Military Review

Bayonet 6X3

31
From 1959, the Soviet army began to use the Kalashnikov assault rifle, a modernized AKM, which replaced the basic AK. Together with the new gunshot weapons the fighters also received a new bayonet - the 6X3 product was created specifically for AKM. In the design of the bayonet and its scabbard several original ideas were used, which greatly expanded the range of tasks performed. Due to several innovations, the 6X3 bayonet could be used not only in hand-to-hand combat or as a regular knife.


The bayonet for AKM was developed not from scratch. The basis for it was taken so-called. the knife of sea scout divers, created by lieutenant colonel of the naval service RM Todorov. In the mid-fifties, this knife was proposed to the command of the Soviet Navy and even found limited use in the army. The main feature of the knife Todorov was the design of the blade. He had a double-edged fighting end with a concave upper blade. A serreitor was provided on the butt, and there was a rectangular hole in the middle part of the blade. Included with the knife was an additional blade in the form of a curved plate with a mount and a hook blade. The mount should be inserted into the hole of the blade of the knife, after which the resulting design could perform the functions of the pliers.


Automatic AKM with a closed bayonet-knife 6X3 and sheath. Photo Oruzheika.mybb.ru


Gunsmiths from the team of M.T. Kalashnikov had the opportunity to get acquainted with the "sea" knife and became interested in him. The result of this interest was the widespread borrowing of ideas and solutions from the project of R.M. Todorov. The perspective bayonet knife 6X3 for the AKM submachine gun was developed on the basis of the naval reconnaissance knife. The resulting design turned out to be so successful that all subsequent domestic (and also some foreign) bayone-knives for automatic machines had a characteristic shape and special sheaths expanding the range of tasks to be solved.

By the mid-fifties, it became clear that the bayonet will now be used not only in fencing with weapons, but also for other purposes. It was assumed that such weapons will also be used as a knife. In the project 6X3, it was proposed to further expand the possibilities of the bayonet by borrowing and processing the original ideas of Todorov. In particular, it was proposed to create a completely new sheath, which is not just a device for storing a blade, but a full-fledged element of a multifunctional complex designed for cutting various materials and objects.

The main part of the bayonet 6X3 was a blade of length 150 mm and a maximum width of 30 mm, created on the basis of the "sea" knife of Lieutenant Colonel Todorov. The blade received a combat finish with a bevel and double-edged sharpening. At the bottom edge of the blade along the entire length there was also a sharpening. Such a blade design allowed stabbing and cutting blows. To solve additional problems in the middle part of the blade provided a rectangular hole designed to connect with the sheath. On a butt there was a gear notch.

Bayonet 6X3
Knife designs RM Todorov, his scabbard and a device for cutting wire. Photo Rusknife.com


On the shank of the blade was attached to the cross with a ring on the side of the main blade with a diameter of 17,7 mm. On the side, the metal parts of the handle were covered with two plastic cheeks-plates with a characteristic round head. In the convex part of the head there was a groove in the form of an inverted "T" for mounting on the machine, as well as a spring-loaded latch. Latch control was performed using the button on the right side of the handle (when installing the bayonet on the machine). For additional ease of use on the handle and the cross was attached for the strap.

For mounting on the machine, it was necessary to put the cross-piece ring on the muzzle of the barrel, and also to place the T-shaped protrusion on the trunk tide in the groove of the handle head. When the bayonet was moved back, the ring sat on the barrel, and the protrusion entered the groove and was fixed with a latch. In this position, the bayonet could be used in hand-to-hand combat. In the combat position of the bayonet blade was at the top, and the butt with sharpening bevel - at the bottom. It was possible to apply piercing and cutting blows.

The bayonet 6X3 had a total length of 280 mm with the 150-mm blade, which was noticeably different from previous types of cold arms for rifle systems. In fact, it was the shortest bayonet in several decades or even several centuries, if we take into account the earliest domestic needle bayonets. Nevertheless, despite the relatively small size, this product fully complied with the requirements and could be used in the troops to solve various combat and auxiliary tasks.


