Military Review

Feat and dishonor

58



Crimean events and the subsequent breakdown in relations with Turkey can hardly be called interconnected, but they lead to interesting thoughts and are pulled out of historical commemorating the events of bygone years.

Russia fought the Ottoman Empire for several centuries. Ivan III was still building the walls of the Moscow Kremlin when detachments of the Turkish Islamic empire appeared on the southern borders, which destroyed Byzantium and enslaved almost all the Orthodox peoples of Europe for a long time. From then until the very 1919 of the year, which marked the final disintegration of the Ottoman state, the Russians fought with the Turks for the liberation of their Orthodox brothers, for Russia's access to the Black Sea, for the glory of the Russian weapons.

As a farewell to the descendants in 1839, in Sevastopol, in honor of Lieutenant Commander Kazarsky, commander of the brig Mercury, and his crew, a monument was erected (authored by Academician of Architecture A. Bryullov), glorifying the feat in the name of Russia. On the pedestal there is a laconic inscription: “to Kazarsky. Progeny as an example. ”

It so happened that the greatest feat, the tragic death at the hands of the extortionists and its dishonor are associated with this name. naval co-worker. The history of fate is in the spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies.

FEAT - CLEANING EXAMPLE


The Russian-Turkish war of 1828 – 1829 went on in the Caucasus and the Balkans. One of the main tasks of the Black Sea Fleet is to prevent the Turks from leaving the Bosphorus to the Black Sea. 14 May 1829 at dawn three Russian ships: the frigate Shtandart, the brigs Orpheus and Mercury were on patrol at the Bosphorus. While cruising abeam Penderaklia, they noticed the approaching Turkish squadron as part of the 14 pennants.

The sentries hurried to warn the command. The commander of the "Standard" captain-lieutenant Sakhnovsky gave a signal: "Take a course in which the ship has the best course." At this time, the sea was a gentle breeze. Two high-speed Russian ships immediately went ahead. "Mercury" did not differ such playfulness. They set up all the sails on the brig, set sail and seven oars into the course, but did not succeed in developing speed for separation from the Turks.

The wind freshened up, and the brig for the best Turkish ships seemed easy prey. The Mercury was armed with 18 24-pounder melee coronads and two portable long-range 8-pound long-barreled cannons. In the era of the sailing fleet, brig type ships were used mainly on "packages", for escorting merchant ships, patrol or reconnaissance activities.

The Russian ship followed the 110-gun frigate "Selimiye" under the flag of the commander of the Turkish fleet, where there was a kapan-pasha, and the 74-gun "Real Bay" under the flag of the junior flagship. One successful onboard volley of these powerful battleships would be enough to turn a brig into floating wrecks or sink. Before the crew of the "Mercury" loomed the prospect of death or captivity and the descent of the flag. If we turn to the Sea Regulations, written by Peter I, then his 90 article directly indicated the captain of the Russian fleet: “In the event of a battle, the captain or the ship’s commander should, not only bravely fight against the enemy, but also more than giving an image to oneself, to induce, so that they would courageously fight to the last possible opportunity, and should not give the enemy back to the enemy, in no case, under the loss of belly and honor. ”

Seeing that they could not get away from the Turkish ships, the commander convened a military council, where, traditionally, the first ranks were junior ranks, so that they could express their opinion without fear of looking at the authorities. The lieutenant of the naval navigator's body, Ivan Prokofiev, offered to fight to the last, and when the spars were hit, a strong leak would open or the brig would be unable to resist, approach the admiral's ship and, having grappled with it, blow up the Mercury. All voted unanimously for the fight.

Shouting "Hurray" met the decision on the fight and the sailors. According to maritime custom, the sailors put on clean shirts, and officers - ceremonial uniforms, because before the Creator it is supposed to appear in the "clean". The stern flag in the brig was nailed to the gaff (oblique ray) so that it could not descend during the battle. A loaded pistol was put on the steeple, and the last of the living officers had to fire a crew-chamber in a shot where the barrels of gunpowder were kept in order to blow up the ship. Approximately at 14.30, the Turks approached at a distance of a shot and opened fire on running guns. Their shells began to fall into the sails and rigging of the brig. One shot hit the oars and knocked out the rowers from the seats between two adjacent guns.

Kazarsky knew his ship well - he was heavy on the move. Rescue people and "Mercury" could skillful maneuvering and marksmanship. Skillfully maneuvering and using sails and oars for this, he did not allow the enemy to take advantage of the multiple superiority in artillery and made it difficult for the enemy to conduct aimed fire. The brig avoided getting hit by Turkish ships under onboard salvoes, which would be like death for him. But the Turks still managed to circumvent it from two sides and take in ticks. Each of them made two side shots on the “Mercury”. In addition to the cores, the brigade in the volley flew knippels - chain cores to destroy the rigging and the sails, and also the fireballs - incendiary projectiles. Nevertheless, the masts remained unharmed, and "Mercury" remained mobile, and the resulting fires were extinguished. From the ship, the Kapudan-Pasha shouted in Russian: “Surrender, remove the sails!” In response to the brig, there was a loud “hurray” and fire was fired from all the guns and rifles. As a result, the Turks had to remove ready-made boarding teams from the Mars and Rey. Simultaneously, Kazarsky, using the oars, deftly led the brig out from under the onboard double volleys. This moment of the battle was captured by the artist Aivazovsky on one of his paintings. Little "Mercury" - between two giant Turkish ships. True, many researchers of the sailing fleet subject this episode to great doubt, since in this case it would be almost impossible to survive the small brig. But it was not for nothing that Gorky sang: "We sing glory to the madness of the brave."

