Military Review

The foundation of the aircraft

48
Heinrich Novozhilov: "The general designer begins in childhood"


Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences and twice Hero of Socialist Labor, Honorary General Designer of OKB S.V. Ilyushin Genrikh Vasilievich Novozhilov knows about aviation everything. But our conversation to a greater extent did not concern planes, but people whose talent and efforts create planes. How applicable is the Soviet slogan “The main wealth is people” in aviation? However, this question was just not asked ...

- How did the galaxy of ingenious designers emerge in the post-war years - Korolev, Tupolev, Glushko, Ilyushin? Those giants whose achievements we use so far.

- This is not quite true - they do not become geniuses in a year. The path of all these people, which led them to great achievements, began much earlier. If you look at the biography of any designer who has become outstanding, then everything went from an early age. If not from childhood, then from youth. Ilyushin began as a laborer at the Kolomyazhsky airfield of St. Petersburg, saw the Farman and Newport airplanes there and became ill with aviation forever. He became a mechanic, then he graduated from flight school, worked on repair trains — those that traveled to Grazhdanskaya across the country and restored planes that had been beaten off from the White Guards. That is, he understood the design of the aircraft long before he became a designer. The main thing - he had a desire.

He graduated from the Air Force Academy named after Professor Zhukovsky. Already in 1933, Ilyushin was appointed chief designer at the Central Design Bureau of Plant No. 39. Menzhinsky. Sergey Vladimirovich possessed the most valuable property - to foresee what the national economy or army will need, and not only at this moment, but in the coming years.

Ilyushin understood that there would be war. What is needed is such a bomber, which, as he said, will fly to Berlin from Minsk, drop a ton of bombs there and come back. So, at first, the prototype TsKB-26 aircraft appeared, in which all the latest achievements of aviation science were invested. Then DB-3 appeared, passed state tests and began to arrive at the army supply, then DB-3F, later renamed IL-4. The legendary Il-2 attack aircraft, Ilyushin also began to build several years before the war, realizing that in battles to support the infantry, such a “flying tank” would be needed.

Or passenger IL-12, the development of which began in the midst of war, in 1943-m. Even then, Ilyushin understood that the most common at that time DC-3, aka Li-2, would not be able to meet the country's peaceful aviation needs. The car went up in the sky in 1946. Its development was the IL-14, the favorite machine of the polar aviation pilots. From each plane, which was created by Ilyushin, Yakovlev, Tupolev, a new experience was born, which in its turn made it possible to undertake the creation of the next, more perfect model.

Then came IL-18. He has his own история. Usually Ilyushin spent his holidays in his homeland, in the Vologda region, he loved hunting and fishing. And then his wife persuaded to fly to Sochi. Upon his return, he was surprised to say: do you know who flies now by airplanes? It turns out that only travelers and few highly wealthy people. We must make the plane available to all. It was in 1955. A year later, a corresponding government decree was issued, and on July 4 of 1957, Vladimir Kokkinaki, chief-pilot of the design bureau, from the Central Aerodrome named after Frunze raised the first IL-18 to the sky. Then the time has come for the IL-62, which has long become the flagship of Aeroflot.

And this is the story of only one of those people whose names were heard in the question. There is no such thing that the time has come and suddenly a galaxy appeared, capable of creating something fundamentally new from nothing. All this was preceded by long years of development. Take a biography of any designer, not just aviation. Sergey Pavlovich Korolev started at GIRD. In fact, it was a rocket science club. And he launched the first rocket precisely because he was striving for this, it fascinated him. Antonov, Yakovlev, Tupolev - nobody dragged them into the aircraft industry by force, they lived by it, burned. And they managed to prove that they are capable of becoming leaders in their work, not only in their own country, but also in the world.

- Where are these people now? Where to get them? And do they need them?

- Now they are needed in the square, if not to the degree N, tending to infinity. For the simple reason - what we today call the fashionable word “innovations”, we have been in aviation all our life. Maybe not as a concept, but as a desire to make something new, better, while cheaper and faster.

- Are you able to see among the student students who came to you the one who would later become a talented designer?

- First of all, everything depends on the aspiration of the person himself - someone wants to become a policeman, like Uncle Stepa, someone a sailor, and someone gets sick with aviation. There is a desire, which then turns into a desire, and if a person really intends to achieve something in his interest, then he is looking for opportunities to do it. In my time, such opportunities were enough - children's technical stations, palaces of the pioneers, where they were engaged in circles for free. This is one side of the issue. The second is the general atmosphere. The 37 year is now mentioned only in connection with the repressions, but at the same time Chkalov and Gromov flew across the pole, Kokkinaki set world height records, flew to the Far East, then across the Atlantic. And I saw that the area that I like is aviation is respected by all. Plus the slogans “Komsomol on a plane”, plus flying clubs all over the country ... There is adrenaline in every young man, but now someone is becoming a “grab”, someone is climbing roofs, making deadly self portraits. And then you could lose adrenaline by going to the flying club.

- So, here you also need the responsibility of the country's leadership? This was the state program.

- Of course. In the ninth grade, it was already possible to sign up at the flying club, in the tenth grade - to fly. This greatly helped us during the war years, a huge number of combat pilots began precisely in schools OSOAVIAHIM. For the emergence of a specialist, you first need a desire. Then opportunities. And further - study, institute, design office ...

- If the state decides to raise the national design school to the previous level, it turns out, again we must start with the children?

- Everything in this world should be started with children (laughs). I do not know of a single person who, at a mature age, would create something brilliant without a proper foundation. No matter what you do, everything is laid much earlier, in childhood and adolescence.

- You are familiar with Joe Sattrom, the creator of Boeing 747. It certainly can be attributed to the outstanding designers. He did not talk about his arrival in the aircraft industry? Indeed, in the United States, as I understand it, there were no houses of pioneers and OSOAVIAHIM ...

- He is the creator of the best, in my opinion, aircraft in the world. And here the main thing is that a person must get sick with the desire to build airplanes. It is not so important what was in childhood, more important how he will eventually come to this. And we have not all started with models. Ilyushin made gliders, Tupolev at MVTU studied in Zhukovsky’s circle ... As for Sattra, everything was as we had — a yard, a school, a university. Then Joe served on navy, but sought design work. He came to Boeing as a simple engineer, and if he had not had the aspiration that I am talking about, he would never have grown to a position corresponding to the general designer. It took 20 years.

Where should striving come from? And how should it be supported? Any young person today appreciates what awaits him, how prestigious and profitable is the path he chooses. A very important factor is the choice of material and social situation.

In the years when I, having got sick with aviation, made my choice, we had two guys in the yard working at an aviation factory. The whole yard looked at them enviously - they were simple workers, but they went in cheviot costumes and received a decent salary. And if the workers in aviation live like this, then what about constructors. Of course, this is a very important factor.

- So, now the status of an aircraft designer cannot become the ultimate dream of a young man?

- I'm afraid it is. What attracted design work in the institute years? At MAI, we were actively prepared for design work, while in the fifth year we knew that when we came to the design bureau, the specialist received about 1,000 rubles in pure money — after paying income tax on childlessness, the mandatory purchase of government loan bonds. And what is a thousand rubles? Say, a hundred grams of vodka, a mug of beer and a sandwich cost ten rubles - that’s it. Such is the post-war "sandwich index", then the economy was not measured by bigmaks.

The foundation of the aircraft


I often speak at the round tables in the State Duma. And I say that a young man, after graduating from university and coming to production, wants to work and get something for it. But this is something that he considers normal, received by specialists who have worked 15 – 20 for years. If you give him the same salary right away, then what will the already existing designers say? It turns out that I teach him, and he gets more than me ... From this it follows that everyone needs to raise wages, starting from a young specialist.

- Economists say that mechanical wage increases lead to inflation ...

- A philosophical question. Remuneration may be based on different principles. Capitalist Bob Halperin, the vice-president of the firm, taught me that salary is determined by head, that is, abilities and qualifications. 1972 year, we are in America, our first delegation goes to the company "Boeing". On that trip, I had a chance to visit another American firm - Raychem in San Francisco. It was created by three professors (Halperin among them), engaged in the disposal of radioactive waste. They found that after irradiation, polyethylene radically changes properties. And based on their research, they developed insulation for wires that had a high melting point, non-combustible. If she melted, she did not emit smoke. By that time, I was already general, and I was interested in the system of organizing production and payment. Then it sounded: "You have to pay for the head." I ask: what about your bonuses? He replies: “What is the prize? Today is, tomorrow is not. Valuable professionals need to pay so much so that they are not lured away by competitors. But trouble and loss will happen, it is they who will be able to take the company out of a difficult situation. ”

At one time, our constructor’s salary was made up of salary, overtime, and a small bonus that the boss distributed. And the firm in which Bob worked was organized according to the principle of a national enterprise, all 2200 employees are shareholders. Research laboratory, pilot production, mass production - all together under a single leadership. And there was not even a dividend payment, which struck me: the income was not shared, but invested in production. And there were reports that can be read in the newspaper - how much at what point are the shares of the company. And if production worked with a profit, every worker, he is a shareholder, became richer.

