The project promising training aircraft (TCB) was designated CP-10. This machine is developed by the private Moscow design bureau Modern aviation technology ”(Design Bureau“ SAT ”). The project was launched at the initiative of the development company, and later had a chance to interest the military department and get its support. However, unfortunately the developers, the military chose another project that participated in that competition.
The work on the CP-10 project was launched on a proactive basis in 2007. During the first few years, the staff of SAT Commercial Bureau worked on the development of various key issues, and by the year 2009 formed the overall look of a promising TCB, which allowed it to be presented at the MAKS exhibition in Zhukovsky. Further design work continued. At the same time, the design office attempted to offer its development to the Ministry of Defense.
Three-dimensional model CP-10
It is reported that in the framework of a promising project, the design bureau carried out a number of necessary studies in various fields and successfully solved several important tasks. Issues related to the aerodynamics of the aircraft, the strength of the units and used in the construction of materials were successfully resolved. In addition, several non-standard ideas were proposed that had not previously been widely used in aviation.
At the beginning of 2014, the Russian Ministry of Defense held an open competition for the best design of the aircraft intended for the initial training of flight personnel. Two projects were submitted for this competition: CP-10 from SAT Commercial Bank and Yak-152 from Yakovlev. The military specialists analyzed two proposed projects and selected the most successful one. The best option for training aircraft pilots considered the project Yak-152. In the future, this project received the support of the military. According to previously announced plans, the development of the Yak-152 project and the necessary prototype checks should be completed within a few years. In 2017, it is planned to launch mass production of new machines.
Unable to win the Defense Ministry competition, the CP-10 project did not stop. SAT CB found partners for its further implementation, and also took certain measures aimed at promoting its development. The Aviaagregat plant (the city of Makhachkala) became a partner of the design bureau. Among other things, such a partnership allowed project developers to enlist the support of the leadership of the Republic of Dagestan. At the end of the autumn of 2014, the first reports of the results of cooperation appeared.
Layout at the exhibition MAKS-2009
It turned out that in the spring and summer of 14, the Aviaagregat enterprise and the Dagestan leadership took a number of measures aimed at promoting the CP-10 project. In particular, it was proposed to finalize the technical task of the competition. The result of negotiations, consultations and review of documentation was the resolution of the Ministry of Defense concerning the construction of experienced aircraft. It was reported that in the year 2015 should build four aircraft prototype of the new model.
In connection with the appearance of such messages among specialists and the public interested, the question arose about the reasons for changing the opinion of the Ministry of Defense regarding the new project. So, there was an assumption that, based on the results of the negotiations, it was decided to change the planned system of training of flight personnel. In this case, the aircraft Yak-152 and Yak-130, which is planned to conduct initial and combat training, respectively, can join the CP-10. This aircraft can be a transitional link between the Yak-152 and the Yak-130. How this assumption is true - is unknown.
Having received the necessary permission from the Ministry of Defense, the project participating organizations began to prepare the construction of prototype aircraft. The site for the construction was the Aviaagregat Makhachkala plant. It is also planned to expand the mass production of equipment. Despite earlier information, until the end of the 2015, only one new prototype aircraft was released for testing. Rolling out this car took place in late August last year. Since that time, he has passed part of the checks, and also managed to rise into the air.
Before the first flight
At the end of December 2015, there were reports of the test. According to official data, 25 December, the first prototype of the TCF CP-10 first took to the air. For testing, the aircraft was delivered to the airfield Oreshkovo (Vorotynsk, Kaluga region), previously owned by DOSAAF, and now under the jurisdiction of the Albatross Aero flying club. After a series of ground checks, the plane made its first flight. In its first flight, the CP-10 was operated by pilots Yu.M. Kabanov and M. Mironov.
According to the “Modern Aviation Technologies” design bureau, the task of the first flight was to check some features of the aircraft, in particular, a number of flight characteristics, stability and controllability, operation of systems, etc. According to the results of the flight, the test pilot noted that the aircraft proved to be dynamic and enjoyable to fly. Characteristics during the flight corresponded to their calculated values.
For some time, the organizations participating in the project should conduct full-fledged tests of the new aircraft, the results of which will determine its further fate. Official reports on the progress of the project still look optimistic and give hope for a successful completion of work. Nevertheless, the real prospects of the CP-10 project still look hazy and uncertain. For various reasons, a new training aircraft with equal probability can reach the troops or NOT leave the test stage.