During the battle, from the first minutes, Kazarsky was wounded in the head, but remained in office and led the team. "We must deprive the enemy of the move!" Therefore, to aim everyone at rigging! ”- he commanded the gunners. Soon, gunner Ivan Lysenko with a well-aimed shot damaged a grotto spar on the “Selemiye” and interrupted the headstand holding the bowsprit from below. Deprived of support, the masts reeled, causing screams of horror among the Turks. So that they did not collapse, the sails were removed on the “Selemiy”, and he lay in the drift. The other ship continued to operate, changing tacks under the stern of the brig, and struck him terribly with longitudinal shots, from which it was difficult to evade movement.

The battle continued with bitterness for more than three hours. The ranks of the small crew of the brig thinned. Kazarsky ordered the gunners to aim independently and to fire one by one, not a volley. And finally, a competent decision gave its results, the gunners with happy shots killed several rai on the masts at once. They collapsed, and Real Bay swayed helplessly on the waves. Giving a farewell volley of retrodul guns through the Turkish ship, the Mercury headed for his native shores.

When Russian ships appeared on the horizon, Kazarsky discharged a pistol lying in front of the cruise camera into the air. As a result of the battle, Mercury received 22 holes in the hull and 297 damage in the spars, sails and rigging, lost 4 people killed and 8 wounded. Soon, a heavily damaged, but undefeated brig entered the Sevastopol bay for repairs.

Russia exulted. In those days, the newspaper Odessky Vestnik wrote: “This feat is such that there is no other similar in the history of navigation; he is so amazing that you can hardly believe it. The courage, fearlessness and self-sacrifice rendered by this commander and crew of "Mercury" are more glorious than a thousand ordinary victories. " The future hero of Sevastopol, Rear-Admiral Istomin of the “Mercury” sailors, wrote: “Let such self-sacrifice, such heroic resilience be looked for in other nations with a candle ...” Later in the Sovremennik magazine, founded by Alexander Pushkin in 1836, it was noted: “Preferring a clear death to the dishonor of captivity, the commander of the brig with firmness withstood a three-hour battle with his gigantic opponents and finally forced them to retire. The moral defeat of the Turks was complete and perfect. ”

“We couldn’t force him to surrender,” wrote one of the Turkish officers. - He fought, retreating and maneuvering, with all the art of war, so that we, I am ashamed to admit, stopped the battle, while he, triumphantly, continued his way ... If the ancient and new chronicles show us courage, then this will eclipse all others, and the testimony of him deserves to be inscribed in golden letters in the temple of glory. This captain was Kazarsky, and the name of the brig is “Mercury”.

The brig was awarded the St. George stern flag and a pennant. Emperor Nicholas I personally wrote the “highest resolution”: “Lieutenant Kazarsky will make the rank of captain 2, give George 4 a class, assign the adjutant to the wing and add a pistol to the coat of arms. All the officers in the following ranks and who do not have Vladimir with a bow, then give one. To the navigator officer in addition to the rank give George 4 class. All lower ranks insignia of the military order and all officers and lower ranks double salary in life pension. The brig "Mercury" - St. George flag. At the arrival of the brig I command me to replace it with another, new, continuing this until later times, so that the memory of the significant merits of the brig Mercury team and his name in the fleet never disappeared and, passing from family to family, forever served as a CELEASE. ” .

Dishonesty


Earlier, on May 12, on patrol not far from the Turkish port of Penderakklia, the Rafail frigate commanded by Captain 1829 of the rank of Stroynikov was caught off guard by the Turkish squadron, and even without attempting to join the battle, he lowered the Andreevsky flag to the Turks. Over the intact Russian ship soared a scarlet Ottoman flag with a star and a crescent. Soon the ship received a new name "Fazli Allah", which means "bestowed by Allah". The Rafail case is unprecedented for the Russian fleet, and therefore especially sensitive.

The most interesting thing is that the surrender of the newest frigate Rafail took place just three days before the feat of the Mercury. In addition, the commander of the "Raphael" Stroynikov and the other officers of the frigate during the battle of "Mercury" were aboard the battleship Capudan-Pasha "Selimiye" and witnessed this battle. It is hardly possible to describe what Stroynikov felt when, in his eyes, the brig, under the command of his old colleague, who was significantly inferior in maritime and combat qualities to the Rafail frigate, which had a 44 gun, managed to emerge victorious in the most desperate situation? Just a year ago, commanding the brig Mercury, Stroynikov captured a Turkish landing ship that prepared the landing of 300 people from Gelendzhik. Then no one dared call him a coward. He was a knight of military orders, including the Order of St. Vladimir 4-th degree with a bow for bravery.

20 in May from the Danish ambassador to Turkey, Baron Gibsch (who represented the interests of Russia) was received by a dispatch of the Rafail frigate from the Penderaclius by the Turkish fleet. The message was so incredible that at first they did not believe it. In a response message, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Greig, asked Gibsha that Stroynikov, the frigate's senior officer, Lieutenant Commander Kiselev, and the lieutenant of the naval navigator unit Polyakov provide detailed explanations of the circumstances of their delivery.

At the end of July, the Black Sea Fleet received the reports of Stroynikov, Kiselev and Polyakov sent by baron Gibsch. We give the main excerpts from the report of the commander of "Raphael" on the surrender of his frigate.