- Imagine that from 1955 of the year - you are 30 years old, you are already an experienced specialist, but the whole work biography is ahead - you are transported to our day, say, to the air show in Zhukovsky. What would you, then the thirty-year-old, surprised in the current aviation, what would you have seemed impossible in those years?

- At that time, we were working on an IL-54 bomber, which was planned to replace the massive IL-28. All the achievements of those years were in this car. Speed ​​- 1000 kilometers per hour. Now the machines of the same class 2500 speed kilometers per hour. That is, the progress is obvious. I would be more surprised by the current missiles. In those years, the work of the rocket men was classified and we had no idea what had already been created at that time.

Aviation has always had the slogan “Fly faster, higher and farthest”, and I completely agree with it. The current aircraft really fly higher and farther and faster.

- At one time, I was surprised at the airport in Nome, Alaska - it was, like a parking lot at a supermarket, full of hundreds of private jets. This is a completely different aircraft industry niche ...

- Faster, higher, further - this is like an envelope, maximum task. And inside it there are separate niches, when planes are created under special conditions. In due time, congratulating Oleg Antonov on one of his jubilees, I said: “There are folk songs, and you created the people's plane - An-2!”. He has been in the line for so many years, he has solved so many problems. And our IL-18. And now, after 60 years after the first flight, there are two or three cars that carry passengers. Anti-submarine Il-38, Il-20 reconnaissance aircraft Igla, the Il-22 flying command center were created at its base. All these planes are still in service, they are being upgraded, changing the stuffing, but they serve faithfully.

As for the small universal aircraft of wide application, our young designers at one time developed the IL-103. I liked their work, and it was decided to pay special attention to its creation. Designed it, as they say, in an adult way. When assembling the cockpit, pilots from the Chkalov Aeroclub were invited; they did everything according to their wishes. The plane was awarded a gold medal at an exhibition in Brussels, received two certificates of the type of aircraft - with us and in the United States. In the mass production of the aircraft launched in Lukhovitsy, it went. It was built 54 aircraft. Then someone gave the command to stop mass production. On the plane are the engine "Teledayn" and the American propeller - we do not have an opposed engine with horizontal cylinders and will not be in the near future; So we made the plane as a commodity - six planes went to Peru, 22 went to South Korea. But now they don’t make him, and he’s good for training and for flying clubs.

Now we are engaged in the Il-112 light military transport aircraft, we are restoring the production of the IL-114, but not with the Canadian engines, with which it was recently manufactured in Tashkent, but with ours. True, it is extremely slow. With a creak, I would say.

- The IL-76 transporter became absolutely different from all previous models of the Ilyushin Design Bureau. Why did this happen?

- At that time, Antonov machines were used in the army - An-12 and An-22 "Antey" with turboprop engines. And somewhere in the winter of 1967, it was decided to replace the An-12 to build a new military transport aircraft, already jet. The Minister of Aviation Industry, P.V. Dementiev, entrusted this work to us; he wanted the culture of creating passenger cars to be introduced into aircraft for the army. We must pay tribute - the military put a lot of effort into this project, and the fact that it turned out so successful was great, and their merit. The command of military transport aviation, headed by G. N. Pakilev, kept the creation of the aircraft under control and helped in every way, but I would especially like to point out the personal contribution of General V. F. Margelov, commander of the Airborne Forces. He specifically invited us to Kaunas, where the division of the Airborne Forces was stationed, introduced in detail the techniques of landing, listed the requirements that the machine should meet from the point of view of dropping a mass landing force. It was necessary that the speed at the time of landing was minimal, and the time sufficient for the parachutists to leave the plane as short as possible. These requirements Margelov explained by the fact that the landing should be landed compactly, since the scattered unit ceases to be a combat unit. Therefore, they still love this plane, and the customers and their soul have invested in it.