Tail of the aircraft
According to official data of SAT design bureau, the goal of the project is to create a new jet training aircraft for personnel training and use in aerobatic competitions. The technical assignment implies the execution of pilotage figures with overloads from + 8 to -6. Also, the aircraft must have aerodynamics and super-maneuverability, which will allow it to show characteristics at the level of the 4 and 4 + fighter generations.
From the point of view of design, the CP-10 is a single-engine jet mid-plane with an integrated aerodynamic layout. Requirements to reduce the size and weight indicators, as well as the need for a number of specific tasks led to the formation of the characteristic look of the aircraft. Because of this, in particular, the CP-10 looks similar to other modern TCBs of domestic development: the Yak-130 or the MiG-AT. At the same time, the new aircraft has a number of characteristic differences, due to which it must have different characteristics.
The CP-10 received a relatively compact fuselage of variable section, combined with onboard units accommodating air intakes, landing gear sections, etc. In the forward part of the fuselage provides a relatively large double cabin. The pilots are located in two workplaces placed in tandem. The developer claimed the use of ejection seats class «0-0», ensuring the rescue of the crew in all flight modes, as well as in the parking lot, including at zero speed and zero altitude. Both pilots are located under a large general lantern.
At the level of the cockpit on the sides of the fuselage, the developed root flows of the wing begin. These elements of the bearing surface are transferred to the center section, and their main task is to optimize the flow past the wing and other elements of the aircraft. Under the influxes, with a significant shift from their front built point, there are two air intakes of rectangular cross section. Apparently, curved channels are provided behind them, which exhaust air from the two intakes to a single-engine compressor. The tail part of the fuselage has a characteristic shape, formed by a central unit of a streamlined shape of variable circular cross section and side constricted surges. On the sides of the latter there is a full-circle horizontal tail. On the fuselage of the aircraft provides keel with a rudder.
The most important feature of the TCB-10 TCB project is the wing design used. Unlike other training and combat aircraft operated and operated by the domestic Air Force, the CP-10 receives a forward swept wing. The leading edge has a moderate reverse sweep of the order of 10 °. The rear edge with ailerons and flaps differs in the increased value of this parameter. It is argued that the use of the backward-swept wing can significantly increase flight data and maneuverability of the training aircraft, as well as reduce the risks in performing aerobatics. Among other things, the likelihood of involuntarily stalling a car into a tailspin is reduced.
As follows from the available data, different materials are used in the design of the CP-10 aircraft. Thus, the airframe trim consists of metal and composite parts. The exact composition of the structure and types of materials used, however, are not reported. Available photos of the first flight prototype suggest that, at a minimum, control surfaces and some elements of the fuselage skin are made of composites.
The power plant of the CP-10 consists of a single turbojet engine mounted in the rear fuselage. Previously published data, according to which the aircraft can receive engines such as AL-55 or AI-25TL. In both cases, the machine must have high flight performance, providing a complete solution of the tasks.
According to some sources, the first prototype of the CP-10 aircraft received an AI-25TL twin-turbojet engine with a thrust of up to 1720 kgf. According to some reports, the prototype was not equipped with a new engine: this unit was operated for some time as part of the power plant of some other aircraft. Details of this are unknown, however, judging by the reports of the first flight, the existing engine coped well with the tasks assigned and allowed the flight tests of the new aircraft to begin.
The composition of the onboard electronic equipment has not yet been reported. In this case, it is argued that, among other avionics, the aircraft must receive a special system that will be responsible for diagnosing other equipment. Such a system should improve the reliability of the onboard equipment and thereby simplify the operation of equipment.
According to the developer, the crew cabin should provide the most comfortable working conditions. In addition, the composition of its equipment should provide comprehensive training for pilots. Previously published photos of workplaces pilots, which allow you to get an idea about the composition of the equipment. The main controls of the CP-10 are the “traditional” controls of the aircraft and the engine. Additional controls are placed on the dashboard and side panels. All necessary for piloting devices are installed on the frontal board and are mainly represented by conventional arrow indicators. In addition, the board is equipped with a single monitor with a button frame.
Due to its low mass, the prospective aircraft is equipped with a traditional three-post landing gear with a front support. All racks have one wheel, while the wheels of the main racks have a larger diameter in comparison with the nose. There is a depreciation system. In flight, the pillars are retracted into the fuselage: the forward bow goes forward into the compartment in the fuselage fairing, and the main ones turn to the axis of the vehicle and fit into the side sections of the fuselage, under the center section.