"... 12 numbers, at dawn, being, by reckoning, 45 miles from the nearest Anatolian coast were seen at N, at a distance of about 5 miles ... that was the vanguard of the Turkish fleet, consisting of 3 ships, 2 frigates and 1 corvette, which went a full wind under the grizzled marseilles ... The enemy, having an excellent course, with the gradually fading wind, was approaching noticeably. In 11 hours, advice was drawn from all the officers who put on the defensive to the last extreme and, if necessary, get close to the enemy and blow up the frigate; but the lower ranks, upon learning of the officers' intention, announced that they would not allow the frigate to be burned. Until the 2 hours of the afternoon, Raphael had run around the 2,5 node; the calm that had become at that time and the continuing swell deprived him ... of the last ways to protect and harm the enemy. At the end of 4, the enemy’s avant-garde crossed all directions and surrounded the Raphael: two ships went straight at him, to their right was the 110-gun ship and the frigate, and on the left side the frigate and corvette; the rest of the Turkish fleet was back in the distance around the 5 cable; there was no more than one-fourth of a knot. Soon one of the ships, raising the flag, began to shoot, and we traced the trail to expect an attack from the others; To all this, most of the team from pitching could not be at their places. Then, seeing himself surrounded by the enemy fleet and being in such a disastrous situation, he could not take any measures, as soon as he sent envoys to the nearest admiral's ship with a proposal to surrender the frigate so that the crew would be returned to Russia in a short time. Due to this intention, ordering the flag of negotiation to be raised, he sent captain-lieutenant Kiselev and naval artillery noncommissioned officer Pankiewicz to the parliament; having detained them, the Turks sent their officials, who, having announced the admiral's consent to his proposal ... expressed their desire that he and all the officers would go to the admiral's ship, which was done; only one midshipman, Izmailov, remained on the frigate with the command.

“You will see from this paper, by what circumstances this officer justifies the shameful captivity of the vessel entrusted to him; exposing his crew as opposed to any defense, he considers it sufficient to cover his own cowardice, which the Russian flag has been denounced in this case, - Emperor Nicholas I wrote in the decree of 4 June 1829, hoping that God will help the Most High, hoping that an intrepid fleet Black Sea, eager to wash away the disgrace of the frigate Raphael, will not leave him in the hands of the enemy. But when he is returned to our power, then, honoring this frigate, it is no longer worthy to wear the Russian flag and serve along with other vessels of our fleet, I command you to betray that fire. ”

Admiral Greig in the order on the fleet announced the will of the Emperor Nicholas I and established a commission under his chairmanship (it included all the flagships, the chief of staff of the fleet and the commanders of the ships). The commission did relevant work, but in the report of the commander of the Raphael there was a lot of unclear, which made it impossible to present a complete picture of the events. Therefore, the commission in the production section was limited to only three main points: “1. Frigate surrendered to the enemy without resistance. 2. Although the officers put up a fight to the last drop of blood and then blow up the frigate, they didn’t do anything. 3. The lower ranks, having learned of the officers' intention to blow up the frigate, announced that they would not allow it to be burned, however, and they did not take any measures to induce their commander to defend. ”

The conclusion of the commission was as follows: “... Whatever the circumstances preceding the change, the crew of the frigate should be subject to the laws depicted: Maritime Regulations, 3 books, 1 chapter, 90 article and 5 books, 10 chapter, 73 article ... Pay attention to the position of the lower ranks, which ... had absolutely no opportunity to fulfill the rules set out in the last article regarding the arrest of the commander and the choice of the most worthy. In addition, that this kind of action exceeded the concepts of the lower ranks and did not accord with their habit of unconscious obedience to the authorities ... As for the announcement of the lower ranks, that they would not allow the frigate to be burned, the commission believed that the commander was not entitled to demand such a victim ” .

For the perception of the conclusions of the commission, let us present the interpretation of the article 90: “However, if the following needs happen, then, after signing a consultation from all the ober- and noncommissioned officers, you can give the ship to save people: 1. If so it will be broken through, that with pomp it is impossible to overcome the lezhes or theka. 2. If gunpowder and ammunition does not become very nothing. However, if it is spent directly, and not to the wind, it was fired for drug expenditure. 3. If in both of the above-described needs, no shallows will come close, wherever a ship of the ship is, you can drop them aground. ”


The heroic deeds of the ancestors should not only be honored, but also the lessons learned should be applied in practice.

It is also worth recalling one common requirement of all charters is the unquestioning obedience of the younger ones to the elders. At the same time, in the considered epoch, in the Russian charter there was a reservation on this score: “Except when the order from above is contrary to the use of the sovereign.

The article of 73 defined a harsh punishment: “But officers, sailors and soldiers will, without any reason, allow the commander of their ship to surrender, or leave the military line for no reason, and they will not be discouraged from it, or the officers will be executed by death, and the rest with the foal of the tenth hanged. "

The war soon ended with the Adrianople Peace Treaty beneficial to Russia in 1829, and the frigate crew returned home from captivity. The last exit to the sea on the "Mercury" for Kazarsky was significant. On the traverse of the Inada two ships met. On board the "Mercury" 70 prisoners were transferred to the Turks. And from the board of the Turkish ship 70 captured Russian transferred to the "Mercury". These were all who, at the time of the conclusion of peace, survived from the Rafail frigate team, which made up 216 people. Among them is the former commander of Raphael, S.M. Stroynikov. In Russia, the entire crew of the ship, including its captain, was sentenced to death. The emperor softened the sentence for the lower ranks, ordered the officers to be demoted to sailors with the right of service. Stroynikov was deprived of ranks, orders and nobility. As the legend says, Nicholas I forbade him to marry and have children until the end of his days, saying thus: “Only cowards can be born from such a coward, and therefore we can do without them!”