And the fact that the "seventy-sixth" is not similar to previous models of IL, does not mean anything. Even when a student does a thesis, he begins with the collection of information: what exists in the world on this subject. Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin created a special division, and in spite of any difficulties, we received all the major world aviation magazines. It was analyzed, processed, the most interesting publications were translated. We had to know everything that was done on our subject in the world, because we could not do worse than others. Look at the "Lockheed C-141" - the similarity with the IL-76 is evident. But airplanes created for the same tasks, by definition, are obtained outwardly similar. But in fact they are different. The IL-76 has a very complicated wing mechanization, which provides a low landing speed - the aircraft was originally designed with the possibility of basing on unpaved airfields. Accordingly, special attention was paid to the landing gear: more than one plane took off, a regiment took off, and therefore it was necessary to minimize the formation of a track during a takeoff run. Made. Another problem is taking off into slush, when all the dirt from the wheels flies into the chassis compartment, and then there is hydraulics, electrics ... They also decided that, having made the doors that closed after the release of the chassis, there is no such thing anywhere in the world. Dumping paratroopers into four streams — two through doors and two from a ramp — also demanded non-standard design solutions: the doors open hydraulically and openly protect the parachutists from the oncoming flow at the moment of separation from the aircraft. The IL-76 control system is absolutely unique, it is simple and reliable, and most importantly - even if the incredible happens and all boosters fail, the aircraft can be controlled without amplifiers. Yes, it is harder, but it is very important that there is such an opportunity.

IL-76 adopted in 1976 year and mass-produced in Tashkent. Now after performing a large amount of work on preparing the documentation, the aircraft was restarted into a series in Ulyanovsk. The released IL-76MD-90А modification retains all aerodynamics and main design solutions. On the new machine, the PSNNXX-90 engines, a new flight-navigation complex, are installed, the “glass cockpit” principle is implemented. Plus, the wing design was made similarly to Il 76-96, which improved and simplified the manufacturing technology.

The first aircraft, made in Ulyanovsk, has already been delivered to military transport aviation.

- How do you assess the Regulations on General Designers that appeared last year?

- Ilyushin received the title of General Designer in 1956, and this title was introduced because the scope of development has dramatically expanded. In order for the chief designers not to fight with each other, for there to be a person in charge of all the topics of the design bureau, and to introduce the post of general. At that time, it was unequivocally believed that the general designer was the main person in the enterprise, who was responsible for everything and who had the appropriate authority.

In the new position there is a requirement - the general designer must necessarily be a doctor of technical sciences. But in order to become a doctor of science, this is what needs to be addressed. And to become a general designer, you have to invent, design, lead a team. And if you do all this well, you will not have time to become a doctor of science. It turns out that if I ever dream of becoming a general, I must first attend to an academic degree, and only then ... This is unrealistic. I myself became a doctor in the 1975 year without a dissertation defense, which is called “by virtue of merit”. But at the beginning, in 1970-m, it nevertheless became the general designer.
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  1. NIKNN
    NIKNN 4 February 2016 21: 49
    35
    - Where are these people now? Where to get them? And do they need them?

    - Now they are needed in the square, if not to the degree N, tending to infinity. For the simple reason - what we today call the fashionable word “innovations”, we have been in aviation all our life. Maybe not as a concept, but as a desire to make something new, better, while cheaper and faster.

    And also high-class machinists and other specialists in their field.
    But who is not needed is managers, merchandisers and the rest of the trash that interferes with work and takes money from workers ...
    1. Pravdarm
      Pravdarm 4 February 2016 21: 54
      16
      About such people, geniuses who give themselves completely, performing any work at the highest level (from a laborer to a designer) "without a bitch", for people, disinterestedly, enthusiastically, I always speak with the Highest Respect in the words of Nikolai Tikhonov (BALLAD ABOUT NAILS, 1922 ):
      Nails would be made from these people:
      Harder would not have been in the world of nails.
      1. cniza
        cniza 4 February 2016 22: 48
        +8
        I bow to them, we must revive this school.
    2. Pancho
      Pancho 4 February 2016 22: 03
      +8
      Quote: NIKNN
      the rest is trash that interferes with work and takes money from workers

      Do you mean the government? If yes, then I agree.
      1. Inok10
        Inok10 4 February 2016 22: 28
        +9
        Quote: Pancho
        Do you mean the government? If yes, then I agree.