Some design characteristics of the aircraft have been published. The maximum take-off weight is determined at the level of 3,1 t. The engine with a thrust of the order of 1750 kgf will allow the machine to reach speeds of up to 800 km / h and rise to heights of up to 11 km. Practical range declared at the level of 1200 km. Due to the special design of the wing, the landing speed was reduced to 180 km / h, which should ensure greater safety of operation and training.
Interior front cabin
Apparently, already at the stage of development, certain possibilities for updating and upgrading are laid in the CP-10 project. So, it is assumed that in the future, various modifications of the basic training aircraft will be developed and built, modified in accordance with the wishes of customers. At the same time, it is planned to build both relatively simple aircraft in the basic configuration, which has a relatively small range of tasks, and complex multifunctional machines with special equipment.
In the “maximum configuration”, the modified CP-10 can become a full-fledged training or combat trainer aircraft, capable of solving problems associated not only with the preparation of flight personnel, but also with the attack of various ground or air targets. In this case, the potential customer will have the opportunity not only to purchase a finished aircraft offered by the manufacturer, but to choose one of several modifications that best meets their requirements.
Also in the plans of KB "Modern Aviation Systems" there is an expansion of the capabilities of the aircraft on the basis. At present, the CP-10 can only take off from land aerodromes. In the future, the creation of a new modification adapted for use on aircraft carriers is not excluded. In this case, carrier-based aviation will be able to receive a training or combat-training aircraft, suitable for training pilots and conducting combat.
According to the current plans of the companies participating in the project, the CP-10 aircraft and its modifications for various purposes should win their place on the market of training and combat aviation combat equipment and keep it behind them for 15-20 years. As potential customers of the new aircraft are considered the air forces of Russia, as well as other states. This assumes the possibility of acquiring aircraft, both public and private customers.
At present, various tests and tests of the first experimental aircraft of the CP-10 type are continuing. This car first took to the air at the end of last year and for some time it will have to undergo a complex of necessary tests, the results of which will determine its further fate. Companies involved in the project are looking to the future with optimism and counting on contracts with Russian and foreign customers. However, the CP-10 project is still a topic of active controversy, and its real prospects have not yet been determined.
Like many other projects, the TCB-10 has advantages and disadvantages. The first can be attributed to a number of features of the project of a technical and other nature. Thus, the CP-10 is only the second domestic aircraft with a backward-swept wing that has reached the test, which in itself can be considered an achievement. In addition, the project on its own initiative was developed by a relatively young private company, which so far is rare for the domestic aviation industry. Finally, it can be assumed that the CP-10 project may indeed be the basis for various modifications of equipment, which is able to find its place on domestic and foreign airfields.
However, there are obvious flaws or problems. Thus, due to the loss in the 2014 competition of the year, the CP-10 aircraft could not receive government funding. For this reason, CB “SAT” and the plant “Aviaagregat” have to continue the implementation of a fairly costly project at its own expense. This adversely affects the pace of work, and can also lead to their freezing or a complete stop. Thus, without the full support of the military department, the project may have ambiguous prospects.
A separate topic of disputes and discussions is the technical appearance of the proposed aircraft. He has a generally familiar appearance, which resembles some of the existing fourth-generation fighter jets or training aircraft. Nevertheless, CP-10 is proposed to be equipped with a backward sweep wing, which has long attracted the attention of designers, but so far has not been able to reach full practical use. This is hampered by some specific requirements for the design of such a wing, as well as an ambiguous composition of advantages and disadvantages. As a result, such a wing has so far been used only in experimental projects.
At present, an experienced CP-10 aircraft is being tested, the results of which can go into series and then replenish the fleet of training equipment of the Russian Air Force. Due to a number of different factors, such a project completion cannot yet be guaranteed. In addition, the very need for such a “transitional link” machine can be a subject of controversy. Thus, the new aircraft will not only stand the test, but also overcome a number of difficulties not directly related to the technique.
The future of TC-10, developed by the Modern Aviation Systems Design Bureau, has not yet been determined and is still a matter of dispute. At the same time, the project attracts attention by its origin and other features of development. Thus, regardless of the success that will be achieved during the test or during the progress of the project, the CP-10 aircraft will be able to take its place in stories domestic aviation. But if he can find application in the Air Force or interest other customers - time will tell.
On the materials of the sites: