I remember stumbled on the Internet somehow on the memories of someone from a wartime leader. He said that their main task in those years was not to give the children to the street. Parents are busy with great misfortune, but children cannot be shackled with the shackles of this misfortune. There was a clear statement: the war will necessarily end, but this time in the life of children should not be missed in any way. Yes, a lot of grief and fear around. But the main cures for ills are labor and cohesion.
By the beginning of World War II, this house was only six years old. But more than ten circles and studios have already worked here. Boys and girls were engaged in dancing, singing, modeling, learning to draw, knit, sew, play folk instruments (even had their own orchestra!), Mastered the performing arts.
Virtually no circle was closed, despite the fact that more than half of the teachers went to the front. Now classes in the circles were devoted to helping the front. In the summer they collected medicinal herbs, pine needles and handed over to pharmacy items. Specially created propaganda teams performed in hospitals, in front of fighters of the labor front, even went to the front. As a rule, for such performances, the guys themselves made gifts to the fighters: they sewed pouches, knitted mittens. None of the boys said that this was supposedly a girl's job. Among the pupils was the pioneer Vasya Kulikov. In preparation for the performance before the wounded, the boy sewed mittens. Workers and children brought home a certain amount of fabric, but this was not enough. For a week, Vanya himself went through almost all of Serpukhov, knocked on the house, asked the townspeople for help. And he gathered so much cloth, things and threads that he could not bring it all alone to the House of Pioneers. He was helped by eleven guys, and each was loaded, as they say, to failure.
At the beginning of the war, more than a thousand teachers and grown-up pupils of the Moscow city house of pioneers went to the front.
The remaining adults divided the children into large groups. Some helped to care for the wounded, others came to the rescue of workers of the military registration and enlistment offices and carried the stories, and still others performed in military units with amateur concerts. The content of almost all circles has changed: carpentry, handicrafts, young biologists ... Pioneers worked on collective farms, even mined peat. So, the pupils of the association "Tourism" in the summer of 1941, went to the city of Ozyory, which is not far from Kolomna. The local state farm desperately needed working hands - and these hands appeared: boys and girls fulfilled the norm by 300 percent! Thanks to them, the state farm made a profit in 15 thousand rubles. Girls from sewing circles now sewed mittens, pouches and even gymnasts. True, adults did the cutting of the fabric, but does it detract from the guys?
In the autumn of the same year, schoolchildren dug trenches, were on duty on roofs and in shelters. The guys helped adults in the blackout, collected waste paper and scrap metal. Surprisingly, at the same time, they did not overshadow study. In the House of Pioneers, special sections of the laggards even worked, where young “docks” helped everyone to understand misunderstood subjects and topics, pulled up younger ones, and prepared homework with them. We went to the nearest children's home, organized concerts for orphans, read poems to them, sang songs.
Today this building houses the puppet theater. And during the war years there was the House of Pioneers, where more than four hundred boys and girls were engaged in thirty eight circles and studios. The house was the organizer of the children's movement in Ulyanovsk "Rear-front". All the children came here to help their fathers-soldiers. Here we collected parcels to the front: in four years, almost ten thousand of them were sent! By the way, from the front, it happened, and thanks came from the fighters. They were read aloud at the training camp.
On the very first military spring, under the guidance of adults, the boys smashed a large vegetable garden, on which they grew several dozen varieties of vegetables and greens. "Persistent" vegetables - potatoes, beets, onions - were sent to the front raw. Cucumbers and tomatoes marinated in tubs and kegs, dried herbs. In the House of Pioneers, the aid point for the starving also worked: anyone could come and ask for help. Someone was given some vegetables, someone was put on food in the dining room.
Schoolchildren collected medicinal herbs - in 1943 alone, the pharmacy stations received more than two thousand tons. To collect traveled as under Ulyanovsk, and for many tens of kilometers from it. The motto was this: every blade of grass and flower should help the front.