Bayonet knife 6X3. Photo Rusknife.com


Thanks to a special device of a curved shape, the knife of R.M. Todorov could be used as pliers. The authors of the project 6X3 decided not to use individual parts and connect such a device with a scabbard, simplifying both the design of the weapon itself and its application. The main part of the scabbard was a metal tube of rectangular cross section, intended for storage of the blade. On the top of this part was a wide rubber pad, which served as a handle. A leather loop for carrying on a belt was fastened to the scabbard and carbine to the scabbard. To the bottom of the scabbard on the rivets fastened detail, performing the functions of an additional blade and equipped with an axis for the knife.

Having a specific design and an unusual sheath, the bayonet 6X3 was a versatile cutting tool. The main cutting edge made it possible to cut various materials, down to the metal. For cutting some objects it was proposed to use a serreytor on the butt. Wire fences, including those under the current, should be cut with a sheath. For this purpose, it was proposed to fasten the bayonet with its hole on the T-shaped support of the sheath, after which the blade and the notch in the lower part of the sheath could perform the functions of the pliers. Safety cutting wires under the current provided a plastic bayonet handle and a rubber sheath lining.

The production of bayonet knives 6X3 started in the late fifties, simultaneously with the start of assembly of AKM machines. The main sites for the production of these weapons were the Izhevsk and Tula arms factories. The Kalashnikovs, which had been modernized from the very beginning, were delivered to the troops along with new bayonets. For this reason, in particular, there were no problems with retrofitting weapons, as was the case with the AK machine gun and 6X2 bayonets. In addition, there were no compatibility issues, since the design of the fasteners of the machine and the bayonet were developed simultaneously. The number of machines and bayonets issued by the Soviet industry was approximately equal.


The bayonet in the sheath, clearly visible rubber pad and a device for cutting the wire on the sheath. Photo Rusknife.com


Some time after the start of operation of the AKM in the Soviet army, the industry of the USSR handed over documentation for the production of these weapons to several friendly countries. Thus, automatic machines and bayonets like 6X3 were made not only in our country, but also abroad. Taking into account foreign weapons, the total number of 6X3 bayone knives reaches several million units.

The bayonet 6X3 was originally designed for the AKM, but later began its use with other weapons. In 1963, the SVD Dragunov sniper rifle was put into service, which was also proposed to be equipped with a bayonet. The design of the muzzle part and the sagging of the barrel of this weapon was developed taking into account the use of the bayonet 6X3. For its attachment, the muzzle of the barrel of the required diameter was used and the influx on the lower part of the barrel. For obvious reasons, the sniper rifle was almost never used with a bayonet, because of which the latter served as a knife and supplemented the sniper's equipment.

With the adoption of the 6X3 bayonete in service, the army for the first time in Russian practice received not just a weapon for bayonet fighting, but a full-fledged multifunctional cutting tool for solving various tasks. Depending on the situation and the need, the 6X3 product could be used in hand-to-hand combat, in everyday life or in various auxiliary works, such as preparing passages in enemy barriers. The bayonets of previous models differed from the new 6X3 in less versatility. They could be used in hand-to-hand combat or, in some cases, as knives, but the scope of possible applications was noticeably smaller due to the lack of a notched notch and scabbard with special equipment.


Demonstration of the use of 6X3 bayonet with sheaths as nippers. Photo of Wikimedia Commons


The use of a revised and improved knife design of Lieutenant Colonel Todorov allowed engineers from the team of M.T. Kalashnikov not only create a bayonet for the new machine, but also lay the foundations of a whole family of cold arms. In the future, based on the bayonet 6X3, several new models of similar weapons were developed for additional equipment of the machine guns. They received the handles of new designs, updated sheaths, etc., but the design of the blade and the main ideas of the projects remained unchanged. Thus, the currently used bayonets are a direct development of additional weapons for the AKM. In addition, the original 6X3 is still used in a number of armies in the world.