        ... it is a pity that they removed from the rules of the resource ... the ability of moderators to delete comments that have no relation to the topic of discussion ... Administration, I strongly recommend returning this opportunity! ... hi ... on this topic ...
        The IL-76 has a very complicated wing mechanization, which provides a low landing speed - the aircraft was originally designed with the possibility of basing on unpaved airfields. Accordingly, special attention was paid to the chassis: more than one plane takes off, a regiment takes off, and therefore it was necessary to minimize the formation of a rut during take-off. Done. Another problem - take off in slush, when all the dirt from the wheels flies into the chassis compartment, and there the hydraulics, electrics ... They decided this, having made the shutters closing after the chassis was released, there is no such thing anywhere in the world.
        ... and now to the present, pay attention to all of our aircraft, including the T-50 on the front landing gear .. there is a device .. called a mudguard, the ability to base on unpaved airfields is the harsh reality of war .. hi
      2. jaguar
        jaguar 4 February 2016 22: 34
        +6
        Including .... I have repeatedly called some representatives from him, those who are ruining our civil aviation to please Boeing, Airbus Embraer. I’ll name it again ... Manturov, Yakovlev !!!!
      3. Dewa1s
        Dewa1s 5 February 2016 08: 19
        +1
        Correctly! Throw off bad power, bring good! Glory to Ukraine, or whatever they have ...
    3. vyinemeynen
      vyinemeynen 4 February 2016 22: 18
      +4
      Regulations on general designers

      A very correct decision. There is nothing for "effective managers" and thugs to do!
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 5 February 2016 10: 53
        0
        and read the last paragraph, Masyanya? they will buy a Doctoral degree and that’s all, and those who know how to work will go to them to dust the table ...

        General designers were even self-taught from street children after WWII and WWII.
  2. alone
    alone 4 February 2016 21: 49
    17
    How did a galaxy of brilliant designers - Korolev, Tupolev, Glushko, Ilyushin - arise in the post-war years?

    People just studied. People had an idea. Creativity. Then they didn’t get into high schools. Students lived only on a scholarship. They didn’t come to the university on foreign cars.

    And most importantly, then there wasn’t what we call Skolkovo today
    1. Samurai3X
      Samurai3X 4 February 2016 22: 16
      +3
      To the university on foreign cars? Well, there are 1-2% of students like that. The rest are like ordinary people, on the subway and trams ...
      Let’s tell how in the USSR there wasn’t any kind of admission laughing
      Especially MGIMO. Lavrov can tell you about this perfectly, who only miraculously ended up there without patronage. They still joke about him as an exception to the rule.
      1. avia1991
        avia1991 4 February 2016 22: 30
        +6
        Quote: Samurai3X
        tell how in the USSR there was no blat upon receipt

        Well, yes, now it’s, of course, the best ..
        I entered the competition for 4,3 people per place. And while there were only 7 thugs on the course! From more than 300 l / s. hi
        1. Samurai3X
          Samurai3X 4 February 2016 22: 46
          +1
          Blat was always, blat was everywhere. Communication solved a lot.
          It’s another matter that even idiots weren’t taken by the doom. Now the situation is almost the same, they just take everyone. In medicine, perhaps much worse, especially in military medicine. Well, the military men ... The cousin wanted to do so, so they sent him almost openly. They didn’t hint at a bribe, but it’s certain that we need to know someone.
        2. PHANTOM-AS
          PHANTOM-AS 4 February 2016 23: 01
          0
          Quote: avia1991
          I entered the competition for 4,3 people per place. And while there were only 7 thugs on the course! From more than 300 l / s

          By the way, Sergey hi , I have long wanted to ask you why you aren’t working because of specialty? I heard from your colleagues that they pay substantial money there.
    2. tol100v
      tol100v 4 February 2016 23: 25
      +5
      Quote: lonely
      And most importantly, then there wasn’t what we call Skolkovo today

      The most important thing - then there was no exam, Skolkovo compared with the exam, it’s so, a trifle! Without thinking youth, we will have neither Ilyushin, nor Tupolev in the future, there will be NO ANYONE! After playing the tic-tac-toe examinations, it is unlikely that new aircraft projects will be born in my head!
      1. PHANTOM-AS
        PHANTOM-AS 4 February 2016 23: 53
        +9
        Quote: Tol100v
        After playing the tic-tac-toe examinations, it is unlikely that new aircraft projects will be born in my head!

