Military Review

"Rail war" of Soviet aviation

50



Transport is an essential element of the country's military-economic potential. Industry and agriculture will not fulfill their task of providing the army with weapons and food if the communication between the front and rear is broken. The mobilization, concentration and deployment of troops in theaters of military operations cannot be carried out without a developed and specially prepared transport system.

Of particular importance in meeting the needs of war were the railways. In the years of the Great Patriotic War, their share accounted for over 90% of military cargo transportation and over 97% of personnel transport on the continent. Therefore, during the war, the railways were one of the main targets of warfare. When planning operations for the seizure of railway junctions and stations, traffic disruption on railway communications has always been given great importance. The air force, partisan and sabotage detachments conducted special operations to disrupt railway communications.

The experience of the Great Patriotic War showed that the scale and methods of struggle on railway communications primarily depend on the military-political goals of the war, the available means of struggle and the current operational-strategic situation.

In the first period of the war, Soviet aircraft attacked railways due to a shortage of bombing aviation and attracting it mainly to ensure the combat operations of the ground forces, carried out by small forces with significant interruptions, which allowed the enemy to quickly restore the destroyed. Therefore, the actions of aviation by railways could not have a significant impact on the operational and supply traffic of the enemy.

In the second and third periods of the war, our aircraft seized dominance in the air and began to inflict massive strikes on rear transport facilities. The main tasks of aviation in its action on railway facilities were: delaying the advancement and concentration of the enemy’s operational reserves, disrupting its planned withdrawal and supply, prohibiting the export of our people and economic resources to Germany.

The most active Soviet aircraft operated on railway facilities at the time of preparation for the decisive battles of the summer 1943. These days, the Supreme High Command ordered to intensify the fight against transportation in the enemy's rear, in order to disorganize the concentration and deployment of its troops. To combat the enemy's communications, aviation of the Western, Bryansk, Central, Voronezh, South-Western and Southern fronts was engaged. The strikes were carried out on all major roads in a wide band, to a depth of 250 km beyond the front line — by front aviation, 250 km and more — by long-range aviation.



Usually, in the air army, to ensure these actions, one assault and fighter regiment was assigned. Each railway direction was assigned a permanent group of two to four hunter aircraft. This made it possible for pilots in a short time to study the order of movement of enemy echelons, terrain, air defense on all sections of the road and, successfully, to combat German transports. Long-range aviation (ADD) struck mostly at railway junctions and bridges. In April-June 1943 alone, it performed more than 7,5 thousand fly-by-year flights.

The experience of the war showed that in order to achieve major operational results, it is necessary to use massed aviation simultaneously on several main railway objects, which is vividly confirmed by the following example. In the Battle of Kursk, 2, 5, 3 and 17-I air armies were involved in disrupting transportation and destroying German reserves. They conducted massive bombing of the enemy at the stations of Slavyansk, Barvenkovo, Makeevka, Pavlograd, Kharkov, Lyubotin, Merefa. From 6 to 17 in August, 2300 sorties were flown, causing the concentration of enemy reserves to be delayed.



In order to prevent the enemy from restoring the destroyed one and resuming the railroad message on the sector subjected to a strike, our aircraft subsequently delivered continuous strikes day and night.

During the war, it was noted that the most effective strikes were carried out on railway stations where large fuel and lubricants depots, ammunition or trains with the same cargo were located. In such cases, even small groups of aircraft inflicted serious damage to the Nazis.

In hostilities for the liberation of Donbass, a group of 18 IL-2 305 th assault aviation division made a 25 August attack on ammunition depots at the railway station Barvenkovo. Bombs and missiles caused many fires. After the raid, the warehouses continued to burn and explode for more than two days. For almost a week, the station Barvenkovo ​​was blocked, and no train could pass through it.

In Proskurovo-Chernivtsi operation 8 IL-2, Klemashivka station was stormed to the station, where military troopers accumulated. In the first attack, the attack aircraft blew up the train leaving the station and blocked the train for a long time. With subsequent attacks, they destroyed standing trains and equipment in the vicinity of the station. Fire raged around. The trains burned, the cars with ammunition and gasoline exploded. This stopped the movement for a long time.