The fulfillment of the emperor's will to destroy the frigate was delayed for a long time. Even before the end of the war, the Turks, knowing how the Russians were hunting for a frigate, transferred it to the Mediterranean Sea. 24, the former Russian ship was in the ranks of the Turkish Navy. They took care of it and especially showed it to foreigners. This shame ceased only on November 18 on 1853, when the Russian Black Sea squadron destroyed the entire Turkish fleet in the Battle of Sinop.

“The will of Your Imperial Majesty has been executed, the frigate Rafail does not exist,” with these words, Admiral Pavel Nakhimov began his report on the battle, especially stipulating that the flagship battleship Empress Maria and the battleship Paris played a key role in the burning of the frigate.

So it happened that among the officers of "Paris" was the youngest son of the former captain of "Raphael" Alexander Stroynikov, who was born in 1824, from his first marriage. Later, he and his elder brother Nikolai participated in the glorious defense of Sevastopol, received military orders and reached the rank of Rear Admiral of the Russian fleet. Although the shadow of the frigate Raphael fell on them, they paid their lives in full for the disgrace and disgrace of their father.

DEATH OF HERO


Alexander Ivanovich Kazarsky after his heroic deed made a brilliant career: he was promoted to captain of the first rank, became the aide-de-camp of his imperial majesty, and the king trusted him with important assignments. Known hero was the fact that "did not take on his paw."

When Nicholas I for the first time, the problem of corruption was raised to the state level. When it was developed a code of laws governing liability for bribery. Nicholas I was ironic about successes in this area, saying that he and his heir did not steal in his circle. English journalist George Mellow, who regularly visited Russia, wrote in 1849 year: “In this country, they are trying to get into the service of the sovereign by all means, in order not to work, but to steal, take expensive gifts and live comfortably.”

There was no exception to the common foundations of life in the 20 – 30-ies of the XIX century and the Black Sea Fleet, especially its coastal services. The fact is that the commander of the Black Sea Fleet at the same time was also the chief commander of the Black Sea ports. All ports, including trade, of the Black and Azov Seas, with all services: port facilities, berths, warehouses, customs, quarantine, merchant ships, were subordinate to him. It was through the ports of the Black and Azov Seas that the main cargo turnover of foreign trade, and above all its main component, wheat, went at that time. It is hard to imagine what kind of capital was made by those who had any relation to the bottomless Black Sea trough. Suffice it to say that in 1836, the net income of the Odessa budget exceeded the gross revenue of all Russian cities, with the exception of St. Petersburg and Moscow. Odessa was granted in 1817, the regime of "free port" (free port). Duty-free trade regime contributed to the rapid transformation of Odessa into a center of foreign trade.

17 February 1832 is appointed Rear Admiral Mikhail Lazarev as Chief of Staff of the Black Sea Fleet. Almost at the same time, he went to the Black Sea Fleet and the adjutant captain of the 1 rank Kazarsky. Officially, Kazarsky was obliged to assist the new chief of staff and arrange for sending a squadron to the Bosphorus. In addition, Nicholas I ordered: to carry out a thorough check of all rear offices of the Black Sea Fleet, to deal with corruption in the leadership of the fleet and at private shipyards, to reveal the mechanisms of theft of money when trading in grain in ports. The emperor wanted to restore legal order in the Black Sea.

2 April 1833 of the year Lazarev is made “for distinction” as vice-admirals and a month later he is appointed to the position of the chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet and ports. Meanwhile, Kazarsky completes an audit of the port of Odessa. The scale of the size of the revealed theft is amazing. After that, Kazarsky moved to Nikolaev to deal with the state of affairs in the central directorates of the Black Sea Fleet. In Nikolaev, he continues to work hard, but after only a few days suddenly dies. The commission, which dealt with the circumstances of Kazarsky’s death, concluded: “According to the conclusion of this commission’s member of the fleet assistant general medical officer, Dr. Lange, Kazars died of pneumonia, which was later accompanied by nervous fever.”

Death came 16 July 1833 of the year. Kazarsky was less than thirty-six years old. The most complete study of his life can be found in the book by Vladimir Shigin “The Secret of the Brig“ Mercury ”. To the credit of Nicholas I, he made all possible efforts to deal with the mysterious death of his aide-de-camp. The investigation, he instructed the chief of the corps of gendarmes, General Benkendorf. October 8 1833 of the year Benkendorf presented to the emperor a note saying: “Uncle Kazarsky Motskevich, dying, left him a box with 70 thousands of rubles, which was destroyed by the death of Nikolayevsky Chief of Police Avtononov. An investigation was appointed, and Kazarsky repeatedly said that he would certainly try to discover the perpetrators. Avtamonov was in connection with the wife of Captain Commander Mikhailova, a woman of a slutty and enterprising character; she had a certain leader, a certain Rosa Ivanovna (in other papers, she passes like Rosa Isakovna), who had a short relationship with the wife of an apothecary, a Jew by nationality. After lunch, Mikhailovsky’s Kazarsky, having drunk a cup of coffee, felt the effect of poison in himself and turned to the headquarters doctor Petrushevsky, who explained that Kazarsky constantly spat and therefore black spots appeared on the floor, which were washed off three times but remained black. When Kazarsky died, his body was as black as coal, his head and chest swelled in an unusual way, his face collapsed, his hair peeled off, his eyes burst, and his feet fell off in a coffin. All this happened in less than two days. The investigation, appointed by Greig, did not reveal anything, the other investigation also does not promise anything good, because Avtamonov is the closest relative of Adjutant General Lazarev. ”

From the memories of people close to Kazarsky: dying in the house of his distant relative Okhotsk, he only whispered one phrase “Bastards poisoned me!”. The last words according to the testimony of his orderly V. Borisov were: "God saved me in great danger, and now they have killed here, it is not known why." It is known that Kazarsky was warned, because even the hostess of the guesthouse, where he stayed, made him try the dishes served to him. At receptions, the “hospitable” city officials tried not to eat or drink anything. But when one of the local socialites brought a cup of coffee from his own hands, the aristocrat of the spirit did not refuse the lady. In a word, the hero of the Russian fleet died not from the weapon of the enemy, but from the poison from the hands of compatriots.

