Military Review

Finding Far Eastern Islands

34
Somehow here, in the “Military Review”, reading the article by Vyacheslav Olegovich Shpakovsky “Voynushka” is the favorite game of Soviet children, ”I remembered my childhood that I spent on Fr. Sakhalin in the military town of Smirnykh. In that distant time, we often climbed the underground passages and trenches of the Japanese remaining from that war. Found bayonets, cartridges and even aviation the bomb. And so I decided to write several articles on the development of this, my dearly beloved, island, on its liberation from the Japanese militarists.


Russia began to develop the Far East, namely Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the XVII century. Geographical descriptions and maps of the time show that neither in Europe nor in Asia there were any real ideas about the area of ​​present Sakhalin and the mouth of the Amur River. The land called Tartary ended with the "Ocean of the Sea". Even in neighboring Japan about the island, as well as about the other to the north of it, the islands were only fragmentary information. The then rulers of Japan pursued a policy of strict isolationism. They did not develop any external relations and, on pain of death, forbade the Japanese to visit other countries.

“And the Amur River fell into the ocean by the mouth of one, and against the mouth of the Amur at sea is a great island, and there are many foreigners living on it - Gilyaks of the kind”- this is what Sakhalin says in one of the ancient Russian documents.

Finding Far Eastern Islands


In Russia, the pioneers of Sakhalin were Cossack explorers who came to Amur from Yakutsk. They swam in strug and on rafts along fast and rapids rivers, followed mountain paths, wandered through the taiga, and again sailed along rivers, leaving fortified points on their way - fortresses. Such travels took many months, and sometimes years.



So in the winter of 1644 - 1645 in the lower reaches of the Amur, there appeared a detachment of Cossacks Vasily Danilovich Poyarkov. Having established friendly relations with the locals, the Nivkhs, the Cossacks found out that there was a large island opposite the mouth. From V.D. Poyarkov walked 130 Cossacks, only 20 returned, five of which, under the direction of Mikula Timofeev, he sent as messengers to Yakutsk. In the “interrogation speeches”, the couriers described Sakhalin and its inhabitants as such to the Yakut voevode: “The Gilyaks said: there is a island on the mouth of the Amur River in the bay, and on that island there are twenty-four ulus, but there are de Gilyaks, and in the district there are two hundred yards each.” The information of the expedition of Vasily Poyarkov, who declared Gilyakov filed by the Moscow Tsar and his drawings of Sakhalin, were used in 1667 in the compilation of the “Drawing of All Siberia, which was chosen in Tobolsk”.


Vasily Danilovich Poyarkov and Ivan Y. Moskvitin

There is information that before V.D. A detachment of Cossacks of Ivan Yuryevich Moskvitin visited Poyarkov in 1640 year, near Sakhalin, sent here for a “search of new townships”, and on the way to “see” the sea. Story I.Yu. Moskvitina about this voyage was recorded in the Yakut treasury hut as follows: “And by sea they went with the reins near the coast to the Gilyatsk Orde to the islands. And as some of the islands of the Gilyattsky Horde did not reach the bottom, they came ashore and with a sinful measure left their leaders. And ONET, Ivashko and his comrades, after reaching the islands came to the islands. And the land of Gilyat appeared, and the smoke appeared, and they did not dare to go without it because the people and their hunger lifted and died to eat grass and they did not return to hunger. ”. I will explain that the “driver” is a conductor.

Since that time, Russian explorers began to visit Sakhalin, tying up barter with local residents. The Cossacks received from them yasak fur in favor of the Moscow state and at the same time took the oath of allegiance to the new government. In 1649 and 1656, the Cossacks, who settled on the Amur River, collected sable pelts “in the land of Gilyaks” 4827. So, in the middle of the XVII century, the Russians began to settle down on Sakhalin Island.
A great contribution to the research and development of the Far Eastern lands was made by the brave Russian explorer Erofei Pavlovich Khabarov. In 1649, at the head of a detachment of free people, he emerged from Yakutsk and for five years traveled and studied the Amur region. Sent in 1652 year to communicate with E.P. Khabarovs, the Cossacks, under the command of Ivan Nagiba, missed him and repeated the route of V.D. Poyarkov. They not only confirmed the information Moskvitina and Poyarkova, but added new data about the island.