"Rail war" of Soviet aviation


In order to prevent the enemy from reconstructing the tracks and resume railway communication, continuous attacks were carried out day and night, not only on transport facilities, but also on repair facilities. During the Second World War, one of the main targets for aviation operations was railway bridges. Their destruction made it possible to suspend movement for several days. Moreover, the greatest results were achieved in those cases when several large railway bridges were destroyed at the same time. This interrupted rail transportation for a long time on many highways, and contributed to the isolation of active sections of the front from enemy rear areas. So, during the Vistula-Oder operation, the main efforts of Soviet aviation during the offensive of the 5th strike and the 2nd guard tank armies were sent to disorganize the planned withdrawal of German troops and to combat suitable reserves in order to prevent them from reaching Warsaw. To do this, the railway bridge and the crossing over the Vistula at Vysehrud, the river crossing the Ohna at Kutno, the Warta at Serdau and the Lodz railway junction were destroyed. The destruction of these facilities contributed to our troops in the destruction of enemy troops in parts.

Important railway junctions and bridges were usually reliably defended by the Nazis, and for their destruction from the air required a lot of strength. In this case, as well as with a lack of forces and means, the destruction of the rails and the interruption of lines of communications in several vulnerable points on the hauls often brought more effect than slight damage to the railway junction and bridge, and did not lead to large losses of our aircraft.

The greatest effect in the destruction of rail sections was achieved in the event that there was a small number of through lines, and a section of the railway passed through inaccessible terrain.

Rolling stock was also a profitable target for aviation operations. This is because after destruction it was difficult to restore. In the event of the outage on the lines, even of a small part of the locomotives and cars, the movement was sharply reduced.

So, for example, our aviation, carrying out strikes on railway trains on hauls, frustrated the Germans' attempts to withdraw their military units from Orsha by rail to Minsk. By completing the 138 airplanes, the 1 Guards assault aviation division destroyed 10 locomotives and 15 echelons. The traffic on the Orsha - Tolochin section was paralyzed for a long time.



The experience of the war showed that the use of rolling stock largely depended on the supply of fuel, water and electricity. In this regard, the station devices associated with the supply of locomotives were also objects for aviation operations. However, simultaneous strikes on all the most important railway facilities and on several railway lines brought the greatest effect. In this case, the connection of the front with the rear in the band of entire operational directions was interrupted.

Characteristic in this regard are the actions of Soviet aircraft on rail lines in the Far East during the defeat of the Kwantung Army. At this point, the Soviet Army had a significant air superiority over Japanese aircraft, which made it possible to assign the bomber aircraft of the 12 Air Army with the task of paralyzing the work of all the most important transport communications and preventing the enemy’s operational reserves from the battle area. Continuous strikes of Soviet aviation against railway facilities have once again confirmed their effectiveness. Almost all the main communications of the Japanese were put out of action, and the maneuver in reserves was constrained, which made it impossible for the enemy to transfer fresh forces to the battle areas. The Japanese command in the conditions of impassable roads and thaws failed to tighten the operational reserves in time and occupy the prepared defensive lines.

However, in general, during the war, the communications of the enemy’s communications to our aviation were carried out by small forces. The Soviet Air Force focused on the direct support of ground forces and the conquest of air superiority. The effectiveness of air strikes on railway communications depended mainly on the presence of bomber aircraft and the correct choice of transport facilities.



With a significant number of aircraft, the impact on the roads gave the maximum effect in order to isolate the active combat area from the inflow of operational reserves and the disruption of the material and technical supply of the troops. At the same time, simultaneous massed (sometimes up to 100-500 aircraft) and continuous airstrikes on all major railways and transport facilities were applied. The main efforts were directed to the destruction of railway junctions and bridges, along which the main stream of troops and supply supplies went to the front. With a limited number of aviation, as well as a reliably organized system of air cover and restoration of railway junctions and bridges, the greatest result was achieved by destroying the trains and damaging the tracks on poorly covered routes. The “rail war” of Soviet aviation fully justified itself.