Considering the number of 6X3 products manufactured, as well as new designs based on them, it can be argued that this was one of the most successful and numerous bayonet knives in the world. "Sea" knife designs R.M. Todorova was not widely used, but the bayonet created at his base for the AKM machine gun was produced in large batches and used by many armies. All this speaks of the perfection of the two models and the correctness of the chosen approach to the development of a new weapon, which has fully justified itself.


On the materials of the sites:
http://bayonet.lv/
http://bratishka.ru/
http://rusknife.com/
http://world.guns.ru/
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  1. Good cat
    Good cat 5 February 2016 06: 40
    14
    They went to the outfit with a similar one, and the next one from the Ak-74, there was just some misunderstanding, you could break it by opening canned food!
    1. CONTROL
      CONTROL 5 February 2016 08: 09
      +8
      Quote: Good cat
      They went to the outfit with a similar one, and the next one from the Ak-74, there was just some misunderstanding, you could break it by opening canned food!

      ... broke, we know! ...
      1. bistrov.
        bistrov. 5 February 2016 09: 49
        +7
        Quote: Good cat
        and the next one from the Ak-74, just some kind of misunderstanding

        I dealt with both this and the other, including and the most common in 70 years 6x4. I must say, frankly, that it was possible to break it even if you put a little pressure on its side. The blade broke immediately near the hilt. The steel from which the blade was made was too fragile. Such damage was a mass phenomenon in the army. According to the practice of those years, they tried to hide it from the higher command, skilled warrant officers welded the blades, then the welding site was protected and polished. Of course, such a bayonet-knife was not suitable for military use. He was forever put into an armory and tried not to give anyone away. I know many such cases. I can guarantee that in each battalion there were several such bayonets.
        1. bistrov.
          bistrov. 5 February 2016 10: 16
          +2
          Quote: bistrov.
          I know many such cases.

          And the famous tetrahedral, needle bayonet, which stood on the Mosin rifle, broke quite often. He broke off the tip. In the trench life, the soldiers acted in this case very simply: they sharpened the broken end again and, as if nothing had happened, continued to use it further. My father, a soldier, told me about this. I must say that the German knife bayonets for 98k carbines were of very good quality and it was not easy to break it.
          1. Nekarmadlen
            Nekarmadlen 5 February 2016 10: 52
            +8
            It seems like the bayonets in the Russian army specifically made it easy to break, because with a piercing strike the bayonet can get stuck in the enemy’s body and it’s better to break it and save the rifle from the bayonet fragments than to lose it ....
            1. 2news
              2news 5 February 2016 17: 57
              -22 qualifying.
              Quote: Nekarmadlen
              It seems like the bayonets in the Russian army specifically made it easy to break, because with a piercing strike the bayonet can get stuck in the enemy’s body and it’s better to break it and save the rifle from the bayonet fragments than to lose it ....

              Not at all. It was a "convincing Russian / Soviet quality". This was all light small arms in imperial Russia / USSR, but it was not obvious to the yusers. And the bayonet is made of worthless steel, this is just obvious.
              The only difference is that in imperial Russia they have not yet learned how to make up legends about "legendary weapons". But in the USSR this "art" was mastered masterly. Many people still believe in those tales. The fact that a technically and technologically backward country was doing something "better than anyone in the world."
        2. alexey garbuz
          alexey garbuz 6 February 2016 00: 38
          +2
          The knife was specially made brittle in order to avoid jamming in the body of the enemy. If the knife stuck among the ribs or in the bones, it was necessary to break it and continue the fight without it. Otherwise, you could lose both the machine gun and the fighter. The German cleaver was more durable considering its length — twice as long and it was believed that a person could not be cut through the entire length of the cleaver — this was unnecessary. Remember the newsreel of the Red Army when training on bundles of rods - moving forward and backward at the injection was only in one line to avoid jamming.
          1. 2news
            2news 6 February 2016 00: 57
            -1
            Quote: Alexey Garbuz
            If the knife got stuck among the ribs or in the bones, it was necessary to break it and continue the fight without it