        that's for sure. Young people do not dream about sky and space.
        Dreams are mostly mercantile.
        At least two generations are simply lost for the country, in the sense of creative labor, engineering and creativity.
  3. rov81
    rov81 4 February 2016 21: 55
    +7
    Here it is necessary to encourage such people with dignity !!! Here he is, a patriot !!!
  4. nycsson
    nycsson 4 February 2016 22: 11
    -2
    About science, so about science! Today, the German Chancellor launched a thermonuclear reactor. Plasma was held for a quarter of a second. Temperature 80 million degrees Celsius! The next launch is going to hold 10 seconds! Why am I doing this .... Yes, to the fact that in five years no one will need our oil and gas. While we sat together on an oil needle and degraded smart people, they invented and launched the thermonuclear reactor. But what we will do when they stop buying our oil and gas, I honestly don’t know!
    1. avia1991
      avia1991 4 February 2016 22: 33
      +8
      Quote: nycsson
      in five years no one will need our oil and gas.

      That you sho-oh ?! belay But is it nothing that they make horseradish cloud of various goods from oil and gas, and not just gasoline? wink
      1. nycsson
        nycsson 4 February 2016 22: 36
        +1
        Quote: avia1991
        But is it nothing that they make horseradish cloud of various goods from oil and gas, and not just gasoline?

        Of course I'm in the know. Only who makes them? The one to whom we sell oil and gas. And then we buy these finished goods, thereby creating jobs in the West! There you go!
        1. avia1991
          avia1991 4 February 2016 22: 52
          +1
          Quote: nycsson
          who makes them? The one to whom we sell oil and gas.

          You are right, of course, but not entirely: SHE NE VMERLA domestic oil and gas chemistry is still moving. And taking into account the cost of raw materials on the foreign market, the same Gazprom is slowly itching over processing: everyone wants to live! wink
        2. Captain45
          Captain45 5 February 2016 00: 25
          -1
          Quote: nycsson
          And then we buy these finished goods, thereby creating jobs in the west

          Do not worry, you are so, take a look at the site "Made by us", see how many plants for processing oil into polymers and plastics were launched in 2014-15. So not all "pro-salipolymers" laughing
    2. Samurai3X
      Samurai3X 4 February 2016 22: 52
      +6
      It’s a very big mistake to think that oil and gas will simply go away, because some scientists have come up with a new chip. Rather, scientists will not, but the chip will be packed and only after about 11 years will it be unpacked.
      The entire world economy is driven by oil. Cars travel from point A to point B on petroleum products, aircraft fly on petroleum products, armies are driven on petroleum products. The entire infrastructure of the countries is tied to petroleum products. Even if they make a miniature, safe nuclear reactor that you can put in your pocket, it will take 20 years before they switch to it, and in the most limited quantities and only in the armed forces.
      40 years passed to ICE, if not more ...
    3. Your friend
      Your friend 4 February 2016 22: 57
      +6
      Quote: nycsson
      About science, so about science! Today, the German Chancellor launched a thermonuclear reactor. Plasma was held for a quarter of a second. Temperature 80 million degrees Celsius! The next launch is going to hold 10 seconds! Why am I doing this .... Yes, to the fact that in five years no one will need our oil and gas. While we sat together on an oil needle and degraded smart people, they invented and launched the thermonuclear reactor. But what we will do when they stop buying our oil and gas, I honestly don’t know!

      As much as 10 seconds !!! Nothing. You should read something about controlled thermonuclear reaction. How many years it was engaged, what are the results. How many times breakthroughs have already been announced that a prom will be built fusion reactor. How much money is swelled into this business and how much more remains to be swelled. What are 5 years old? What are you talking about? So far only experiments are going on.
      And yes, Russia is also involved in this matter. ITER check out.
    4. 33 Watcher
      33 Watcher 5 February 2016 04: 48
      +1
      Well, actually, at the Research Institute of High Temperatures, this was done about 30 years ago, and the result is more than 0,25 seconds. And the reactor is still functioning, sort of ... And, what of it?
  5. Samurai3X
    Samurai3X 4 February 2016 22: 14
    0
    100 gr vodka, a beer and a sandwich 10 rubles? I think he's confusing something.
    Now it can be done on 300 rubles. Then comes the salary should be 30 thousand rubles ...
    And so everything is true.
    1. PHANTOM-AS
      PHANTOM-AS 4 February 2016 22: 36
      +9
      Quote: Samurai3X
      100 grams of vodka, a beer and a sandwich 10 rubles?

      this is before the 1961 monetary reform. hi
      1. stalkerwalker
        stalkerwalker 4 February 2016 23: 11
        +8
        Quote: PHANTOM-AS
        Quote: Samurai3X
        100 grams of vodka, a beer and a sandwich 10 rubles?
        this is before the 1961 monetary reform.