Sources:
The team of authors. Soviet Air Force in World War II 1941-1945 M .: Voenizdat, 1968. C. 138-141, 182-183, 267-268.
Shirokov M. Air strikes on transport during the Great Patriotic War // Militaryhistorical magazine. 1975. No. 4. P.77-79.
Myagkov V. Soviet aviation in the defeat of imperialist Japan // Herald of the air fleet. 1984. No. 6. 1984. S. 27-29.
Schwabedissen V. The Stalin falcons: Analysis of the actions of Soviet aviation in 1941-1945. Minsk: Harvest, 2001. C. 217-219, 293-294, 312-314.
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  1. alex-cn
    alex-cn 2 February 2016 07: 18
    11
    Somehow a comparison was made ... Our VKS are accused of bombing civilians ... I look at the first photo ... all the funnels to the right of the railway station, the houses are not touched, although the line is not all broken. But the sights were worse ...
  2. blizart
    blizart 2 February 2016 07: 46
    17
    The article notes the cases of the effective use of communication lines of groups of at least 10 attack aircraft or bombers. However, 26 January 1943, Lieutenant SI. Smirnov and senior lieutenant of the SV. Slepov from the 7 GuardsHAP 230 SHAD, a couple dealt a no less effective blow to the echelons of the enemy.
    Performing in difficult weather conditions the task of finding the enemy’s railway trains on stages and stations in the Stavropol-Tikhoretsk-Kavkazskaya area, the pilots discovered and attacked at station. Little Russian four echelons.
    As a result of the blow, strong explosions and fires occurred at the station. The Little Russian burned so that on the way back neither Slepov, nor Smirnov, nor the fighter pilot who covered them, because of the thick smoke, could see the station ...
    The effectiveness of Smirnov and Slepov’s strike was confirmed by a special commission of the 4-th VA, which worked at the Little Russian station after its release. The commission found that one train with fuel, one with tanks and two with ammunition, were burned at the station. The track economy was so badly damaged that the Germans could not restore movement until the station was liberated - for four days not a single train went in the direction of Tikhoretsk. Many echelons of echelons stuck on the hauls. The Red Army got rich trophies ...
    It remains to be noted that the strike became so effective due to the fact that using the accumulated experience, the pilots did not enter the bombing out of instructions, i.e. parallel to the paths, but slightly at an angle. Simply?! And how much is hidden behind this simplicity!
    1. oxotnuk86
      oxotnuk86 2 February 2016 11: 16
      12
      I read about this raid. The command did not believe the attack aircraft that they covered 4 echelons. When the 4VA commission confirmed the result of the assault strike, both pilots were already dead. Everlasting memory.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 2 February 2016 11: 58
        10
        Quote: oxotnuk86
        I read about this raid. The command did not believe the attack aircraft that they covered 4 echelons. When the 4VA commission confirmed the result of the assault strike, both pilots were already dead. Everlasting memory.

        http://www.tagilvariant.ru/news/kraeved/the_feat_in_the_sky_over_the_kuban/
        This is a link to a Tagil site with a photograph of Slepov. But the fate of S. Smirnov was different. Shot down, was taken prisoner, fled, fought in a partisan detachment in Czechoslovakia. After the war he worked as an engineer. Details in V. Emelianenko's books "Severe Military Air" IL-2 is attacking.
        1. blizart
          blizart 2 February 2016 12: 31
          +5
          Thanks for the clarification. Sometimes the right to think about whether comments are needed at all. Only after communicating with people like you, when you learn, not just new, but necessary, you understand, are needed. Thanks again.
      2. Serg koma
        Serg koma 4 February 2016 13: 58
        +1
        Quote: oxotnuk86
        both pilots have already died. Everlasting memory.

        Quote: blizart
        Senior Lieutenant SV. Slepov from the 7th GuardsHAP 230th ShA

        ETERNAL MEMORY AND GLORY TO HEROES!

        Surname Slepov
        Name Sergey
        Patronymic Vasilievich
        Date of birth / Age __.__. 1921
        Place of birth Penza region, Bolshe-Vyassky district, village Sofia
        Last duty station 4 VA 7 General Staff
        Military rank ml. lieutenant
        Reason for leaving missing
        Date of disposal of 09.02.1943
        https://www.obd-memorial.ru/html/info.htm?id=55304957

        Surname Smirnov
        Name Sergey
        Patronymic Ivanovich
        Date of birth / Age __.__. 1913
        Place of birth Yaroslavl region, Arefinsky district, Aleksandrovka village
        Last duty station 4 VA 7 General Staff
        Military rank lieutenant
        Reason for disposal killed
        Date of disposal of 13.02.1943
        Place of disposal Krasnodar Territory, Slavic District, Troitsky s / s, Troitskoye, in the region
        https://www.obd-memorial.ru/html/info.htm?id=55304956

        Prizes on Slepova S.V.. (website http://podvignaroda.mil.ru/?#tab=navResult), and Smirnova S.I.(http://podvignaroda.mil.ru/?#tab=navResult) not found

        The Internet, sometimes tells, sometimes .... What to believe ?, judge for yourself.

        in the book of the Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel VB Emelianenko "In the harsh military air", the former squadron commander. Slepov’s plane was shot down, crashed near Kochkino farm, the pilot was seized by policemen and shot. The museum of high school number 8 has materials about Sergey Slepov and the wreckage of the aircraft. Smirnov survived, worked after the war in Ufa.

