks had to remove ready-made boarding teams from the Mars and Rey. Simultaneously, Kazarsky, using the oars, deftly led the brig out from under the onboard double volleys. This moment of the battle was captured by the artist Aivazovsky on one of his paintings. Little "Mercury" - between two giant Turkish ships. True, many researchers of the sailing fleet subject this episode to great doubt, since in this case it would be almost impossible to survive the small brig. But it was not for nothing that Gorky sang: "We sing glory to the madness of the brave."
During the battle, from the first minutes, Kazarsky was wounded in the head, but remained in office and led the team. "We must deprive the enemy of the move!" Therefore, to aim everyone at rigging! ”- he commanded the gunners. Soon, gunner Ivan Lysenko with a well-aimed shot damaged a grotto spar on the “Selemiye” and interrupted the headstand holding the bowsprit from below. Deprived of support, the masts reeled, causing screams of horror among the Turks. So that they did not collapse, the sails were removed on the “Selemiy”, and he lay in the drift. The other ship continued to operate, changing tacks under the stern of the brig, and struck him terribly with longitudinal shots, from which it was difficult to evade movement.
The battle continued with bitterness for more than three hours. The ranks of the small crew of the brig thinned. Kazarsky ordered the gunners to aim independently and to fire one by one, not a volley. And finally, a competent decision gave its results, the gunners with happy shots killed several rai on the masts at once. They collapsed, and Real Bay swayed helplessly on the waves. Giving a farewell volley of retrodul guns through the Turkish ship, the Mercury headed for his native shores.
When Russian ships appeared on the horizon, Kazarsky discharged a pistol lying in front of the cruise camera into the air. As a result of the battle, Mercury received 22 holes in the hull and 297 damage in the spars, sails and rigging, lost 4 people killed and 8 wounded. Soon, a heavily damaged, but undefeated brig entered the Sevastopol bay for repairs.
Russia exulted. In those days, the newspaper Odessky Vestnik wrote: “This feat is such that there is no other similar in the history of navigation; he is so amazing that you can hardly believe it. The courage, fearlessness and self-sacrifice rendered by this commander and crew of "Mercury" are more glorious than a thousand ordinary victories. " The future hero of Sevastopol, Rear-Admiral Istomin of the “Mercury” sailors, wrote: “Let such self-sacrifice, such heroic resilience be looked for in other nations with a candle ...” Later in the Sovremennik magazine, founded by Alexander Pushkin in 1836, it was noted: “Preferring a clear death to the dishonor of captivity, the commander of the brig with firmness withstood a three-hour battle with his gigantic opponents and finally forced them to retire. The moral defeat of the Turks was complete and perfect. ”
“We couldn’t force him to surrender,” wrote one of the Turkish officers. - He fought, retreating and maneuvering, with all the art of war, so that we, I am ashamed to admit, stopped the battle, while he, triumphantly, continued his way ... If the ancient and new chronicles show us courage, then this will eclipse all others, and the testimony of him deserves to be inscribed in golden letters in the temple of glory. This captain was Kazarsky, and the name of the brig is “Mercury”.
The brig was awarded the St. George stern flag and a pennant. Emperor Nicholas I personally wrote the “highest resolution”: “Lieutenant Kazarsky will make the rank of captain 2, give George 4 a class, assign the adjutant to the wing and add a pistol to the coat of arms. All the officers in the following ranks and who do not have Vladimir with a bow, then give one. To the navigator officer in addition to the rank give George 4 class. All lower ranks insignia of the military order and all officers and lower ranks double salary in life pension. The brig "Mercury" - St. George flag. At the arrival of the brig I command me to replace it with another, new, continuing this until later times, so that the memory of the significant merits of the brig Mercury team and his name in the fleet never disappeared and, passing from family to family, forever served as a CELEASE. ” .
Earlier, on May 12, on patrol not far from the Turkish port of Penderakklia, the Rafail frigate commanded by Captain 1829 of the rank of Stroynikov was caught off guard by the Turkish squadron, and even without attempting to join the battle, he lowered the Andreevsky flag to the Turks. Over the intact Russian ship soared a scarlet Ottoman flag with a star and a crescent. Soon the ship received a new name "Fazli Allah", which means "bestowed by Allah". The Rafail case is unprecedented for the Russian fleet, and therefore especially sensitive.
