Lisa Rosenzweig (Gorskaya)
... On the night of October 12 1941, when the Germans were rushing towards Moscow, the deputy head of the 1 Department of the NKVD of the USSR, that is, Soviet foreign intelligence, State Security Major Vasily Zarubin was summoned to the Kremlin. As foreign intelligence veteran Colonel Igor Damaskin writes, Zarubin did not notice any signs of disturbing the normal rhythm of life, turmoil or preparation for evacuation. He was escorted to the reception room, where several people, military and civilians, were silently waiting.
“Comrade Zarubin,” said Poskrebyshev, half interrogative, semi-affirmative. “Comrade Stalin will accept you now.”
Vasily Zarubin turned 47 years. Chekist from 1921, he in 1930-e led illegal residency in France and Germany.
“Of medium height, blond with sparse hair,” an employee of the New York residency, later Hero of Russia Alexander Feklisov, wrote about him, “always wore glasses in a white metal frame. He possessed remarkable physical strength, played tennis well. In a company he was a great keeper, he started a company, he loved to sing, he played different musical instruments well. He demanded that his employees be enterprising, courageous, even desperate.
“The courage of the city takes,” he often instructed the young scouts. ”
A few minutes after the next visitor exited, Poskrebyshev invited Zarubin to his office.
Stalin was sitting at the table. Seeing Zarubin, he rose, took a few steps towards him, and, shaking his hand, offered to sit down. He continued to stand, then began to walk slowly around the office. Zarubin knew that he was appointed the main resident in the United States. As Feklisov notes, the chief of the NKVD of the USSR, Senior State Security Major Pavel Fitin, took part in the conversation.
After a short report by Zarubin, Stalin said:
- Until recently, we have with America, in essence, there were no conflicting interests in the world. Moreover, both the president and the people support our struggle against fascism. Our hard struggle. Recently we received evidence that some American circles are considering the possibility of recognizing the government of Kerensky as the legitimate government of Russia in the event of our defeat in a war.
That they will never wait. Never! But it is very important and necessary to know about the true intentions of the American government. We would like to see them as our allies in the fight against Hitler. Your task, comrade Zarubin, is not only to know about the intentions of the Americans, not only to track events, but also to influence them. Act through influence agents, through other possibilities ...
... When Zarubin got up to leave, Stalin said:
- Proceed from the fact, comrade Zarubin, that our country is invincible. - He was silent for a while and added: - I heard that your wife is helping you well. Take care of her.
“Charming and sociable,” writes Pavel Sudoplatov about her, “she easily established friendly relations in the widest circles. An elegant beautiful woman, subtle nature, she is like a magnet attracted people to her. Lisa was one of the most qualified agents recruiters. ”
Lisa Rosenzweig was born on the last day of the outgoing 1900 year in the Bessarabian province, which in 1918 was annexed to Romania. In 1919, Liza joined the underground Komsomol organization of Bessarabia, and in 1923, she joined the Austrian Communist Party (party pseudonym - Anna Deutch).
Liza’s cousin Karl Pauker, a Budapest hairdresser, influenced Liza’s communist convictions, and from 12 in May 1923, the head of the Operations Department of the OGPU of the USSR, and from 1924 - the head of Stalin’s personal guard, state security commissioner of the 2 rank, who became the most trusted person in the security department of Stalin, who became the most trusted person in XNUMX, who became the most trusted person in the security of Stalin. Joseph Vissarionovich in the period of his coming to power and the struggle with the opposition.
After graduating from Chernivtsi, Prague and Vienna universities, Lisa was fluent in Romanian, German, French, Russian, English and Yiddish. She begins to work as a translator at the USSR Trade Mission in Vienna and since March 1925 has been in the covert state of the Vienna residency INO OGPU (operational pseudonym - Erna). In February, 1928, she was summoned to Moscow and given a new last name - Gorskaya.
And that is exactly Liza Gorskaya - a foreigner, a spy, an athlete, and finally, she is simply beautiful! - wins the heart as much as Jacob Blumkin himself, the romance of the revolution, terrorist No. 1, James Bond and Lawrence of Arabia in one person, the chief of personal security of Trotsky, one of the creators of foreign intelligence of the OGPU, poet, friend Sergei Yesenin and Vladimir Mayakovsky, athlete and connoisseur of martial arts, who owned two dozen languages (including Chinese, Arabic, Turkish, Semitic), which allowed him to perform a variety of missions in the countries of the East.
In 1929, Trotsky was exiled there from the USSR in Turkey, and Blumkin was sent to Istanbul to monitor him. But loyalty to the former chief and strongest enemy of Stalin takes over - Jacob brings a letter from Trotsky to Moscow to Karl Radek, who instantly finds himself in the OGPU.