Kazarsky was buried in Nikolaev. Subsequently, a commission arrived from St. Petersburg, the corpse was exhumed, the entrails were removed, taken to the capital, and there was no other word about the incident. His grave is in the fence of the All Saints Church. There are also the graves of the navigator Prokofiev and some sailors of the brig "Mercury", who bequeathed to bury them after death next to their commander.

Chernomorets hard experienced the death of a hero. One of Lazarev's friends wrote to the Bosporus squadron: “... I will not talk about the sad feeling that this news produced in me; it will respond in the soul of every officer of the Russian fleet. "
Author:
Originator:
http://nvo.ng.ru/history/2016-02-05/12_podvig.html
58 comments
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  1. cap
    cap 7 February 2016 07: 15
    20
    “In a word, not from the enemy’s weapons, but from the poison from the hands of compatriots, the hero of the Russian fleet perished.”
    But is he the only one.
    Thanks to the author for the article. It's nice to read about our heroes on VO. Fooled or undeservedly forgotten. History is part of the national treasure.
    1. Mitek
      Mitek 7 February 2016 07: 49
      +5
      As always, nothing has changed ...
      1. Dimy4
        Dimy4 8 February 2016 07: 22
        +1
        As always, nothing has changed.

        Only the scenery changes. Human vices remain the same.
    2. Gunxnumx
      Gunxnumx 8 February 2016 08: 52
      0
      I wonder if there is a ship in today's navy called "Mercury"?
    3. Gunxnumx
      Gunxnumx 15 November 2016 12: 49
      0
      By the way, Skobelev also died under very strange circumstances.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 7 February 2016 07: 39
    22
    Stroinikov was deprived of ranks, orders and nobility. According to legend, Nicholas I forbade him to marry and have children until the end of his days. Stroinikov, was exiled to Bobruisk to the prison company. On April 11, 1831, Stroynikov was released from prison and recorded as a sailor on the White Sea without the right of service. The further fate is unknown. Stroinikov was married to the daughter of Russian Vice Admiral F.F. Messer, Elizabeth Fominichna Messer. Two sons were brought up in the family - Nikolai (1813-1872) and Alexander (1824-1886). The shameful act of the father did not become an obstacle to the sons' career, they both graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps, served in the Navy with dignity, participated in the defense of Sevastopol, and by the end of the service they both received the rank of rear admiral.
  3. Hooks
    Hooks 7 February 2016 08: 01
    12
    Cowardice, betrayal, bribery and embezzlement are the eternal enemies of our State. Only brilliant upbringing and education can change society. Unfortunately, now the profession of a teacher, despite a demonstration of efforts, continues to be exploited for making money by the leadership of educational institutions. Everywhere, from kindergarten to university, they demand money. We probably have artificial intelligence when testing and that will take money.
  4. ImPerts
    ImPerts 7 February 2016 08: 03
    +3
    The investigation appointed by Greig did not reveal anything, the other investigation also does not promise anything good, for Autamonov is the closest relative of Adjutant General Lazarev. "

    This has always been alarming and alarming.
    This is not only our scourge, it is being done all over the world, but it is especially insulting for our own people.
    1. iouris
      iouris 8 February 2016 12: 27
      0
      Greig and his wife, a representative of the well-known "financial circles", were precisely the main organizers of the criminal group. It's strange that nothing is said about this.
  5. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 7 February 2016 08: 08
    18
    An excellent article, well done by the author, raised the serious topic of military duty, honor and dishonor! I would like to comment on a couple of points. 1) "... the 110-gun frigate Selimie" was actually a three-deck battleship. 2) Aivazovsky's painting on the intro of the article - it always seemed strange to me - "Mercury" was in the line of the oncoming fire of the Turks, and during salvo firing, the Turks would rather slap each other on an onboard salvo, unless only aimed single fire from the lower decks. 3) There is an opinion that "Fazli-Allah "by the time of the Sinop battle, it was already withdrawn from the Turkish fleet, this name passed to another ship, which was destroyed. 4) An excerpt of a letter from a Turkish officer-letter from the navigator of" Real Bey ", a participant in this battle, dated 27.05.1829/5/XNUMX from of intercepted mail, got to the commander of the Black Sea Fleet Greig-the best evidence of the feat of "Mercury". XNUMX) The death of the hero at the hands of "corrupt officials" is of course not only a tragedy, but also a strong illustration of Russian reality, especially in the light of recent years. Article "+" good
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 7 February 2016 11: 46
      +9
      Quote: Vladislav 73
      An excellent article, well done by the author, raised the serious topic of military duty, honor and dishonor! I would like to comment on a couple of points. 1) "... the 110-gun frigate Selimiye" was actually a three-deck battleship


      There is also an explanation for the incredible victory of Mercury-:

      When close, but slightly behind the “Mercury”, the ships, given their contours, could aim with only eight to ten nose guns, since the guns can rotate no more than 15 degrees in the side embrasures, while short carronades “ Mercury ”had more opportunities for aiming and could fire at the mast and rigging of the enemy. Thus, almost throughout the battle, with the exception of two episodes, the ratio of active trunks was 16 — 20 among the Turks versus 18 among the Russians.