            And you have never been tormented by the question of how such a place the bayonet can "get stuck among the ribs or in the bones"? Are there any protrusions in it that can somehow get stuck there? They don't exist, so it's just shitty metal. And propaganda. And nothing more.
  2. qwert
    qwert 5 February 2016 07: 15
    +1
    And in general, I liked AKM more than AK-74. But the knife handle was a little different. If my memory serves me there, the end of the brook was not rounded, but straight, cut off.
    1. La-5
      La-5 5 February 2016 09: 21
      +7
      Quote: qwert
      And in general, I liked AKM more than AK-74. But the knife handle was a little different. If my memory serves me there, the end of the brook was not rounded, but straight, cut off.

      You are probably talking about a 6x4 bayonet-knife that had a different handle and other scabbard.
    2. oleq197429
      oleq197429 5 February 2016 17: 04
      +4
      it was possible to make a hammer if the ring was inserted into the scabbard
  3. kristofer
    kristofer 5 February 2016 07: 26
    +3
    Quote: Good cat
    you could break it by opening canned food!

    here I have a question for experienced: the quality of steel blade. my friend, who served in the Pacific Fleet, is unflattering about this gadget
    1. Mik13
      Mik13 5 February 2016 11: 16
      +2
      Quote: kristofer
      here I have a question for experienced: the quality of steel blade. my friend, who served in the Pacific Fleet, is unflattering about this gadget

      I will not say about 6x3, and 6x4 is a brittle uncomfortable bullshit.
      By the way, in addition to breaking off the blade along the line of the handle, the mount often fell off during firing (some exercises with an attached bayonet shoot) - in this case, the mount ring fell under the bullet and had a characteristic "tear". It was called "shoot the bayonet" As far as I remember, this was not repaired.
  4. Free wind
    Free wind 5 February 2016 08: 16
    +6
    I’m probably stupid, but in the picture AK-47 but not AKM. This bayonet-knife is good and really was a good assistant to the soldier, it really was a knife. But what did they do for the ak-74 and called it a bayonet-knife ????? Many here say that this is a type of weapon and there is nothing for them to use in everyday life. it turns out that the soldier must have this useless crap and he also has to buy himself a good knife. And the designers of the head do not have a normal thing to do as their predecessors. And the steel on bayonets for the AK-74 was used very fragile, it seems not even steel but low-grade cast iron request sarcasm of course, but the impression is this. bayonet broken by the handle is a common thing
    1. Rjn
      Rjn 5 February 2016 09: 57
      +3
      By all the characteristic signs, this is AKM 100%.
    2. bistrov.
      bistrov. 5 February 2016 10: 32
      +4
      Quote: Free Wind
      but in the picture AK-47 but not AKM

      In the photo AKM. You can understand this by the "hollow" above the store's nest. There is no such "hollow" on the AK receiver. You can probably judge by the round sleeve on the barrel cut. Many AKMs were equipped with a round clutch, and not a so-called. "compensator" with an oblique cut.
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 5 February 2016 14: 14
        +3
        Quote: bistrov.
        You can probably judge by the round sleeve on the barrel cut. Many AKMs were equipped with a round clutch, and not a so-called. "compensator" with an oblique cut.

        Honestly, I was also embarrassed by the lack of a compensator, we had a compensator in 1967. In the company were 2 Ak-47 - training, here they have a beautiful bayonet knife! They threw it like that at the door, but here the political officer is out of nowhere! Well and further on the full program ... smile
    3. gross kaput
      gross kaput 5 February 2016 16: 52
      +3
      Quote: Free Wind
      I’m probably stupid, but in the picture AK-47 but not AKM

      A usual early AKM release before the 63rd year, it was from the 63rd year that a "whistle" appears on the barrel instead of a "nut" and a less noticeable form of gas outlet, although Tula did not set whistles for a long time after the 63rd and used wooden handles.
    4. uwzek
      uwzek 5 February 2016 17: 29
      +2
      Quote: Free Wind
      I’m probably stupid, but in the picture AK-47 but not AKM. This bayonet-knife is good and really was a good assistant to the soldier, it really was a knife. But what did they do for the ak-74 and called it a bayonet-knife ?????