In the decision of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) of October 30 1929, in one of the points is:
“A) To put on sight the OGPU, that it failed in its time to open and liquidate the anti-Soviet work of Blumkin.
b) Blumkin shot.
c) Instruct the OGPU to establish the exact nature of Gorska’s behavior.
Extract sent t. Berry.
Heinrich Yagoda conducted an investigation, which concluded that Liza Gorskaya was quite decent in the Blumkin case, which was reported to Stalin. As a result, Lisa, along with an experienced illegal Vasily Zarubin, is sent to Europe under the guise of a legend "married couple."
Stalin, saying goodbye to Zarubin, did not forget about it ...
Vasily Zarubin himself was a very remarkable figure. Born near Moscow in a large family, during the First World War, he was sent to a penal company, in which he was injured, and in April 1918 entered the RCP (b). Since September, 1918 has been fighting in the Red Army on the fronts of the Civil War, after which it comes to the organs of the Cheka.
Elizaveta Zarubina with her husband Vasily
Without even a secondary education, he played musical instruments perfectly and knew several foreign languages that he had mastered while working at the GPU Office for the Far East. During a business trip to China, Vasily Zarubin has a rift with his wife, who, along with her daughter Zoya Zarubina, goes to Naum Eitingon - the very one who, in 1940, led the liquidation of Trotsky.
In other words, Liza Gorska again had someone to fall in love with, and soon their “office romance” with Vasily Zarubin developed into true love that lasted a lifetime. Having completed an accelerated special training course, in January 1930, Lisa receives an appointment as the security officer of the 7 branch of the INO OGPU (operational alias - Vardo), after which the spouses Zarubins under the guise of Czechoslovak businessmen Kochek are sent for legalization to Denmark, and then to Paris, where 1931, their son was born.
Among the agents who were in touch with them was the former Tsarist General Pavel Dyakonov. As a knight of the Order of the Legion of Honor, the general had access to the highest military circles of France. He brought to the notice of the Second Bureau (intelligence) of the General Staff of the French Army the data of the “fifth column” - pro-German generals and officers, prepared by INO OGPU, and their relations with the Third Reich. The action was successful and contributed to the cooling of relations between France and Germany.
From December 1933, Zarubin led illegal residency in Germany. Ignorance of the German language would be an insurmountable obstacle for him if it were not for Lisa. Vardo assisted her husband and led an independent direction. The employee of the Gestapo Hauptsturmführer SS Willy Lehman (agent A-201, from the year 1935 of Breitenbach - one of Stirlitz's prototypes) worked in touch with her.
Another 7 of September 1929 of the year, the head of the OSPU USSR, Meer Trilisser, sent a telegram to the Berlin residency:
“Your new source A-201 is very interesting for us. Our only concern is that you have climbed into one of the most dangerous places where the slightest negligence on the part of А-201 can lead to numerous misfortunes. ”
The tasks of Willy Lehman through the police line included monitoring the Soviet embassy, as well as countering Soviet economic espionage. In fact, it was Lehman who was assigned the task of curbing the activities of Soviet intelligence in Germany. After the Nazis came to power, on the recommendation of Goering, he was transferred to work in the Gestapo, which, as the IV Directorate, entered the General Directorate of Imperial Security (RSHA).
Willy Lehman often visited not only the Gestapo chief, SS Sturmbannführer Heinrich Müller, but also the head of the RSHA, SS Gruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich. The following information was compiled on the materials available at the Center: “During the cooperation with us from 1929 without interruption until the spring of 1939, Breitenbach gave us an extremely abundant amount of authentic documents and personal messages covering the structure, personnel and activities of the political police ( subsequently the Gestapo), as well as German military intelligence.
"Breitenbach" warned of impending arrests and provocations against illegal and "legal" residency workers in Berlin ...
He gave information about the persons "being worked out" by the Gestapo, and also inquired about investigative cases in the Gestapo that interested us ... "
At each meeting with Lisa Breitenbach, information was transmitted, as a rule, important. In 1935, Lehman was appointed head of the department in charge of counterintelligence at the military industry enterprises. This gave him the opportunity to attend the tests of new weapons.
As a result, Stalin and Voroshilov received descriptions of new types of artillery shells, armored vehicles, submarines, special grenades and solid-propellant rockets for gas attacks.
Vasily Mikhailovich Zarubin
At the end of 1937, the Zarubins were recalled to Moscow in connection with the betrayal of the high-ranking employees of the French and German residency of the NKVD of the USSR Ignatius Reuss (real name Natan Poretsky) and Walter Krivitsky (Samuil Ginsberg) who knew them. Living with 1938 in the United States, Krivitsky issued more than 100 Soviet agents throughout Europe and published the book I Was an Agent of Stalin. 10 February 1941 was found dead at the Bellevue Hotel in Washington. Reiss's corpse was discovered 4 September 1937 of the year on the road from Lausanne to Pulli ...