Simultaneously with Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands were also settled, inhabited by "autocratic", that is, to no one subordinate Ainu tribes - the Kurils. In Kuril language “kuru” means “person.” Hence the name of the islands. In 1649, Fedot Alekseevich Popov, with a detachment of seventeen people, arrived for the first time in the Kuril chain. Following him, the polar seafarer Mikhailo Starukhin visited the Kuril Islands in 1656, and the Yakut Cossack Luka Morozko visited the 1696 year.
The most important stage in the expansion of the Far East and in particular the Kuriles was the famous march from Anadyr prison of Cossack Pentecostal Vladimir Atlasov.


Vladimir Atlasov

In 1697, he went on a campaign to take Kamchatka "under the high Tsar's hand." For three years, his squad suffered deprivation and fierce adversity. From 120, only 20 returned to Anadyr. History almost repeated, as with detachment V.D. Poyarkov. When he arrived in the capital in 1701, he personally reported to Peter I about the subordination of Russia to the Kamchatka Peninsula, about the Kuril Islands, told by him, through which the way lies "A wonderful wonderful Nithon kingdom". He meant Japan. His report prompted the king to request additional information about this distant land from Yakutsk. In 1711, the Kamchatka Cossacks - participants in the rebellion, during which Atlas was killed, in order to atone for their guilt, went under the command of Danila Antsiferov and Ivan Kozyrevsky on small ships and canoes to Shumshu Island and subdued its inhabitants. In the 1713 year, Kozyrevsky with a detachment of Cossacks brought the Kurilians of Paramushir to Russian citizenship and gathered yasak on both islands. He was the first to draw a drawing of the entire ridge of the Kuril Islands and reported to the capital.

As is known, Peter I developed a special plan for the study and settlement of the newly emerging lands by the Russian people. In accordance with this, he sent a naval Kuril expedition under the command of Ivan Evreinov and Fyodor Luzhin (1719-1722). Performing the king's secret mission to go “To Kamchatka and further, where will you be indicated and describe the places where America has come together with Asia”, they put on the map the fourteen largest islands of the Kuril ridge. By securing Russia's rights to Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, Russian explorers installed crosses and pillars with inscriptions about the belonging of this land to the Russian state, and residents were taxed with yasak.



The Kuril Ainu paid tribute to Russian collectors, of whom there were only a few people, without the slightest resistance. During the expedition of the Russian navigator Martin Petrovich Shpanberg in 1739 - 1740 many Ainu were converted to Christianity, and by the time of the fourth revision conducted in 1781 - 1787, all the inhabitants of the Kuril Islands were already considered Orthodox. In 1779, the yasak collection was canceled. Catherine II wrote: “... they are left free and no requirement to collect them, and henceforth the tamo peoples must not be forced ...”.



At the end of the 18th century, at the suggestion of Grigory Ivanovich Shelekhov, a citizen of the town of Rylsk, who later gained fame as “Russian Columbus”, the largest Russian-American commercial and industrial company was established, which from 1799 to 1867 managed Russian ownership in the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Japan, including the Aleutian, Kuril Islands and Sakhalin.


Grigory Shelekhov

The company played a large role in the exploration and development of newly discovered lands, organized a series of round-the-world expeditions, including to Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. In December 1786, Catherine II issued a decree on equipping the first Russian round-the-world expedition. “To safeguard our right to the land, the Russian navigators opened” and approved the instruction, which ordered “to bypass the large Sakhalin island Anga Gaga lying against the mouth of the Amur, to describe its shores, bays and harbors, exactly like the mouth of the Amur itself and, since it is possible sticking to the island, to return on the state of its population, the quality of land, forests and works. "

This expedition took place only in 1803 year. It was headed by Ivan Fedorovich Krusenstern. The expedition was to find the sea route to Russian America, make a voyage to the shores of Sakhalin, deliver the Russian diplomat NP to Japan. Rezanov, who was one of the leaders of the Russian-American company. As is known, Rezanov’s mission ended unsuccessfully. The Japanese government refused to enter into diplomatic and trade relations with Russia. The Japanese answer was: “In ancient times, ships of all nations freely came to Japan, and even the Japanese themselves visited foreign countries. But then one of the emperors bequeathed to his heirs not to release the Japanese from the empire and to accept only the Dutch. Since then, many foreign cities and countries have repeatedly tried to establish friendly relations with Japan, but these proposals have always been rejected due to the long established ban. ”


N.P. Rezanov

Rezanov warned the Japanese not to go farther north than Hokkaido and left Japan. On the way from Nagasaki to Kamchatka, the Kruzenshtern ship approached Sakhalin and anchored 14 in May 1805 of the year in Aniva Bay. Ivan Fyodorovich studied him in detail, familiarized himself with the life of the Ainu, distributed gifts to them and confirmed the predecessor-executed state act of accepting the inhabitants of the island to Russian citizenship. In the summer of the same year, members of the expedition described and put on the map the entire east and north-west coast of Sakhalin, as well as the 14 of the Kuril Islands. It was the first map in the world to display the true contours of Sakhalin Island.