        For 10 full-fledged Soviet rubles in the 70s, you could sit in a restaurant - it’s nice to eat and drink a bottle of wine for two.
        1. Samurai3X
          Samurai3X 5 February 2016 15: 47
          0
          I say - confused.
          1. avia1991
            avia1991 6 February 2016 00: 52
            0
            Quote: Samurai3X
            I say - confused.

            He does not confuse anything! Since 1961, it all began to cost 10 times less, and a salary of 1000 rubles turned into 100 pe!
            For those times, which are mentioned, it was very good ..
    2. Just BB
      Just BB 5 February 2016 06: 02
      0
      And also a "communal apartment" - 40 rubles for a "kopeck piece", a kilowatt - 40 kopecks ...
  6. Michael67
    Michael67 4 February 2016 22: 16
    +7
    Note that you will not hear about such People on the first channels. There is 1 in 1. And other "pornography", such as "let them talk" for patients with delusions and anxious. Young people should be told about such People, set as an example. The country needs heroes! They are! Talk about them!
    1. PHANTOM-AS
      PHANTOM-AS 4 February 2016 22: 38
      +3
      Quote: Michael67
      The country needs heroes! They are! Talk about them!

      about these heroes every half hour in the news talk and show.
  7. avia1991
    avia1991 4 February 2016 22: 26
    +8
    Everything in this world must begin with children (laughs). I do not know a single person who, in adulthood, would have created something ingenious without a proper foundation. Whatever is done, everything is laid much earlier, in childhood and adolescence.
    Gold words! I respect
    In my time, there were enough of such opportunities - children's technical stations, pioneer palaces, where they worked in circles for free.
    Just about ... and again we run into the understanding that the notorious "free market" is not able to supply the country with as many really talented people as the Soviet Union did, thanks to a competent approach to doing business for the younger generation! About what
    In the ninth grade, one could already enroll in an aero club, and in the tenth, flying.
    I'm really silent ..
  8. Erg
    Erg 4 February 2016 22: 35
    +6
    IL-18. Good car. From Norilsk to Moscow about six hours. Rumble in the cabin, of course. But reliability is beyond praise. School!!!
    1. Captain45
      Captain45 5 February 2016 00: 29
      +1
      Quote: Erg
      IL-18. Good car. From Norilsk to Moscow about six hours.

      I flew from Khatanga with 7 hours. hi
  9. sabakina
    sabakina 4 February 2016 23: 00
    +3
    When in Ivanovo, my father, a warrant officer of the Airborne Forces, took me to the IL-76 TD on an "excursion", I went nuts not from the cargo compartment, but from the number of instruments in the cockpit! If you want to cut it, I will remember those childhood impressions until my death ...
  10. AIR-ZNAK
    AIR-ZNAK 4 February 2016 23: 16
    +1
    In general, the IL-18 was created at the end of the 40s and Piston engines were installed on it and therefore it went into the series already in the 50s with the advent of the AI-20 engine
  11. Lekov L
    Lekov L 4 February 2016 23: 44
    0
    Henry Vasilievich!
    Thank you!
  12. Captain45
    Captain45 4 February 2016 23: 58
    +2
    It was in 1955. A year later, a corresponding government decree is issued, and on 4 on July 1957, Vladimir Kokkinaki, the chief pilot of the Design Bureau, took to the sky from the Frunze Central Airport first IL-18
    Oh, it was a little while, the last time I flew IL-18 in 2002, until the air detachment was disbanded in Khatanga, they probably had the last IL-18,2 pieces there, one in 2001 crashed near Tver. A cool airplane, as I remember now, there was 7 hours of flight from Khatanga to Moscow, the train was picked up, the belts were unfastened, the seats were unfastened, the bags were unfastened and .... by the glass, they had a bite, slept, woke up, again by the glass, smoked, took a nap and .. Moscow. Then the carcasses began to fly Well, damn it, Toko pulled, did not have time to sleep, but had already arrived requestAnd, you know, I’m not afraid to say this, it was calmer for me to fly on the Il-18 or Tu-154 than on Boeing or Airbus
  13. Orionvit
    Orionvit 5 February 2016 00: 01
    +2
    Quote: avia1991
    Quote: Samurai3X
    tell how in the USSR there was no blat upon receipt