      This is an earlier AKM design. It was to her that the described bayonet-knife was attached.
  5. igordok
    igordok 5 February 2016 08: 35
    +4
    Thanks. Will there be more?
    I’ll fix it a bit.
    Wire fences, including those under current,

    Technically correct would be:
    Wire fences, including those under voltage,

    Live wires laughing will be if the soldier touches the wire and the current to the earth goes through it. Desirable, not fatal, less than 10mA. recourse
  6. Hydrograph
    Hydrograph 5 February 2016 09: 31
    +2
    The series of articles on bayonets is excellent. "" ((A little off topic. We have a colleague of my call (from Azerbaijan), who did not like the sharpening of the knife bayonet, he was not careful to fix it on emery. He served almost three years without money.
  7. otto meer
    otto meer 5 February 2016 10: 08
    +5
    Quote: Free Wind
    it turns out that the soldier must have this useless crap and he also has to buy himself a good knife.
    Yeah, that's how it turns out. When serving, the bayonet-knife was left in the arms at the base, and they bought purchased / home-made knives (there is no doubt whatsoever), because a regular bayonet-knife is some kind of misunderstanding. Worn only in outfits / guards, as supposed to.
    By the way, it is very convenient to use it as a mouthpiece. "Prima" is wonderfully inserted into the hole on the head, where the lanyard goes, and you can smoke to the end without getting burned. laughing But this is from the AK-74.
    1. Beaver
      Beaver 5 February 2016 13: 11
      +3
      Quote: otto meer
      When serving, the bayonet-knife was left in the arms at the base, and they bought purchased / home-made knives (there is no doubt whatsoever), because a regular bayonet-knife is some kind of misunderstanding. Worn only in outfits / guards, as supposed to.

      This is one of the long-standing military traditions. There is a thing that is supposed to be, and a thing that is good, comfortable, but not supposed to be. Tolstoy wrote about this in War and Peace:
      In the campaign, Rostov allowed himself the freedom not to ride a front horse, but a Cossack horse. And a connoisseur and a hunter, he recently got himself a dashing Don, a large and kind fidget horse, on which no one jumped him. Riding this horse was a pleasure for Rostov.
  8. bistrov.
    bistrov. 5 February 2016 10: 08
    +1
    Quote: bistrov.
    Quote: Good cat
    and the next one from the Ak-74, just some kind of misunderstanding

    I dealt with both this and the other, including and the most common in 70 years 6x4. I must say, frankly, that it was possible to break it even if you put a little pressure on its side. The blade broke immediately near the hilt. The steel from which the blade was made was too fragile. Such damage was a mass phenomenon in the army. According to the practice of those years, they tried to hide it from the higher command, skilled warrant officers welded the blades, then the welding site was protected and polished. Of course, such a bayonet-knife was not suitable for military use. He was forever put into an armory and tried not to give anyone away. I know many such cases. I can guarantee that in each battalion there were several such bayonets.
  9. qwert
    qwert 5 February 2016 10: 39
    +6
    Quote: kristofer
    here I have a question for experienced: the quality of steel blade. my friend, who served in the Pacific Fleet, is unflattering about this gadget

    Brittle steel. It is possible that it was "sharpened" on the wire, i.e. firm, not crammed when I shredded her "thorn". But if you put the blade between the bricks and push, then the blade could be broken. And the other side of such steel is extremely difficult to sharpen. Factory sharpening was not intended to cut lard or smoked sausage)))
    1. Voice of the Mind
      Voice of the Mind 5 February 2016 11: 24
      +3
      Quote: qwert
      And the second side of such steel is to imprison extremely difficult.