The most interesting thing is that the surrender of the newest frigate Rafail took place just three days before the feat of the Mercury. In addition, the commander of the "Raphael" Stroynikov and the other officers of the frigate during the battle of "Mercury" were aboard the battleship Capudan-Pasha "Selimiye" and witnessed this battle. It is hardly possible to describe what Stroynikov felt when, in his eyes, the brig, under the command of his old colleague, who was significantly inferior in maritime and combat qualities to the Rafail frigate, which had a 44 gun, managed to emerge victorious in the most desperate situation? Just a year ago, commanding the brig Mercury, Stroynikov captured a Turkish landing ship that prepared the landing of 300 people from Gelendzhik. Then no one dared call him a coward. He was a knight of military orders, including the Order of St. Vladimir 4-th degree with a bow for bravery.
20 in May from the Danish ambassador to Turkey, Baron Gibsch (who represented the interests of Russia) was received by a dispatch of the Rafail frigate from the Penderaclius by the Turkish fleet. The message was so incredible that at first they did not believe it. In a response message, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Greig, asked Gibsha that Stroynikov, the frigate's senior officer, Lieutenant Commander Kiselev, and the lieutenant of the naval navigator unit Polyakov provide detailed explanations of the circumstances of their delivery.
At the end of July, the Black Sea Fleet received the reports of Stroynikov, Kiselev and Polyakov sent by baron Gibsch. We give the main excerpts from the report of the commander of "Raphael" on the surrender of his frigate.
"... 12 numbers, at dawn, being, by reckoning, 45 miles from the nearest Anatolian coast were seen at N, at a distance of about 5 miles ... that was the vanguard of the Turkish fleet, consisting of 3 ships, 2 frigates and 1 corvette, which went a full wind under the grizzled marseilles ... The enemy, having an excellent course, with the gradually fading wind, was approaching noticeably. In 11 hours, advice was drawn from all the officers who put on the defensive to the last extreme and, if necessary, get close to the enemy and blow up the frigate; but the lower ranks, upon learning of the officers' intention, announced that they would not allow the frigate to be burned. Until the 2 hours of the afternoon, Raphael had run around the 2,5 node; the calm that had become at that time and the continuing swell deprived him ... of the last ways to protect and harm the enemy. At the end of 4, the enemy’s avant-garde crossed all directions and surrounded the Raphael: two ships went straight at him, to their right was the 110-gun ship and the frigate, and on the left side the frigate and corvette; the rest of the Turkish fleet was back in the distance around the 5 cable; there was no more than one-fourth of a knot. Soon one of the ships, raising the flag, began to shoot, and we traced the trail to expect an attack from the others; To all this, most of the team from pitching could not be at their places. Then, seeing himself surrounded by the enemy fleet and being in such a disastrous situation, he could not take any measures, as soon as he sent envoys to the nearest admiral's ship with a proposal to surrender the frigate so that the crew would be returned to Russia in a short time. Due to this intention, ordering the flag of negotiation to be raised, he sent captain-lieutenant Kiselev and naval artillery noncommissioned officer Pankiewicz to the parliament; having detained them, the Turks sent their officials, who, having announced the admiral's consent to his proposal ... expressed their desire that he and all the officers would go to the admiral's ship, which was done; only one midshipman, Izmailov, remained on the frigate with the command.
“You will see from this paper, by what circumstances this officer justifies the shameful captivity of the vessel entrusted to him; exposing his crew as opposed to any defense, he considers it sufficient to cover his own cowardice, which the Russian flag has been denounced in this case, - Emperor Nicholas I wrote in the decree of 4 June 1829, hoping that God will help the Most High, hoping that an intrepid fleet Black Sea, eager to wash away the disgrace of the frigate Raphael, will not leave him in the hands of the enemy. But when he is returned to our power, then, honoring this frigate, it is no longer worthy to wear the Russian flag and serve along with other vessels of our fleet, I command you to betray that fire. ”
Admiral Greig in the order on the fleet announced the will of the Emperor Nicholas I and established a commission under his chairmanship (it included all the flagships, the chief of staff of the fleet and the commanders of the ships). The commission did relevant work, but in the report of the commander of the Raphael there was a lot of unclear, which made it impossible to present a complete picture of the events. Therefore, the commission in the production section was limited to only three main points: “1. Frigate surrendered to the enemy without resistance. 2. Although the officers put up a fight to the last drop of blood and then blow up the frigate, they didn’t do anything. 3. The lower ranks, having learned of the officers' intention to blow up the frigate, announced that they would not allow it to be burned, however, and they did not take any measures to induce their commander to defend. ”
The conclusion of the commission was as follows: “... Whatever the circumstances preceding the change, the crew of the frigate should be subject to the laws depicted: Maritime Regulations, 3 books, 1 chapter, 90 article and 5 books, 10 chapter, 73 article ... Pay attention to the position of the lower ranks, which ... had absolutely no opportunity to fulfill the rules set out in the last article regarding the arrest of the commander and the choice of the most worthy. In addition, that this kind of action exceeded the concepts of the lower ranks and did not accord with their habit of unconscious obedience to the authorities ... As for the announcement of the lower ranks, that they would not allow the frigate to be burned, the commission believed that the commander was not entitled to demand such a victim ” .