Bitter (Nizhny Novgorod)
The town house of the pioneers was opened in 1943 year - adults found the strength to take care of the children. Earlier this building was a primary school. That created the House of Pioneers worked closely with schools in the city. Teachers who did not go to the front came to the children after classes, classes were held in the building of the House of Pioneers and in schools: by this, more than two thousand children were involved in helping the front. Classes in cutting and sewing circle were transferred to sewing and shoe shops. Many high school students began to work in the Schweinik atelier and carried out orders not only at their immediate place of work, but also took an additional home.
In 1941, a group of young railway workers was specially opened (led by a woman). Pioneers worked on the Gorky Railway.
They helped both livestock breeders and poultry breeders. They grew up young, were on duty at night, fed, watched the heat, harvested food, repaired the premises. Pigs and, sometimes, lambs, often taken to their homes. Pupils of the secondary school of the Bogorodsky district raised fourteen horses for the soldiers of the Red Army. At four o'clock in the morning, the students of the group of biologists went to tear grass for chickens (despite the fact that nobody missed classes in schools).
In the collective and state farms of the region, in the summer of 1942 alone, more than one hundred thousand schoolchildren worked, earning three and a half thousand workdays!
And this fact concerns not only the pupils of the House of Pioneers, but also all Gorky schoolchildren: the guys helped the schools of the regions liberated from the fascist scum. Here are the lines from the Gorky Commune newspaper from 10 in January 1942: “Students and teachers of three secondary schools in Avtozavodsky district: No.1, 19 and 7 - decided to help the secondary school in one of the areas liberated by the Red Army. The team of these schools made a commitment to assemble for the sponsored school a complete set of visual aids, textbooks and school supplies. Students started making some visual aids with their own hands. The collection of textbooks and manuals in other schools of the district begins. This wonderful initiative should be picked up by all schools of the city of Gorky and the region. Students sent 15 thousands of textbooks and visual aids to schools in liberated areas! ”
1 September 1941, the pioneers of school No. 102 addressed all schoolchildren in the city and region: “Guys! Let's help our fathers fighting the fascists! Let's build the tank "Gorky Pioneer", and we will earn money for it ourselves! "
In just four months, the young delegates of the pioneer detachments had already received the tank from the workers and transferred it to the front. In October, the 1943 of the year went to the front line another “children's” tank, the Oleg Koshevoi. Schoolchildren of the Arzamas region additionally raised money for the construction of the aircraft, and schoolchildren of the Avtozavodsky district - for another tank.
And in fact there was time and energy for children's activities: pioneer meetings and competitions. In the summer of 1942, a rally of young naturalists and agricultural scientists was held. And about 5,000 children participated in the amateur art show (December 1942)! Moreover, adults in some completely incomprehensible way organized the rest of children in country pioneer camps, where in four years of war 120 thousands of boys and girls had a rest.
This House of Pioneers opened in 1938 year. Twenty circles worked here in which 960 boys and girls were engaged. But the war began. The building of the House became a hospital ...
Here are the memoirs of Zinaida Matveevna Kochetova, during the war years she attended a circle of young plants: “Upon learning that a hospital would be located in our building, all the pioneers immediately decided to help doctors and nurses to care for the wounded. Every day after class, we came here. There were many tasks: older girls were entrusted with boiling underwear, gauze and bandages. All of us have been taught to handle uncomplicated wounds and bandaging. We washed the fighters, combed them, carried them food, washed the dishes, cleaned the wards and corridors. We ourselves set night duty: a daily brigade of ten pioneers replaced each other. In the summer, everyone collected herbs. A competition was organized: which team would pick up more. Mine ranked second: in a month we collected kilograms of 568.
The pioneers, who had previously attended amateur groups, were preparing concerts for the wounded. We were strictly warned: if they are treated, nothing can be taken. And we had one boy, Vanya, still not even a pioneer. He once took either a piece of sugar, or candy. He was very ashamed that day, they said that nothing should be taken from the wounded, they need strength to beat the fascists. Scolded, scolded, and the next day, many guys brought Vanya something tasty. Everyone understood that he took the sweet then, not out of greed, but because he himself didn’t have a satisfying life, but he was still small. ”
Here, by the beginning of the war, about six hundred schoolchildren were engaged in sixteen circles. The guys immediately got involved in the enormous business of helping the front and did the same as the pioneers of other cities: they collected packages, sewed, knitted, and collected herbs. But separately I must say about the work of teachers who were able to combine the activities of children with the game. So, in the very first summer of the war, about five hundred pioneers participated in the game “To storm!”. In the struggle to pass the standards for a defense badge, schoolchildren learned to quickly put on gas masks, provide first aid, and navigate in the conditions of bombing. Every winter skiing was held: the guys had to deliver as quickly as possible to the places of "report" indicated on the impromptu map. Organized an excursion and tourist base, every summer the guys went hiking in historical places. They especially liked to be at the grave of the Decembrists.