      Sharpen a bayonet knife? One of the worst crimes in the army. lol
      Well, you can’t sharpen it. It was made of cemented steel and easy to break, so that in the case of a bayonet attack not to be left without weapons. The blade should break in the body of the enemy
    2. Beaver
      Beaver 5 February 2016 13: 24
      +2
      Quote: qwert
      Brittle steel. It is possible that it was "sharpened" on the wire, i.e. firm, not crammed when I shredded her "thorn". But if you put the blade between the bricks and push, then the blade could be broken. And the other side of such steel is extremely difficult to sharpen. Factory sharpening was not intended to cut lard or smoked sausage)))

      Generally, the harder the steel, the more brittle it is. One of the exceptions is spring steel, which is probably too expensive for mass production of bayonet knives. The standard bayonet-knife broke even with an unsuccessful throw. Under "lard or sausage" I undermined mine carefully with fine sandpaper. The main thing is not to change the sharpening angle. laughing
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. Grigorievich
    Grigorievich 5 February 2016 13: 06
    +6
    I have a bayonet gift, I visited Afghanistan. Next to M16, my son managed to bring from America, twice as heavy as ours.
    It’s good that they warned about fragility, otherwise I was going to take it on a cop (digging with a metal detector)
  12. AAV
    AAV 5 February 2016 13: 54
    +3
    We had two modifications of the bayonet-knife described in the article. One, such as shown in the photographs, and the second handle had a metal ending. This modification was somewhat heavier than the first. I remember when they entered the outfit by company, some preferred bayonet-knives with a purely plastic handle.
  13. moskowit
    moskowit 5 February 2016 20: 11
    +6
    Interesting comments ... They went to the outfit ... Did your uncle go on guard? This is where, basically, the bayonet-knife was worn. Locked and at the waist. There this weapon found various uses. And the test of strength in various variations, and was also used as a tool in woodcarving and plastic, creating from the simplest to highly artistic works. From the inscription of the favorite place of recruitment on the table in the guardhouse or "lip" to the various relief of woodcarving on guard towers, fungi and other wooden structures that are on the objects entrusted to the guardhouse ... good soldier
  14. 2nd 12th
    2nd 12th 5 February 2016 21: 58
    +2
    I remember very well my bayonet-knife (6x4) I can not imagine how it could be sharpened. He was oooh, very stupid! I opened canning banks regularly.
    I got the impression that he had strictly two purposes: to cut the wire and poke (exclusively as a bayonet) into enemies.
  15. although
    although 5 February 2016 23: 00
    +5
    Quote: 2news
    Quote: Nekarmadlen
    It seems like the bayonets in the Russian army specifically made it easy to break, because with a piercing strike the bayonet can get stuck in the enemy’s body and it’s better to break it and save the rifle from the bayonet fragments than to lose it ....

    Not at all. It was a "convincing Russian / Soviet quality". This was all light small arms in imperial Russia / USSR, but it was not obvious to the yusers. And the bayonet is made of worthless steel, this is just obvious.
    The only difference is that in imperial Russia they have not yet learned how to make up legends about "legendary weapons". But in the USSR this "art" was mastered masterly. Many people still believe in those tales. The fact that a technically and technologically backward country was doing something "better than anyone in the world."

    For such provocateurs, a black list was invented, so shit for a month ..... And all under different proxies
  16. 2news
    2news 6 February 2016 00: 06
    -6
    Quote: Makar
    For such provocateurs and invented a black list, so shit for a month ....

    Lord, where do you get such zombies from? You are born so miserable or something. After all, it seems like a zombie a couple of decades ago ended? Or is it not over?
  17. Mark68
    Mark68 10 February 2016 10: 25
    0
    A good knife, though heavy. But he was intended only for bayonet fighting and for cutting barbed wire and nothing more. We studied with such bayonet fighting. To do this, automobile tires were installed at the height of human growth in our training camp, and with these bayonet-knives attached to the machine gun, we hit automobile tires with all the dope. Something I don’t remember, at least one breaks down ... There wasn’t such a thing in my entire two-year service. The machines, however, were of the AKS brand, with a folding butt. Maybe, as always, everything depends on the lot, the type of machine and the manufacturer’s plant ...