    Well, yes, now it’s, of course, the best ..
    I entered the competition for 4,3 people per place. And while there were only 7 thugs on the course! From more than 300 l / s. hi

    There have always been prestigious and non-prestigious specialties. For example, in technical universities, the competition has always been smaller, and there were two categories. People who are passionate (most), and all kinds of ballast, are those who have not passed the competition for others, for example, humanitarian specialties. Himself always wondered how a young engineer in the 80s received 120 rubles.
    1. Wheel
      Wheel 5 February 2016 00: 37
      +3
      Quote: Orionvit
      . Himself always wondered how a young engineer in the 80s received 120 rubles.

      And for what, excuse me, to pay a graduate a large salary?
      In order for a graduate to become an engineer, it takes (depending on his abilities) from a year (for units) to three years, some more, and some never to become an engineer.
      1. Samoyed
        Samoyed 5 February 2016 13: 32
        0
        a real head should work around the clock. Of course, not everyone is capable.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. Just BB
      Just BB 5 February 2016 06: 29
      0
      Did you think before you "state" this?
      In Soviet times (as I understand it, once 120 rubles a month), the guys sought for a few specialties from the humanities - such as doctors, journalists and translators.
      It was like not serving in the army.
      Science, then "techies", and only after them "bogaltera with teachers" (though there were "fans" everywhere)
  14. uyakub92
    uyakub92 5 February 2016 00: 16
    +2
    interesting article. designers are a separate caste of people. it was interesting to read from start to finish. I wish all the teams involved in aviation success.
  15. Ruby
    Ruby 5 February 2016 00: 26
    +2
    Quote: Captain45
    [i] And, you know, I’m not afraid to say this, on the Il-18 or Tu-154 it was calmer for me to fly than on Boeing or Airbus

    So there, at the helm, the pilots sat in the highest sense of the word. And on Boeing and Airbus, you can unlearn the wheel in a couple of years. And then they cannot sit down if the weather is not ice or the landing system at the airport is turned off. It's one thing to fly, and another to press buttons. I’d be interested in some sort of Boeing, just like our TUSHKA with de-energized systems at an abandoned airfield.
    1. Just BB
      Just BB 5 February 2016 06: 40
      0
      And what a plot unfold in the film "Wingspan"!
      True, they can interpret it in different ways: low reliability (which was not the case with the Il-18!), But the engine can also get up due to kerosene ...


      About landing on an abandoned airfield, I have also said more than once from a "foreign car" to the forest, one fuselage would have traveled WITH THIS all engulfed in flames.
  16. Captain45
    Captain45 5 February 2016 00: 52
    +1
    Quote: Yakut
    So there, pilots sat at the helm in the highest sense of the word

    Once I flew to the Kirov Islands, and from there I managed to fly to the Borneo, I wanted to get to the North Pole, we flew on the An-26, pinned it down: two hours later, a flight mechanic came out, put a frying pan on the hot plate, fried potatoes, carried into the cockpit, then went out, put an empty 0.5l bubble in the bucket. From under the vodka we continue to fly, but the pilots are our own, so we didn't worry. This is truly a Soviet school.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 5 February 2016 11: 00
      0
      and slammed a mohawk a pair of B-747 curling around a light bulb



      - You are familiar with Joe Sattrom, the creator of Boeing 747. It certainly can be attributed to the outstanding designers. He did not talk about his arrival in the aircraft industry? Indeed, in the United States, as I understand it, there were no houses of pioneers and OSOAVIAHIM ...

      - He is the creator of the best, in my opinion, airplane in the world ...


      The best aircraft in the world is the An-225
  17. Wanderer 2008
    Wanderer 2008 5 February 2016 09: 02
    0
    Quote: stalkerwalker
    For 10 full-fledged Soviet rubles in the 70s, you could sit in a restaurant - it’s nice to eat and drink a bottle of wine for two.
    I confirm! Samara, 1979 - restaurants Ocean, Rainbow. Together with the Friend Vasily sat on the dimes cool. Menu-decanter 500 grams of vodka, cold cuts for two, each salad, bread, salt, pepper, mustard free on the table. This is a warm-up, then how the suit lies!