There are many things in the world, Horatio's friend,
which our sages never dreamed of.
W. Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act I, Scene IV
The entire global information space is now full news and analytical articles about Syria and the Middle East. Numerous analysts, experts, bloggers have written mountains of sheets and gigabytes of articles describing what, how, in the name of what, why and why. There is a full range of explanations in the Russian infosphere for why Putin and Russia got involved in the war in Syria - from the moans about the rout, the drain of Russia and New Russia, the collapse of the economy to the cheers-patriotic slogans about the brotherhood of peoples, historical the mission of Russia, the protection of all good people and world peace. But no one knows for sure, but in fact - for what?
The president himself speaks about international peace, law, protection of the existing world order from chaos, protection of economic interests of Russia, the fight against international terrorism and the protection of it Russian. The objectives of the right, good and reasonable. But precisely because of the fact that so many of them, and it seems that none of them is not decisive in the decision.
Of course, there is one, the main goal, which many experts and analysts will not know about in the near future. If ever find out.
Putin is playing a game on the global chessboard that has been around for more than one millennium. And when this game ends, God alone knows. As in any chess game, Putin plays long-term multi-moves, the effect of which can manifest itself after years and decades. The current operation is very similar to a chess gambit, when yielding at some point the quality, the player eventually wins the game.
Of course, Russia's foreign policy interests can in no way be considered in isolation from domestic ones. But it would be a huge mistake to close only on them. The situation on the board is now when the world order changes qualitatively, moving to the next new level. New forces, new circumstances, opportunities and qualities come into play.
The previous break in the world order occurred immediately after the Second World War with the acquisition of the leading powers of nuclear weapons. Russia, as now, was far behind the United States in its production, just a few years. And these few years had to be survived, and so experienced, so that the opponent would not be tempted to use this nuclear weapon, while remaining unpunished. That is, the USSR for a few years had to find leverage, alternative and asymmetric levers.
And then the leader of the USSR, Stalin, carried out an operation, which can be called the first Middle East gambit of Russia.
Creation of the State of Israel
There are many theories of varying degrees of probability and reliability, as the Soviet Union managed to obtain and produce nuclear weapons. According to the official version, it was created and produced in the absence of funds, technological base, in conditions of war and devastation by a small team of fanatical scientists in the taiga in secret secret "sharashkas" under the superpower of Beria. Possibly, albeit unlikely.
There is more information and even films about that in the year 1939, when meeting in person with Stalin, Robert Oppenheimer proposed to the Soviet Union an atomic project that guaranteed obtaining nuclear weapons for 10 years. This required gigantic investment and the creation of an entire “medium machine-building” industry with scientific and technological bases. On the eve of World War II, the country could not afford this. And then it was decided that Oppenheimer would help lead the American nuclear project, and the Soviet side would receive all the necessary data first-hand.
Oppenheimer, who had never concealed his communist views and sympathy for the USSR, had to be protected in every way. This explains the cover-up operations in the form of “Kremlin agents” exposed by the FBI, like the spouses of Rosenbergs.
But even with this version of the USSR received a valid nuclear device only a few years after the United States. Under the nuclear bomb of the Americans, it was necessary to lay a non-nuclear bomb for several years. And this was the Middle East bomb.
At the beginning of the war, the Soviet Union began to work on helping to create a Jewish state in Palestine, as opposed to full British rule in this region. The British Expeditionary Corps was stationed in Palestine, with the help of which any attempts of the Jewish population to create their own state were blocked. It was necessary to strengthen the existing militarized (extremist) Jewish formations, to give them people and weapons, and at the initial stage to open a terrorist war against the British in Palestine.
After the start of World War II, hundreds of thousands of Jews turned out to be on the territory of the USSR — refugees from Poland, Moldova, the western regions of Ukraine and Belarus. After a long ordeal, most of them ended up in Central Asia in Tashkent. Hence the common expression about the “Tashkent front”. Also on the territory of the USSR were many prisoners of war and interned soldiers, officers and generals of the Polish Army. Of these, by agreement and the insistence of the West, the Polish army of Anders was formed. At the end of August 1941, in the villages of Totsky (Chkalov region) and Tatishchev (Saratov region) as well as in the city of Buzuluk, the formation of two rifle divisions and one regiment with a total number of 25 000 people began. In December, 1941 reached an agreement with the government of the USSR on the creation of an already 7 Polish division, numbering up to 96 000 people with the possibility of their further withdrawal to Iran. Central Asia was headquartered with a headquarters in the village of Vrevsky Tashkent region.