        Interesting material about the Feat and Heroes http://iskatelklada.tuapse.ru/forum/krylya-vojny-samoljoty-ljotchiki-ekipazhi/97

        5-letchiki-slepov-i-smirnov.html

        Photo from the site about life and the Feat of S.V. Slepove http://historyntagil.ru/history/2_vov_27.htm
    2. oxotnuk86
      oxotnuk86 2 February 2016 11: 16
      +3
      I read about this raid. The command did not believe the attack aircraft that they covered 4 echelons. When the 4VA commission confirmed the result of the assault strike, both pilots were already dead. Everlasting memory.
    3. Amurets
      Amurets 2 February 2016 11: 24
      +2
      Quote: blizart
      However, on January 26, 1943, Lieutenant SI. Smirnov and senior lieutenant of the SV. Slepov from the 7th GuardsHAP 230th ShAD, a couple dealt a no less effective blow to the echelons of the enemy.

      A special separate order of Stalin was dedicated to the actions of this pair, setting as an example the actions of this pair to all the Red Army Air Forces. tests.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 2 February 2016 07: 53
    +6
    Interesting pages, the author opened .. Thank you ..
  4. qwert
    qwert 2 February 2016 07: 54
    +4
    With IL-2, the roads were often bombed. From low altitudes, where attack aircraft operated, it’s difficult to miss
    1. AK64
      AK64 2 February 2016 11: 14
      +4
      With IL-2, the roads were often bombed.

      And what will happen if the FAB-10 falls 100 meters from it?
      Answer: nothing will be the way

      From low altitudes, where attack aircraft operated, it’s difficult to miss

      It’s like it, it’s proving it! Difficult overshot
      / And a long laugh in the hall. /
      And you get in a car, accelerate to at least 100 km / h, and try pebble to get into the stobik of the motorway guard on the go. Or in a pillar.

      After all, it's a trifling affair

      Would kill such sofa theorists
      1. Mooh
        Mooh 2 February 2016 13: 29
        +4
        Why get into the pillar? If you bomb the roads or trains, and not sleepers, level crossings or houses of station rangers, then by your own analogy, you need to get a pebble from the car into the marking line of the double solid type, and this is already quite realistic.
      2. 97110
        97110 2 February 2016 20: 14
        +1
        Quote: AK64
        Answer: nothing will be the way

        The speed limit will be among peoples who are in a hurry somewhere. The population of limitrophs has no place to accelerate trains anyway - there will be nothing. And soon there will be no ways. Why are they EU members - America pays them for a fart to the east.
  5. blizart
    blizart 2 February 2016 07: 56
    16
    An example of an inexhaustible ingenuity of Russian, MAB - a bridge bomb. Ordinary FAB-250 with cables spun in flight by centrifugal force. As a result, the bomb did not fly right through the spans of bridges, but caught on numerous farms.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 2 February 2016 11: 29
      +2
      Quote: blizart
      An example of an inexhaustible ingenuity of Russian, MAB - a bridge bomb. Ordinary FAB-250 with cables spun in flight by centrifugal force. As a result, the bomb did not fly right through the spans of bridges, but caught on numerous farms.

      I myself have just looked for books on this material, only in my book two calibers of 250 and 500 kg are indicated. The rest is all correctly indicated.
      1. WUA 518
        WUA 518 2 February 2016 13: 03
        +9
        Quote: Amurets
        Himself just searched the books for this material,
        ... The group of high-explosive bombs also included bridge bombs. They were used only on bridges, viaducts, and crossing facilities, that is, on targets of small width (up to 10 m) and truss. Theoretical calculations and the experience of combat use showed that it is very difficult to hit a narrow target with volleys or a series of conventional air bombs from large and even medium heights. When bombing from low altitudes and from a dive, munitions with small slow detonators were dangerous for the carrier aircraft. The use of fuses of large slowdown did not give the expected results, since the bombs ricocheted from the bridge structures or, punching the floor, went under the bridge.

        MAB began to be developed long ago, but until 1938 it was not possible to achieve positive results. In 1938-39 in the dimensions of the FAB-100, a bomb was developed that, although it did not fully meet the requirements, allowed to bomb bridges with greater effect than high-explosive ones. In the Soviet-Finnish war, these bombs were not used because of the problems that arose with their prompt delivery to front-line airfields. They used the FAB-100ck to bombard the bridges, but to guarantee the destruction of such targets, the high-explosive ordnance of this caliber was not enough.