In July, 1938, it became known that Alexander Orlov (Leib Feldbin), a resident of the NKVD in Spain, had fled to the United States, who knew the Zarubins well for work in France. Moreover, in connection with the departure of 14 on June 1938 of the year to the Japanese, the Plenipotentiary of the NKVD in the Far East, Henry Lyushkov, appointed in the autumn of the same year by the new People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR, Lavrenti Beria began a cardinal cleansing of Trotskyism-infected intelligence.
True, Elizaveta Yulyevna still once again visited the pre-war Germany at the end of the 1940 year in order to restore the ties lost during the purge. In particular, she restored contact with Augusta, the wife of a German diplomat who was recruited by the predecessor of Vasily Zarubin in Germany Fedor Parparov in 1931 in the year.
Fyodor Augusta, in love, transmitted important information from her husband, a diplomat, one of the assistants to the German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. At the same time, Augusta did not hide the fact that she did not care what country to transmit information: she worked for her beloved. But in 1938, Fedor was recalled to Moscow because of the treachery of Krivitsky.
Elizaveta Zarubina met with Augusta and handed her a letter to Fyodor, released in Moscow from arrest and continued to serve under Pavel Sudoplatov. Cooperation with Augusta lasted until the beginning of the war. Elizaveta Yulyevna left Berlin 29 June 1941, together with the Soviet embassy.
Meanwhile, Vasily Mikhailovich Zarubin confidently promoted his job and on February 26 of the year 1941 was appointed deputy chief of foreign intelligence, as a result of which the same October 12 ended up in Stalin's office in connection with his appointment as a resident in New York.
Arriving in the United States, he received the post of secretary of the embassy, and Elizaveta Yulyevna, under the last name Zubilina, headed the PR line (political intelligence) in the residency. It's hard to imagine, but she had 22 agents in touch with whom she had to meet, observing strict conspiracy, receive information from them, analyze it, process it and send it to the Center.
Vasily Zarubin and his wife worked a lot with superspy Jacob Golos (the operational pseudonym - Sound). It was a unique person, about which they themselves said:
"He knows everything and everyone and can do anything."
Born in Yekaterinoslav (Dnepropetrovsk), the Voice of 1919 was a California delegate to the founding congress of the US Communist Party. In 1933, he documents operational relations with the OGPU USSR and for ten years (from 1930 to 1943 a year) creates the largest OGPU intelligence network - the NKVD - NKGB of the USSR in the USA.
Jacob Golos is headed by World Tourists, Inc., a travel agency. in New York, through which it supplies the Soviet residency with authentic American documents and passports of various countries, and the transportation of the necessary people to the USSR.
Sources of Sound worked in the office of President Franklin Roosevelt, in the White House, in the Treasury, in the Department of Military Industry, in the Office of Strategic Services (predecessor of the CIA), and in other government agencies and large industrial companies.
24 November 1943, Jacob Golos was introduced to the Order of the Red Star, and 25 November 1943, he suddenly died of a heart attack in the apartment of his contact and mistress Elizabeth Bentley in New York, which 8 November, 1945 of the year came with the FBI and gave out an American issue to the American Federation and gave out an American issue to the American Federation. The 80 names of sources and connections of the Voice, including the Enormous agent operation, within which the first information about the fission of uranium nuclei was obtained.
Elizaveta Zarubina continued to quickly gain the trust and sympathy of people. She was free to impersonate an American, a Frenchwoman, a German woman, and even an activist of the Zionist movement. Through people close to the family of Robert Oppenheimer's “father of the American atomic bomb”, Lisa came into direct contact with him. And with his wife, Catherine, they began a most tender friendship ...
As it turned out from the FBI’s declassified materials on the Manhattan Project, thanks to Lisa’s influence on Catherine, many left-wing physicists and mathematicians were involved in working on the atomic bomb, which then began to transmit secrets to the country of victorious socialism. Lisa also recruited the wife of an outstanding physicist Georgy Gamow, who left the USSR in 1933, who worked, like her husband, for the most secret project of the century.
The main objects of the Manhattan Project were the Hanford and Oak Ridge Plants, as well as the laboratory in Los Alamos (New Mexico). It was there that the design of the atomic bomb and the technological process of its manufacture were developed. Here most of all they feared the penetration of spies, especially the agents of Nazi Germany. Therefore, the conspiracy and security measures were the most severe. The wall of the greatest secrecy turned out to be very effective, and it must be said that not a single intelligence service of the world, except the Soviet one, was able to penetrate beyond its limits.