For the perception of the conclusions of the commission, let us present the interpretation of the article 90: “However, if the following needs happen, then, after signing a consultation from all the ober- and noncommissioned officers, you can give the ship to save people: 1. If so it will be broken through, that with pomp it is impossible to overcome the lezhes or theka. 2. If gunpowder and ammunition does not become very nothing. However, if it is spent directly, and not to the wind, it was fired for drug expenditure. 3. If in both of the above-described needs, no shallows will come close, wherever a ship of the ship is, you can drop them aground. ”
The heroic deeds of the ancestors should not only be honored, but also the lessons learned should be applied in practice.
It is also worth recalling one common requirement of all charters is the unquestioning obedience of the younger ones to the elders. At the same time, in the considered epoch, in the Russian charter there was a reservation on this score: “Except when the order from above is contrary to the use of the sovereign.
The article of 73 defined a harsh punishment: “But officers, sailors and soldiers will, without any reason, allow the commander of their ship to surrender, or leave the military line for no reason, and they will not be discouraged from it, or the officers will be executed by death, and the rest with the foal of the tenth hanged. "
The war soon ended with the Adrianople Peace Treaty beneficial to Russia in 1829, and the frigate crew returned home from captivity. The last exit to the sea on the "Mercury" for Kazarsky was significant. On the traverse of the Inada two ships met. On board the "Mercury" 70 prisoners were transferred to the Turks. And from the board of the Turkish ship 70 captured Russian transferred to the "Mercury". These were all who, at the time of the conclusion of peace, survived from the Rafail frigate team, which made up 216 people. Among them is the former commander of Raphael, S.M. Stroynikov. In Russia, the entire crew of the ship, including its captain, was sentenced to death. The emperor softened the sentence for the lower ranks, ordered the officers to be demoted to sailors with the right of service. Stroynikov was deprived of ranks, orders and nobility. As the legend says, Nicholas I forbade him to marry and have children until the end of his days, saying thus: “Only cowards can be born from such a coward, and therefore we can do without them!”
The fulfillment of the emperor's will to destroy the frigate was delayed for a long time. Even before the end of the war, the Turks, knowing how the Russians were hunting for a frigate, transferred it to the Mediterranean Sea. 24, the former Russian ship was in the ranks of the Turkish Navy. They took care of it and especially showed it to foreigners. This shame ceased only on November 18 on 1853, when the Russian Black Sea squadron destroyed the entire Turkish fleet in the Battle of Sinop.
“The will of Your Imperial Majesty has been executed, the frigate Rafail does not exist,” with these words, Admiral Pavel Nakhimov began his report on the battle, especially stipulating that the flagship battleship Empress Maria and the battleship Paris played a key role in the burning of the frigate.
So it happened that among the officers of "Paris" was the youngest son of the former captain of "Raphael" Alexander Stroynikov, who was born in 1824, from his first marriage. Later, he and his elder brother Nikolai participated in the glorious defense of Sevastopol, received military orders and reached the rank of Rear Admiral of the Russian fleet. Although the shadow of the frigate Raphael fell on them, they paid their lives in full for the disgrace and disgrace of their father.
DEATH OF HERO
Alexander Ivanovich Kazarsky after his heroic deed made a brilliant career: he was promoted to captain of the first rank, became the aide-de-camp of his imperial majesty, and the king trusted him with important assignments. Known hero was the fact that "did not take on his paw."
When Nicholas I for the first time, the problem of corruption was raised to the state level. When it was developed a code of laws governing liability for bribery. Nicholas I was ironic about successes in this area, saying that he and his heir did not steal in his circle. English journalist George Mellow, who regularly visited Russia, wrote in 1849 year: “In this country, they are trying to get into the service of the sovereign by all means, in order not to work, but to steal, take expensive gifts and live comfortably.”