      Skill plus courage is the cause of this miracle.
    2. PSih2097
      PSih2097 7 February 2016 13: 47
      +6
      Quote: Vladislav 73
      Aivazovsky’s picture on the splash screen of the article — it always seemed strange to me —




      1. ICT
        ICT 7 February 2016 15: 25
        +4
        ...............
        back
    3. pacific
      pacific 4 March 2016 22: 43
      +1
      In one of the first issues of the magazine "Gangut" there is a laying of maneuvering "Mercury" and Turkish ships. It is very clearly seen there that the Turks were not able to put the brig "in two fires".
      Kazarsky’s mastery consisted in the fact that he was able to keep the brig on the cannons of both Turkish ships, practically outside the area of ​​fire of their side guns. And linear guns, too, were not too often able to shoot accurately at the brig.
      This explains the overwhelming amount of damage to the sails and rigging - the Turks first of all tried to deprive the brig of the course in order to catch up and take in ticks.
      For anyone interested, find an article in the "Gangut" in the Internet - everything is very competently described there for all 3 phases of this wonderful battle.
      Aleksander (y) is my plus.
  6. samarin1969
    samarin1969 7 February 2016 08: 09
    +5
    Thanks to the author, ... I didn't know about Raphael. In the pseudo-scientific literature, there are many statements that the first to lower the flag were the battleships of Admiral Nebogatov after Tsushima.
    Well, the history of Kazarsky is just a historical cut of Russia: from a pistol on the hook camera to a "cup of coffee".
  7. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 7 February 2016 08: 25
    17
    What I would like to add. Stroynikov's act was unambiguously interpreted as cowardice and cowardice. But in the days of the "democratic frenzy of the 90s" an attempt was made to justify this outrageous case. Vladislav Krapivin in his novel "The Bronze Boy" justifies Stroinikov's act with "humane considerations" - "In the face of fifteen enemy ships, Stroynikov suffered a" breakdown of his soul "and he realized the senselessness of such a death
    Despite the decision taken by the officers, given the hopelessness of the situation, the ship was handed over to save the lives of more than two hundred sailors. "It reminded me of something about the poll at Dozhd about the surrender of Leningrad, and of course, only for" humane "reasons .. ... request
    1. lazy
      lazy 7 February 2016 14: 04
      +5
      in childhood he was very fond of Krapivin, and sometimes he read to adults, renouncing unnecessary worries, and after this "work" somehow suddenly lost interest in him. ambiguous to put it mildly
      1. Moore
        Moore 7 February 2016 16: 34
        +5
        Yes, in the 70s the boys were read by Krapivinsky "Boy with a Sword", "Riders from Rosa Station" ...
        And then in the "rebuilding" and the 90s, it turned out that romantic writers also want to eat. Take the same Rybakov.
  8. BIGLESHIY
    BIGLESHIY 7 February 2016 08: 42
    +7
    So the proper name "Mercury" is for one of the ships of the Black Sea Fleet. So that the Turks would remember and we would not forget.
    1. Vladislav 73
      Vladislav 73 7 February 2016 08: 50
      +6
      And also "Azov" - the first ship awarded the St. George flag. After the Navarino battle. Also with the Turks. good
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  9. Lebedev Sergey
    Lebedev Sergey 7 February 2016 08: 52
    +7
    In honor of the brig "Mercury" several ships of the Black Sea Fleet were named:
    sailing corvette built in 1865 year
    1883 cruiser built and
    hydrographic vessel. From 1907 to 1922, the Cahul armored cruiser bore the name “Memory of Mercury”.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 7 February 2016 11: 50
      +2
      Quote: Sergey Lebedev
      hydrographic ship.


      the hydrographic vessel “Memory of Mercury” was built in 1960. In the 1990 years, the vessel participated in commercial cargo flights between Turkey and Crimea. In 2001 year, 90 miles from Sevastopol, overloaded with Turkish goods, “Memory of Mercury” sank. Such a terrible fate at the ship with such a glorious name ....
  10. Cartalon
    Cartalon 7 February 2016 09: 29
    +3
    It’s an excellent article, and feeding from a post has always been the norm, and the fight against corruption has always been ostentatious.
  11. TVM - 75
    TVM - 75 7 February 2016 09: 37
    +8
    And at the present time the Black Sea Fleet must have a battleship "Mercury"! In the name of the memory and glory of the Russian fleet!
  12. semirek
    semirek 7 February 2016 09: 39
    +7
    I read about "Mercury" back in my school years in "Pioneer" - I don't remember the author, I remember that Russia did not immediately find out about this feat - there was an Englishman on the Turkish ship - he described that battle, and sent a letter to Europe. I did not know the fate of the commander.
    The military people of Russia, especially the sailors, live and must live according to special laws, the first of them is the honor of dying the Motherland, yes, you can, of course, manipulate the terms about the preservation of the team, I'm talking about Stroynikov, to disguise my cowardice, save my life, but here is a not a walk along the Gulf of Finland with the ladies on a pleasure boat - death at a combat post is always better than being captured or imprisoned in the homeland at best. The commander of the Varyag Rudnev also had the opportunity to go ashore, giving the cruiser to the Japanese, saving himself and the crew, but for some reason he went against the squadron and fought as far as possible.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 7 February 2016 11: 35
      +2
      Quote: semirek
      - death at a military post is always better than captivity or prison at best in the homeland

      Moreover, 2 / 3 teams still died in captivity ...
      1. shasherin.pavel
        shasherin.pavel 7 February 2016 20: 15
        0
        Quote: Aleksander
        that 2 / 3 teams still died in captivity.

        Or died from the nuclei of the "Mercury" during the battle. They stuffed them into a bigger room, like herring into a barrel, and then one cannonball could injure and kill a quarter of the team.
      2. iouris
        iouris 8 February 2016 12: 34
        +1
        Practice shows that "options are possible."
        I support the tendency to make the names of traitors public. The very fact of publishing confirmed information about persons who dishonored their names is of great educational value. However, a certain amount of caution should be exercised here in order not to get caught up in the mess.
  13. UVB
    UVB 7 February 2016 09: 57
    +4
    I command when the brig comes to disrepair to replace it with another, new one, continuing this until later times, so that the memory of the significant merits of the brig team "Mercury" and his name in the fleet never disappear and, passing from generation to generation, serve forever as an EXAMPLE OF EMPLOYMENT " .
    In my opinion, it is simply necessary to renew this rule by a presidential decree.! "Mercury" should be part of the Black Sea Fleet!
  14. EDP
    EDP 7 February 2016 09: 58
    +3
    An amazing story, as if the supreme forces were edified by future generations, against the backdrop of Rafail's betrayal, decided to exalt the Feat of Mercury's team.
  15. engineer
    engineer 7 February 2016 11: 10
    +3
    I agree. it is necessary to assign the name `` mercury '' to one of the missile ships of the Black Sea Fleet. Such traditions cannot be lost.
    1. King, just king
      King, just king 8 February 2016 20: 57
      0
      Is "Memory of Azov" possible?
  16. kvs207
    kvs207 7 February 2016 11: 44
    +2
    Quote: samarin1969
    There are many allegations in the pseudoscientific literature that Admiral Nebogatov’s battleships were the first to lower the flag after Tsushima.

    In the history of the Russian fleet, it is not regrettable, there were a lot of ships and ships that lowered the flag and / or were captured by the enemy. According to Veselago's book, I counted more than 40, but from this list, only about a dozen, more or less large and not always captured, occurred during the battle. In several cases, ships were hijacked at piers when attacking from land.
  17. Kirill
    Kirill 7 February 2016 12: 45
    +1
    “As the legend says, Nicholas I forbade him to marry and have children until the end of his days, saying at the same time:“ Only cowards can be born from such a coward, and therefore we will do without them! ”“ Strongly said! Well done Nicholas I
    1. shasherin.pavel
      shasherin.pavel 7 February 2016 20: 23
      0
      Quote: kirill
      Strongly said!

      Only he is married for the second time! And divorce at that time was shameful and was not very approved by the church and society. Corruption is corruption, and the rules of high society were stronger than state law. If he was already married for the second time at that time, then he was an outcast of society and the incentive to surrender could have been hidden ... Apparently military psychologists should be more attentive to such people: various losers and outcasts of society who are capable of surrendering ships to the enemy , hijack top-secret planes abroad.
      1. Kirill
        Kirill 7 February 2016 20: 56
        +1
        Belenko osobisty blinked. And about the psychologists agree. Even in youth, negativity manifests itself.
  18. aleks.29ru
    aleks.29ru 7 February 2016 13: 05
    +1
    "Compatriots" in Odessa have always been "specific" ..
  19. King, just king
    King, just king 7 February 2016 13: 06
    0
    In the "Death of a Hero" part, the author retells only Shigin's version, just a version! In Shigin's book, Greig and the Jews are demonized (where without them), and Kazarsky is brought out as a knight without fear or reproach. BUT !, this is just the author's VERSION!
    1. King, just king
      King, just king 7 February 2016 19: 56
      -1
      Eccentric wonderful put cons (3). You at least show up, justify the position. I'm on the downsides in parallel, I'm interested in your arguments. I am sure that none of the three of you have a book, and if you add more minuses, then I have not read the next ones.
      And then quietly - minus the bride why and in the bushes!
  20. VohaAhov
    VohaAhov 7 February 2016 13: 07
    +2
    I command when the brig comes to disrepair to replace it with another, new one, continuing this until later times, so that the memory of the significant merits of the brig team "Mercury" and his name in the fleet never disappear and, passing from generation to generation, serve as an EXAMPLE OF EMPLOYMENT for all eternity
    And here in modern Russia they have forgotten about it. And if in pre-revolutionary Russia, and in the USSR there were ships and vessels bearing the glorified names "Mercury", "Memory of Mercury", "Kazarsky", then today there are no ships and ships with such names in the Navy, just as there is no ship with named "Rurik".
  21. Yarik
    Yarik 7 February 2016 13: 11
    +3
    The 110-gun frigate Selimiye set off after the Russian ship ...

    Ahem, "frigate" ... How. Linkor then had to be 800-gun? wassat laughing
    1. Yarik
      Yarik 7 February 2016 16: 00
      +3
      Interestingly, what kind of land rats minus the comment about the "free-standing frigate"? Teach materiel, quickly.
  22. King, just king
    King, just king 7 February 2016 13: 11
    0
    Quote: kvs207
    Quote: samarin1969
    There are many allegations in the pseudoscientific literature that Admiral Nebogatov’s battleships were the first to lower the flag after Tsushima.

    In the history of the Russian fleet, it is not regrettable, there were a lot of ships and ships that lowered the flag and / or were captured by the enemy. According to Veselago's book, I counted more than 40, but from this list, only about a dozen, more or less large and not always captured, occurred during the battle. In several cases, ships were hijacked at piers when attacking from land.