As soon as the Soviet Union began to develop the domestic atomic bomb, Deputy Vasily Zarubin in New York Leonid Kvasnikov was appointed intelligence officer for obtaining atomic information.
Only a few people were allowed to carry out this operation, which received the code name Enormous, the head of 1, the NKVD Directorate of the USSR NKGB, state security commissioner of 3 rank Pavel Fitin, the head of the 3 division of the same department, state security commissioner Haik Hovakimyan, major State Security Leonid Kvasnikov, English translator E.M. Potapov, in the New York residency - resident Vasily Zarubin, Elizaveta Zarubina, Semyon Semyonov (Taubman), Alexander Feklisov and Anatoly Yatskov. And finally, in the London residency, the head is Anatoly Gorsky and his assistant Vladimir Barkovsky.
Among foreign nationals, 14 had particularly valuable agents involved in Enormous operations, including world-renowned physicist Klaus Fuchs, Harry Gold, associated with Fuchs, Morton Sobell from General Electric and David Greenglass, a mechanic from the atomic laboratory in Los Alamos, as well as spouses Rosenberg, subsequently electrocuted, and illegal agents Leontin and Morris Cohen.
Another success of Elizabeth Zarubina was the attraction to the intelligence activities of Margarita Vorontsova, a famous beauty, the wife of Russian sculptor Sergey Konenkov who lived in the United States at that time.
When Albert Einstein and his wife moved to the United States in 1932, and the Nobel Prize winner received a position at Princeton, the university ordered Konenkov a sculpture of a famous physicist. In the studio Konenkov and happened sign meeting 56-year-old scientist with the 35-year-old wife of the Russian sculptor.
In addition, Margarita was an experienced seducer. Rakhmaninov, Vrubel, father and son of Chaliapin, have already been in captivity of her spell. Einstein could not resist. Reciprocal visits, walks, dinners ...
After the death of his wife Elsa in 1936, the author of the theory of relativity felt complete freedom. He dedicates poems to Margarita. She comes up with reasons to stay with him more often. Household things are tenderly called "al-Mary" - a word combined from their two names. And although the author of the theory of relativity refused to cooperate directly with Soviet intelligence, he did not interrupt his relationship with Margarita, calling her “my little Russian spy” ...
It seemed the novel would have no end. However, in the summer of 1945, the Konenkov couple began to prepare to return to the USSR. Margarita settled for two weeks in Einstein's house, sending orders to her husband about packing baggage. Chet Konenkov was waiting for a steamer chartered by order of Stalin himself. And in Moscow - a luxury apartment on Gorky Street. Why would such a blessing? It's not just the sculptor's genius ...
The reason became clear when the memoirs of Pavel Anatolyevich Sudoplatov were published, in which he called Margarita Konenkov an agent Lukas, who was tasked to get close to "the great physicists Oppenheimer and Einstein" to get the secret of the atomic bomb. So, it seems, the ship brought not only sculptures to Moscow, but also mountains of blueprints.
The state security commissioner Vasily Zarubin was recalled to Moscow at the end of 1944, because of the denunciation of the resident officer V.D. Mironov - simultaneously in the NKVD and the FBI. Mironov accused Vasily Mikhailovich of espionage in favor of Germany and Japan ...
29 December 1945 from the post of the head of the NKVD of the USSR was released Lavrenti Beria, and 15 on June 1946 from the post of chief of foreign intelligence fired Lieutenant-General Pavel Fitin. 25 June 1947 of the year Major General Zarubin is placed at the disposal of the Personnel Department of the MGB of the USSR, and on January 27 of 1948 he was discharged for health reasons, which, I must say, remained canceled. Just after Beria left for the Atomic Project, the control over state security begins to be seized by the group, which we will cover in other articles.
Elizabeth Zarubin, who was awarded the Order of the Red Star for nuclear intelligence, was also fired from the security forces in September 1946 with the rank of lieutenant colonel "because of the impossibility of further use."
Elizaveta Yulyevna Zarubina
When, on the day of Stalin's death, Beria was appointed by the new head of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, which also included the USSR Ministry of State Security, at the request of Lieutenant General Pavel Sudoplatov, the Zarubins' spouses were reinstated to the authorities and hired by the 9 (Intelligence and Diversionary) department of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs headed by him .
However, after Beria and many state security leaders were shot and Sudoplatov, Eitingon and others were jailed as a result of the coup d'état committed by Khrushchev on 26 on June 1953, and Eitingon and others were jailed, the Zarubins were finally fired in August 1953.
The first name of Elizabeth Zarubina was sounded in 1967, when the 50 anniversary of the Cheka was celebrated. She never complained about anything, did not repent of anything. All taken for granted. Even survived to “perestroika with publicity” and 14 May 1987 tragically perished, having outlived her husband by 15 years. Although many pages of her biography will forever remain a secret.