Salsk (Rostov region)
This House today is still called the House of Pioneers, and not the house of creativity. During the war years, the city was occupied (31 July 1942 - 22 January 1943), the building was half destroyed: the roof was broken, windows were broken, the floor was demolished (the Germans were heating the stoves), and the ceiling had collapsed.
Of course, during the occupation the house of the pioneers had to be closed. But he worked right up to her and immediately after, despite the fact that the guys did not have a building now. In the first year of the war, schoolchildren helped the front: they sewed some mittens and knitted more than six hundred pairs. After the occupation, adults tried to work in such a way as to hold events for children on the street. Collection of medicinal herbs, cleaning the city. We created groups of help for those who did not succeed in their studies - the guys in detachments went home to the laggard, and they got real lessons. Organized hiking. During them, there was a tradition: be sure to sit in a circle and write a letter to the front of an unfamiliar fighter. One day, the guys received an answer from the 1 of the Belorussian Front: the fighter wrote that he read their news along with brother-soldiers and asked for permission to come after the war. In the war, he lost his family and would like to have friends among children.
The correspondence lasted quite long, and then broke off: apparently, the soldier died.
By the beginning of the war, many circles worked here: photo, radio, dog breeders, handicrafts, aircraft modeling, electronics, local history, automotive, physical education, dance, puppet theater, boys' choir, brass band. And not one during the war was closed! Moreover, in 1943, a pioneering song and dance ensemble appeared, headed by S.A. Zalivukhin, director of the Ryazan Music School.
The guys worked hard. They turned to the pioneers of the region with a proposal to earn money for the construction of a fighter. And as a result, not only the Ryazan Pioneer fighter appeared, but also tank column and armored train "Ryazan apprentice."
To the children were treated with orders. So, having received a military order for tailoring warm sleeveless jackets, girls from a cutting and sewing circle worked every day after classes in the Pioneer House for 4-5 hours (for work they received additional coupons for 200 grams of bread). The guys from the mug of soft toys sewed hares and bears for kids from kindergartens and even organized a special game room in the House, where the mother’s babies were brought if they had to leave. Engaged with the crumbs in this room, too, the pioneers, but already from the theater and teaching circles.
Five teams of timurovtsy took the soldiers' families under their care, were on duty in hospitals. The pioneers from the circles of amateur art had their own concert program for performances in front of the fighters. The choreographer in those years was Ida Aleksandrovna Milova. Leaving for the front along with the concert brigade, a student of the House of Pioneers Nina Kakutsa asked her to come up with a solo dance. Ida Alexandrovna came up with the “Victory March” with which Nina performed.
Quote from the 1944 summer report for the year: “Total circle coverage is 220 people. One of the tasks of the circles during the summer period is the preparation of pioneer instructors. In total, 40 people have been trained, who from the beginning of the school year will conduct circle work in schools. The house carried out mass work with the children of the city. The military leader conducted 2 campaigns on 3 and 5 kilometers, as well as 4 paramilitary games in Lukovsky and Nikulchinsky forest. 320 children took part in the games.
7 excursions and walks were conducted: to the Ryazan Kremlin, to the Oka, to the Borkovskoe Lake, to the Lukovsky Forest, to the Ryazan Museum. In the city park held 2 mass festivities for children. During the summer, the puppet theater of the House of Pioneers gave 48 performances: in kindergartens, children's facilities, tuberculosis sanatoriums, nurseries, hospitals, and districts. Due to the lack of light in the summer, only 4 film shows were possible. In June, an exhibition of children's technical creativity. There was a reading of fiction and talks about Chekhov, Gorky ... "