    Senyavin generally surrendered the squadron. True, with some reservations that sweeten the pill. And the British had to pay for the ships. But he surrendered the squadron!
    1. pacific
      pacific 4 March 2016 22: 55
      +1
      This is completely different. It’s not surrender, but internment in a neutral port.
      Senyavin the British caught in Lisbon when the squadron was standing and being repaired. Those. was not combat ready at all. So that he had no other choice.
      By the way, that is why the British had to buy these ships (rather dilapidated by that time), because it was not surrender, but internment. With the subsequent opportunity to raise the St. Andrew flag again.
      That would be a joy to the British to get a Russian squadron in the Atlantic - that’s why they had to buy
  23. Alex
    Alex 7 February 2016 13: 52
    +5
    Captain-Lieutenant Kazarsky to make captain 2 rank, give George 4 class, appoint to the aide-adjutants with the abandonment in the previous position and add a gun to the coat of arms.
    And here is this coat of arms.
  24. Old warrior
    Old warrior 7 February 2016 14: 34
    +1
    Interestingly, now in Our Fleet there is a ship "Mercury"?
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 7 February 2016 15: 50
      0
      As if not
    2. Yarik
      Yarik 7 February 2016 16: 02
      0
      The decree of the king is invalid. laughing
      1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 7 February 2016 18: 05
        +1
        It's a pity. A feat really ... I can’t even pick up the words. Out of the ordinary. And neither a monument nor a ship with that name ...
        1. Klos
          Klos 7 February 2016 19: 00
          +4
          "Sometimes the names of the heroes of the past are gone ..."
        2. Aleksander
          Aleksander 7 February 2016 22: 32
          +2
          Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
          . And neither a monument nor a ship with that name ...


          FIRST monument of Sevastopol-built in honor of Mercury and Kazarsky.
          Another monument was erected in Moscow, at the intersection of two avenues - Sevastopol and Nakhimovsky. It is a golden ship on a high pedestal (this one he himself did not see).
        3. mervino2007
          mervino2007 7 February 2016 22: 39
          +3
          Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
          no monument, no ship with that name ...

          There is a monument. In the Sevastopol.
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 8 February 2016 17: 22
            0
            So he was restored? I believed that he was destroyed during the Second World War
        4. vitya1945
          vitya1945 8 February 2016 05: 24
          +2
          The monument stands in Sevastopol.
          But there really is no ship.
  25. dv_generalov
    dv_generalov 7 February 2016 16: 00
    +2
    Beautiful and interesting article
  26. Weaving
    Weaving 7 February 2016 17: 38
    +3
    I liked the article, did not know about the feat of "Mercury". And I did not know about the shame of "Raphael". Thanks to the author.
  27. Damask
    Damask 7 February 2016 17: 59
    +2
    Cognitively, we need more history
  28. VohaAhov
    VohaAhov 7 February 2016 18: 46
    +1
    Quote: Old Warrior
    Interestingly, now in Our Fleet there is a ship "Mercury"?

    No. The last was the naval hydrographic vessel "Memory of Mercury"
  29. SlavaP
    SlavaP 7 February 2016 19: 50
    +3
    Thanks to the Author. The article is really not so much about "sea battle" but about the eternal struggle of valor and meanness.
  30. RoTTor
    RoTTor 7 February 2016 23: 07
    +1
    The Soviet naval flag NEVER lowered in front of the enemy. It would be worth saving him along with Andreevsky.
    Nikolai Pavlovich is a fair Sovereign.
  31. Reeds
    Reeds 8 February 2016 07: 15
    +1
    Let it be read by all those who think that we are weak. Yes, we are not that powerful country that was before, but do not forget whose blood flows with us and what we are capable of
    1. vlavek
      vlavek 8 February 2016 18: 10
      0
      Quote: Reed
      Let it be read by all those who think that we are weak. Yes, we are not that powerful country that was before, but do not forget whose blood flows with us and what we are capable of

      And does the blood of the lower ranks who surrendered the ship flow in American veins?
  32. Egen
    Egen 9 February 2016 06: 12
    +1
    Quote: vitya1945
    But there really is no ship.

    Wait, there is no way, at least I remember reading the Kazarsky brig and the first world series of mine cruisers of the Kazarsky type in the Baltic Sea, and in the Soviet fleet, if memory serves as a minesweeper ... So, heroes don't die!
    Many thanks to the author for the article with little-known facts!
  33. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 9 February 2016 08: 57
    +1
    wonderful article! For posterity as an example! thank!
  34. Yarik
    Yarik 21 February 2016 10: 17
    0
    There, in simple terms, it was, as usual, about the structural load. That is, if you are a frigate, then there are 2 decks and the length is no more than a certain one. The same applies to battleships, 3, for example, decks, but the length is again, within the "frigate". Tree. SOPROMAT.
  35. pacific
    pacific 4 March 2016 23: 01
    +2
    Quote: King, just king
    In the "Death of a Hero" part, the author retells only Shigin's version, just a version! In Shigin's book, Greig and the Jews are demonized (where without them), and Kazarsky is brought out as a knight without fear or reproach. BUT !, this is just the author's VERSION!

    This is not a version at all - in Soviet times, an investigation was carried out and there was even an exhumation of the remains in order to find out the cause of the death of Kazarsky.
    Everything was confirmed - he was poisoned with a monstrous dose of arsenic. And since the last days of his life are well documented, it is known how and by whom he was poisoned.
  36. Gost171
    Gost171 25 November 2016 02: 11
    0
    Plus to the author, thank you. It would be nice to continue, because there was so much in the history of the Black Sea Fleet, one release of Corfu is worth what.