In spite of strong anti-Semitic sentiments in the Polish environment, the Jews, former citizens of Poland, began to be massively directed by the Soviet government to form Anders’s army. The process became so widespread that, according to Anders himself, in the Polish formations in Totsky and Tatischev the percentage of Jews was 60%, and according to the first Polish Ambassador to the USSR Stanislav Kota - 40%.
At the beginning of the formation of the army of Anders, even the idea of creating a separate "Jewish Legion" in its composition arose. However, due to the position of the leadership of the army, this idea was buried.
The Polish command asked the Soviet government not to send so many Jews to them and set up an unspoken wall when they passed medical commissions.
Of course, a certain number of Jews who joined the army of Anders had excellent military training and experience, which were very useful to them in the partisan war against the British in Palestine.
During the two evacuations from March to September 1942, more than 75 000 soldiers and 37 000 civilians were evacuated from the USSR, among whom were famous people. Occupied later major positions in the future state of Israel. Do we need to say that a significant part of the soldiers and the overwhelming majority of civilians were Jews, who after arriving in Iran moved to Palestine, where they joined the ranks of Jewish militias? From this point on, Jewish resistance to the British occupying forces in Palestine began to increase. The culmination of the partisan war was the explosion of the Tsar David hotel in Jerusalem, which housed the British administration, who buried including very unpleasant documents for the USSR captured by the British during the so-called. "Black saturday".
The first phase of Stalin’s plan was successfully completed. The British and Americans got a rapidly burning conflict in the main oil transportation hub to England and the United States.
16 July 1945 in the United States in the desert near Alamogordo (New Mexico), the first nuclear explosive device, Gadget, was tested. The Soviet Union became confronted with a real nuclear war, and the second part of the plan to curb American nuclear ambitions began.
Already 6 July 1945 between the Provisional Government of the National Unity of the Polish Republic and the USSR Government concluded an agreement on the right for citizens of Polish and Jewish nationality residing in the USSR to leave the Soviet citizenship. And already September 4 of 1946, Deputy Commissioner of the USSR Council of Ministers for Repatriation Affairs Lieutenant-General Golubev informed Andrei Andreyevich Smirnov, head of the 3 European Department of the Foreign Ministry:
“I inform you for the information that, according to the repatriation representative in Austria Colonel Starov, from Poland through the territory of Czechoslovakia and the Soviet zone of Austria began the transit of Jews heading for Palestine. In total, the Jews should proceed to Palestine 200 000 ... According to reports, transports are sent to the American zone of occupation in Munich, where a collection point is allegedly organized to send them to Palestine ... "
The agreement concluded with Poland allowed to recruit and ship to Palestine any number of military experts from any country in the world. So that Jews arriving from the USSR would not want to stay in Poland, in the latter several indicative "pogroms" organized by the Poles took place. And the flow of immigrants to Palestine has become a deep river. According to some reports, more than 200 000 people were thus moved.
The guerrilla war in Palestine and, as a result, the strangulation of oil production and the transportation of oil to Europe and the United States did their job. The winter of 46-47 in Britain was harsh, and in the conditions of the most severe energy crisis and the post-war devastation, the British were desperately cold. In addition, Stalin increased the pressure on the British allies - Arab countries, supporting the opposition in the League of Arab States and Iraqi Kurds.
The goal was soon achieved: Britain abandoned the Mandate for Palestine and transferred the solution of this issue to the UN at the mercy of two states, the USSR and the USA. At that moment, President Truman was in no mood for Palestine even after Gromyko’s historic speech, 26 on November 1947, at the UN General Assembly on Palestine, which all world Jewish media outlined in admiration, it was decided to create the State of Israel.
Now the question of supporting Israel in its struggle against Britain and the Arab countries could be solved more easily and significantly more.
And the work began to boil. Few people know that the elite part of the IDF Israel Defense Forces Army "Golani Brigade" was originally called the "Gottwald Brigade" and began to form in Czechoslovakia. Nahum Goldman, President of the World Zionist Organization, wrote:
“Without the Soviet Union, the state of Israel would not exist at all. And not so much because the Russians voted for its creation, but rather because during the Arab invasion of 1948-1949, all the weapons of Israel were received from the communist countries. ”
Palestinian Jews appealed to the Soviet representatives. Future Minister of Foreign Affairs of Israel, born in Kherson, Moshe Shertok 5 February 1948, in an interview with Andrei Gromyko, USSR Permanent Representative to the UN, asked the Soviet leadership to help with weapons. By that time, Stalin had already given the order to arm the Palestinian Jews.
A large number of all types of weapons were sent to Israel through Czechoslovakia, including mortars, artillery and German Messerschmitt captured fighters. Most of the weapons and ammunition were from stocks of German captured weapons, which removed the question of who supplies weapons to Palestinian Jews. Earlier military commanders had something to fight. By the way, the Czechs earned good money by selling their own weapons made at the Škoda and ChZ factories.
This violated the arms embargo on the Middle East, which the United States achieved through the UN. But not only did the USSR violate the embargo, it also violated England, supplying not only the Arab countries, but also transferring weapons to the Palestinian Arabs.
And in the same Czechoslovakia, new and new military experts were prepared and transferred to Palestine and then to Israel (after 14 in May 1948): future Jewish aces got to know the planes that were to be piloted at the airfield in Ceske Budejovice. There, in Ceske Budejovice, tankers and paratroopers were trained. One and a half thousand infantrymen of the Israel Defense Forces were taught in Olomouc, another two thousand in Mikulov. Of them formed a part, which was originally called "Brigade them. Gottwald ", the brigade was transferred to Palestine through Italy. The medical staff was taught in Velk-Ströbn. Radio operators and telegraph operators - in Liberec. Electrical engineers - in Pardubice. Soviet instructors gave lectures on political topics to young Israelis.
The commander of the Gottwald Brigade, or the secret division of DI, was Hero of the Soviet Union, Major Antonin Sokhor. The initial backbone of the brigade consisted of veterans of Jewish nationality 1-th Czechoslovak army corps. In full secrecy, the brigade was formed at a military base near the city of Libau, which is not far from Olomouc. In mid-November 1948, the brigade was secretly transferred to Israel. According to some information, Sohora became an adviser to the operations department of the General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
The airfield in Ceske Budejovice was allocated to send weapons and equipment to Palestinian Jews. They received artillery and mortars, German Messerschmit fighters and English Spitfires. The former military pilots, veterans of World War II flew along the route Czechoslovakia - Palestine. Most were Americans. They illegally came to Czechoslovakia, because the US State Department did not issue permits for this. The air bridge operated from Czechoslovakia through the territory of Yugoslavia. Pressure was exerted on Yugoslavia, Romania, and Bulgaria by the Soviet Union to stop the supply of arms and equipment to the Arabs.
In Romania and Bulgaria, Soviet representatives trained officers for the Israel Defense Forces. Moreover, preparations began for Soviet military units to be transferred to Palestine to help Israel. Twice Hero of the Soviet Union tanker David Dragunsky proposed to form a division and transfer it to Palestine. However, later on these plans, Stalin refused.
As a result, Israel was able to fight off Arab attacks, and the West at the main oil production and transportation hub received a long-standing non-stop armed conflict.
29 August 1949 of the USSR tested its atomic bomb RDS-1, breaking the US nuclear monopoly ...
So Russia played the first Middle East gambit, after which the world entered a new reality, the reality of nuclear confrontation and deterrence, which allowed it to prevent a world war for over 60 years.
Now the second gambit is being played before our eyes by Putin. What will be the new reality after its completion, few people know and guess ... But the fact that it will be, undoubtedly. And practically no one can predict the ultimate goal of his actions. It remains only to believe and wish success to our president in this tremendous work.
Rezontov E. Stalin's Jewish divisions.
Voronov V. Troika: traitor, womanizer, terrorist.
Reichel U. How Stalin defended Israel.
Sharet M. Kherson fraternity "Tavria" in Moscow.
Gutman I. Jews in the army of Anders, formed in the USSR.
Wikipedia, article "Anders Army".
Avrutin M. On the role of Truman and Stalin in the creation of the State of Israel.
"Vkontakte", the article "Typical militarist."