There was no exception to the common foundations of life in the 20 – 30-ies of the XIX century and the Black Sea Fleet, especially its coastal services. The fact is that the commander of the Black Sea Fleet at the same time was also the chief commander of the Black Sea ports. All ports, including trade, of the Black and Azov Seas, with all services: port facilities, berths, warehouses, customs, quarantine, merchant ships, were subordinate to him. It was through the ports of the Black and Azov Seas that the main cargo turnover of foreign trade, and above all its main component, wheat, went at that time. It is hard to imagine what kind of capital was made by those who had any relation to the bottomless Black Sea trough. Suffice it to say that in 1836, the net income of the Odessa budget exceeded the gross revenue of all Russian cities, with the exception of St. Petersburg and Moscow. Odessa was granted in 1817, the regime of "free port" (free port). Duty-free trade regime contributed to the rapid transformation of Odessa into a center of foreign trade.
17 February 1832 is appointed Rear Admiral Mikhail Lazarev as Chief of Staff of the Black Sea Fleet. Almost at the same time, he went to the Black Sea Fleet and the adjutant captain of the 1 rank Kazarsky. Officially, Kazarsky was obliged to assist the new chief of staff and arrange for sending a squadron to the Bosphorus. In addition, Nicholas I ordered: to carry out a thorough check of all rear offices of the Black Sea Fleet, to deal with corruption in the leadership of the fleet and at private shipyards, to reveal the mechanisms of theft of money when trading in grain in ports. The emperor wanted to restore legal order in the Black Sea.
2 April 1833 of the year Lazarev is made “for distinction” as vice-admirals and a month later he is appointed to the position of the chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet and ports. Meanwhile, Kazarsky completes an audit of the port of Odessa. The scale of the size of the revealed theft is amazing. After that, Kazarsky moved to Nikolaev to deal with the state of affairs in the central directorates of the Black Sea Fleet. In Nikolaev, he continues to work hard, but after only a few days suddenly dies. The commission, which dealt with the circumstances of Kazarsky’s death, concluded: “According to the conclusion of this commission’s member of the fleet assistant general medical officer, Dr. Lange, Kazars died of pneumonia, which was later accompanied by nervous fever.”
Death came 16 July 1833 of the year. Kazarsky was less than thirty-six years old. The most complete study of his life can be found in the book by Vladimir Shigin “The Secret of the Brig“ Mercury ”. To the credit of Nicholas I, he made all possible efforts to deal with the mysterious death of his aide-de-camp. The investigation, he instructed the chief of the corps of gendarmes, General Benkendorf. October 8 1833 of the year Benkendorf presented to the emperor a note saying: “Uncle Kazarsky Motskevich, dying, left him a box with 70 thousands of rubles, which was destroyed by the death of Nikolayevsky Chief of Police Avtononov. An investigation was appointed, and Kazarsky repeatedly said that he would certainly try to discover the perpetrators. Avtamonov was in connection with the wife of Captain Commander Mikhailova, a woman of a slutty and enterprising character; she had a certain leader, a certain Rosa Ivanovna (in other papers, she passes like Rosa Isakovna), who had a short relationship with the wife of an apothecary, a Jew by nationality. After lunch, Mikhailovsky’s Kazarsky, having drunk a cup of coffee, felt the effect of poison in himself and turned to the headquarters doctor Petrushevsky, who explained that Kazarsky constantly spat and therefore black spots appeared on the floor, which were washed off three times but remained black. When Kazarsky died, his body was as black as coal, his head and chest swelled in an unusual way, his face collapsed, his hair peeled off, his eyes burst, and his feet fell off in a coffin. All this happened in less than two days. The investigation, appointed by Greig, did not reveal anything, the other investigation also does not promise anything good, because Avtamonov is the closest relative of Adjutant General Lazarev. ”
From the memories of people close to Kazarsky: dying in the house of his distant relative Okhotsk, he only whispered one phrase “Bastards poisoned me!”. The last words according to the testimony of his orderly V. Borisov were: "God saved me in great danger, and now they have killed here, it is not known why." It is known that Kazarsky was warned, because even the hostess of the guesthouse, where he stayed, made him try the dishes served to him. At receptions, the “hospitable” city officials tried not to eat or drink anything. But when one of the local socialites brought a cup of coffee from his own hands, the aristocrat of the spirit did not refuse the lady. In a word, the hero of the Russian fleet died not from the weapon of the enemy, but from the poison from the hands of compatriots.
Kazarsky was buried in Nikolaev. Subsequently, a commission arrived from St. Petersburg, the corpse was exhumed, the entrails were removed, taken to the capital, and there was no other word about the incident. His grave is in the fence of the All Saints Church. There are also the graves of the navigator Prokofiev and some sailors of the brig "Mercury", who bequeathed to bury them after death next to their commander.
Chernomorets hard experienced the death of a hero. One of Lazarev's friends wrote to the Bosporus squadron: “... I will not talk about the sad feeling that this news produced in me; it will respond in the soul of every officer of the Russian fleet. "