Ivan Fedorovich Krusenstern

By the way, the names of Sakhalin Island, its dimensions and outlines on the geographical maps of the time were different. The Russians called the island Gilat; Gilyaki - Tro Myth; the Chinese - Luchuy; Japanese - Oku-Yesso; the Dutch - Portland; Manchurians - Sakhalyan ula anga hata, which means "Rocks at the mouth of the black river"; Ainu - Choka, Sandan. Only in 1805, I.F. Krusenstern finally secured the name of Sakhalin Island.

To be continued

Sources:
L.G. Kamanin. "The first researchers of the Far East", M., 1951
P.I. Kabanov. Amur Question, Blagoveshchensk, 1959.
P.T. Yakovlev. "The First Russian-Chinese Treaty of the Year 1689", M., 1958.
B.P. Field. “Discoverers of Sakhalin”, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 1959.
L.S. Berg “Great Russian Travelers”, M.-L., 1950.
M.A. Sergeev. "Kurile Islands". M., 1947.
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  1. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 9 February 2016 07: 40
    11
    Thank you for the article! efficiently !!!! Eternal glory and memory to the explorers - Cossacks!
    1. Dembel77
      Dembel77 9 February 2016 08: 04
      11
      This was the first map in the world on which the true contours of Sakhalin Island were marked.
      With pride in your ancestors who created Great Russia, you read these lines! But, in order not to disgrace the affairs of our great ancestors, we must protect and increase every bit of the Russian lands.
      1. Mahmut
        Mahmut 9 February 2016 11: 00
        +2
        During the occupation of the southern half of Sakhalin, the Japanese greatly changed its appearance. The USSR was unable to maintain that level of infrastructure. The catacombs were flooded. Their airfields were dry year-round, as they were heated by a complex network of underground heating systems. Coal was mined there. All this was flooded, blown up, destroyed. It was quite unusual for me to see, among the absolutely wild overgrown taiga thickets, an iron-concrete pipe towering 50 meters in the forest. And nearby, overgrown hills with a clearly man-made profile. What was inside is a mystery. The only railway line was built by the Japanese.
    2. Generalissimo
      Generalissimo 9 February 2016 08: 16
      +3
      The land called Tartaria could not end with the "Ocean Sea". However, the Strait of Tartar is only 7 km wide at its narrowest point, and Sakhalin is visible from the Big Earth. And "Even in neighboring Japan" is their problem ...
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 9 February 2016 07: 41
    +5
    ... By the way, the Japanese shipbuilding industry was greatly influenced by the Russians .. It was in the image of the Russian ships that visited Japan .. the Japanese began to build their own ..
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 9 February 2016 09: 33
      +5
      This was much later. 1850s. Mission of Admiral Putyatin. Peaceful "discovery" of Japan, unlike Commodore Perry, who behaved in a completely different way: ".... On May 26, 1853, the East Indian squadron arrived in the Ryukyu Kingdom and anchored in the waters of the capital of Naha. Perry wished to visit the king's residence, Shuri Castle, but he was refused. Then the Commodore landed an armed assault in the capital and went to the castle without permission. The Ryukyu government, which did not have a strong army, was forced to accept the demands of the Americans. King Syo Tai let Perry and his officers to the castle. Guests were treated to tea and sweets, and they conveyed to the owners a message from the President of the United States demanding to establish diplomatic relations. Perry, officials of the royal administration organized a feast in his honor in the palace outside the castle, to which the Commodore invited them in responseto the frigate "Susquehanna", where he treated him to French dishes. Thanks to this reception, the American command assessed the mission in Ryukyu as successful. The Ryukyus people, who were able to politely reject the ultimatum demands of the United States, save the capital from the pogrom and receive foreign ambassadors at a level lower than that usually received ambassadors from Qing China [12], believed in the same way.

      June 9, leaving part of the squadron in Nasi, Perry sailed in the direction of the uninhabited islands of Ogasawara. During June 14-18, he investigated them and declared possession of the United States. However, this act remained declarative due to the protest of Britain and Russia, who considered the islands their own [13]. On June 23, the Commodore returned to Ryukyu, and nine days later, on July 2, 1853, he sailed to the Japanese archipelago with 4 ships: Mississippi, Susquehanna, Plymouth and Saratoga [14] .... "
    2. Uncle VasyaSayapin
      Uncle VasyaSayapin 9 February 2016 11: 45
      +1
      I think it didn't take long for them to build analogs of the Pallada wooden frigates.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 9 February 2016 13: 48
        +2
        Quote: Uncle VasyaSayapin
        I think it didn't take long for them to build analogs of the Pallada wooden frigates.

        Look at the book by S. Sulig "Ships of the Russo-Japanese War". then you will find out who built and taught the Japanese to build their own Navy.
  3. sledge
    sledge 9 February 2016 07: 50
    +3
    Thank. We look forward to continuing.
  4. Samaritan
    Samaritan 9 February 2016 08: 00
    +1
    Thank you so much, I read it with pleasure. That would be for Wikipedia!
  5. Balagan
    Balagan 9 February 2016 08: 48
    +4
    The Dutch a year earlier, in 1643, reached Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. But de Vries took this land for Hokkaido (Jeso) and the crew’s illness forced him to turn back. The holding held the Europeans, however, the Cossacks left a place ...
  6. Bayonet
    Bayonet 9 February 2016 10: 24
    +4
    Thanks to the author, they rarely tell about their native Sakhalin. By the way, we are fellow countrymen - I come from Buyuklov, the author will understand wink
    Now there are no 528th fighter aviation regiments in Smirny. A military town with almost no military personnel and a dozen conscripts. And I remember how fighters, taking off, passed the sound barrier seemed to be exactly above my house ...
    1. Mangel olys
      9 February 2016 11: 00
      +6
      Glad to meet you, Dmitry! Next, I plan to write a sequel on the occupation and liberation of Sakhalin, which will explain why the villages have such names (Smirnykh, Buyukly).
      Yes ..., it’s a pity that the 528 th IAP was gone. How much we have been ruined since the nineties!
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 10 February 2016 06: 20
        +1
        Great, the more fellow citizens know about our islands, the fewer replicas on TV "on the Sakhalin Peninsula" laughing I'm not talking about history. The 58th parallel, Haramitogi, Leonid Smirnykh and Anton Efimovich Buyukly - all this is so dear. I remember the pioneer campaigns in Pobedino, the Iskra camp ...
        But it was destroyed and the truth was almost everything. Huge state farm, house-building plant, forestry and timber industry. What can I say, the population of Buyuklov from 7-9 thousand is now at the strength of 1200 old people and children.
        Here is the latest news about our little Motherland: http://astv.ru/news/society/2016-02-10-perspektivi-sela-buukli-stolknovenie-inte
        resov
  7. rusmat73
    rusmat73 9 February 2016 10: 41
    +4
    good More such informational publications !!!
    someone just found out, and someone picked up more new knowledge on the history of Russia.
    Thank you! yes
  8. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 9 February 2016 11: 00
    +2
    This is not a mulberry, no reservations and wars with the natives (well, almost), as in some "democratic" countries.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 9 February 2016 11: 39
      +1
      Quote: cth; fyn
      This is not a mulberry, no reservations and wars with the natives (well, almost), as in some "democratic" countries.

      200 miles is not a distance, 100 kilometers is not a hook. To the author plus definitely. Even a brief overview of our region is a very difficult task. So far the first stage: Galloping across Europe, but I repeat again, the task is very difficult, write not only the history of the Far East, and even Lower Amur and Sakhalin. There are almost no written sources, and the documented history of our region begins with the campaigns of Vasily Poyarkov and Erofei Khabarov.
    2. Mera joota
      Mera joota 9 February 2016 11: 57
      -2
      Quote: cth; fyn
      This is not a mulberry, no reservations and wars with the natives (well, almost), as in some "democratic" countries.

      Yes, that's for sure ... only there are practically no natives left, unlike the "democratic" countries ...
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 9 February 2016 12: 17
        -1
        Quote: Mera Joota
        Yes, that's for sure ... only there are practically no natives left, unlike the "democratic" countries ...

        And here there was basically no indigenous population. Read the recollections of the pioneers on the Amur in the 19th century. Venyukov, Maksimovich, Soldatov, Maak. If you wish, you can still find. All of them lived in the 19th and early 20th centuries. So you will not find propaganda here.
      2. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 9 February 2016 12: 52
        +4
        Therefore, there was no longer that they were accepted as equals, and since they were few in number, they "dissolved" in the Russian people. Look, the large nationalities, the same Khakases and Buryats, have survived, although the vast majority of them are mestizo, there are practically no pure carriers.
        That’s the whole difference, we accepted the natives, and the democrats pulled away from them and drove them into the reservation.
        1. Mera joota
          Mera joota 9 February 2016 13: 17
          0
          Quote: cth; fyn
          and since they were few in number, they "dissolved" in the Russian people

          C'mon, do you have a lot of Yukagirs in your relatives? Partial assimilation was, yes, but a lot has died out. So who should put a monument to the Soviet government, so these are the small peoples of Siberia and the Far East, did not give an abyss from the planet.
          Quote: cth; fyn
          the same Khakases and Buryats, although among them the vast majority of mestizos, there are practically no pure carriers.

          Well, you don’t need to stoop to stupidities, of course there are mixed marriages, there are Sahalari, Gorans, but the Khakass and Buryats (as well as the Yakuts and others) live apart.
          Quote: cth; fyn
          and the democrats pulled away from them and drove on the reservation.

          They preserved their identity and gave the right to live their own way, according to their own laws. Moreover, the American Indians (I suppose we are talking about them) get their share from the extracted resources, which the same Yakuts never dreamed of, otherwise Yakutsk would shine like Dubai ...
          How many schools in Russia teach in the Yakut language? 0, crap.
          1. Bersaglieri
            Bersaglieri 9 February 2016 15: 54
            +1
            Benefits for Indians (tax) and resource rent for Indians in reservations appeared, if my memory serves me, 40-50 years ago. Around the same time that black segregation was canceled.
          2. Cook
            Cook 9 February 2016 17: 33
            +1
            Something is not noticeable in Indian reservations, skyscrapers like Dubai. And about teaching in the Yakut language, you are not very right: "According to the number of students who receive complete secondary education in the national language in Russia, schools with instruction in the Yakut language have the highest rates in percentage terms - 17% of all schoolchildren, students in their native ethnic language. "
          3. cth; fyn
            cth; fyn 9 February 2016 20: 36
            0
            But the Indians do not have the right to vote in the elections, it’s democratic, and all citizens of the Russian Federation, regardless of their origin, religion and nation, are endowed with a full range of rights, freedoms, and duties granted by the constitution.
          4. sibiryouk
            sibiryouk 9 February 2016 22: 36
            0
            The Yakuts live very well, jeeps and Japanese snowmobiles are everywhere!
      3. Bersaglieri
        Bersaglieri 9 February 2016 15: 52
        +1
        I wonder where did they go? Nivkhs, Tungus and others are all alive and well.
        Some even to the highest state. posts rose, such as the mayor of Moscow, for example.
    3. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 9 February 2016 15: 50
      +1
      There were wars. To the south, with the Daurchi and Manchurians (remember "Albazin sitting"). North - with the Chukchi.
    4. edge
      edge 9 February 2016 15: 52
      0
      Quote: cth; fyn
      This is not a mulberry, no reservations and wars with the natives (well, almost), as in some "democratic" countries.

      but the Japs urgently cut out almost all the Ainu, today there are about 60 mutants left ....
  9. mira.36
    mira.36 9 February 2016 13: 32
    0
    Very informative. Thanks to the author. Can this article be forwarded to the Japanese? lol to get unhooked. We still won’t give it back.
  10. Matsuda Kabushiki
    Matsuda Kabushiki 9 February 2016 16: 35
    +2
    The author is very interesting !!! Then tell me about Shikuku, as my Poronaysk was called, under the Japanese.
    1. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian 10 February 2016 13: 54
      0
      WWW Poronaysk! Sakhalin Point. RU.! Eh, it was a little time .. fellow
  11. Matsuda Kabushiki
    Matsuda Kabushiki 9 February 2016 16: 40
    +1
    Please tell me how to get rid of the flag of the Czech Republic ???
    1. Gomunkul
      Gomunkul 9 February 2016 17: 32
      +1
      Please tell me how to get rid of the flag of the Czech Republic ???
      Accept the citizenship of any other country. wink laughing
    2. igordok
      igordok 9 February 2016 18: 15
      +1
      Quote: Matsuda Kabushiki
      Please tell me how to get rid of the flag of the Czech Republic ???

      Do not access the site from mobile devices.
    3. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 9 February 2016 20: 40
      0
      Et cho, you look at mine, I am Romanian or Hungarian ... These European countries are so small ... That you will not remember everyone.
  12. Vadim42
    Vadim42 9 February 2016 20: 36
    +1
    Wonderful article! Nothing more to say.
  13. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian 10 February 2016 13: 52
    0
    Many thanks to the author for the article. Sakhalin is a wonderful island. I still regret that I did not bring a sapling of cotton with me ...