        Based on the conclusions of the Airborne Air Force Commission in 1940, the long-range aviation command ordered in GSKB-47 the development of a specialized bridge bomb in the dimensions of the FAB-250. A.F. Turakhin and N.A. Kotov worked on its creation. The first version of the ammunition was factory tested in the same year. Some elements of the design of the ammunition worked unsatisfactorily, but after refinement of the MAB in 1941, factory tests were successfully completed. Structurally, the basis of the MAB-250 was the full-time FAB-250ck. To exclude the possibility of ricocheting, a special parachute was mounted in the box-shaped stabilizer of the bomb, fixed to the bottom of the munition. Four ears were welded to the conical part of its body for attaching cables with a diameter of 9,5 mm and a length of 730 mm with special hooks at the ends. In the transport position, this rigging was placed along the feathers of the stabilizer.

        At an altitude of 50-100 m, the carrier aircraft entered a combat course along the target. At the time of the detachment of the bomb from the aircraft, an exhaust cord attached to the bomb holder pulled a brake parachute from the stabilizer box. Thanks to this, the aerial bomb acquired an incidence angle of 60-80 ° to the horizon at a speed of 18-20 m / s. At the same time, ropes with hooks were released. When hitting an obstacle, an aerial bomb hovered on them inside the structure and triggered when the fuse slowed down, destroying the bridge.

        In July - August 1941, inert samples of MAB-250 underwent factory tests twice at the Sofrinsky artillery range on a wooden mock-up of a bridge measuring 8x50 m. For the second time, nine bombs were dropped in nine approaches, of which six gave a direct hit. In all cases, the ammunition worked flawlessly.

        To accelerate the launch of MAB-250 in production, the Air Force Department decided to equate the latest factory tests with the field tests and suggested that the GSKB-47 submit for approval technological documentation for this munition. In February 1942, Air Force Science and Technology Magazine No. 010 for MAB-250 approved drawing number 3-01080 and Air Force index 7-M-329.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 2 February 2016 15: 47
          +1
          Quote: WUA 518
          .A group of high-explosive bombs also included bridge bombs

          Thank you! I’ve looked for this material. If I’m not mistaken, the reference book on bomb weapons is called.
  6. Alex
    Alex 2 February 2016 11: 16
    +4
    Thank you for the article. Something about the bombing of railway tracks and stations, even in memoirs, is sparingly, more and more about air battles. It was interesting to read (however, the rest of the author’s articles are also read in the same way).
    1. AK64
      AK64 2 February 2016 11: 45
      +3
      Something about the bombing of railway tracks and stations, even in memoirs, is sparingly


      Read "In the harsh military air", Emelianenko, is on the net. One of the best (and one of the most truthful, without the "role of the KPSS") memoirs of WWII. And Emelianenko himself, the Kingdom of Heaven for him, was a very honest and decent person. (He lived to be 90 years old, by the way)
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 2 February 2016 14: 41
        +4
        Quote: AK64
        Read "In the harsh military air", Emelianenko, is on the net.

        Dear colleague Andrei, I read the book (back in school years in a thick magazine). In the 60s there were many such memoirs. With the advent of Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU) to power in the country, memoirs about the Second World War began to be issued in print runs not even imaginable in our time. And since she was still lacking, these works were printed in thick magazines, the circulation of which was from several million to 30 million per month.
        Quote: AK64
        One of the best (and one of the most truthful, without the "role of the KPSS") WWII memoirs

        Dear colleague Andrei, the CPSU appeared in 1949. Prior to this, the party organization was abbreviated as VKP (b).
        And now, these memoirs again began to be printed (even with those fig leaflets) by the liberals - publishers, not because the policy of the Government required it, but because there was a steady demand for this literature (Karl Marx Law in Economics).
        1. PHANTOM-AS
          PHANTOM-AS 2 February 2016 16: 49
          +3
          The whole question was that on the IL-2 there was no sight for bombing at all.
          Pilots already using their combat experience put marks on the hood of the aircraft.
          Anti-tank in general "in the boot", ie. absolutely by guessing, in the square, and there already got-not-hit!
          A blow to the accumulation of technology. Photos from the cabin IL-2

          IL-2 (indicated by arrow) leaves the attack
          1. PHANTOM-AS
            PHANTOM-AS 2 February 2016 16: 53
            +1
            Who cares in reference to the memories of the pilots!
            http://www.library.by/portalus/modules/warcraft/special/remember.ru/pilots/khukh
            rikov / khukhrikov_r.html
            soldier
          2. The comment was deleted.
        2. The comment was deleted.
  7. qwert
    qwert 2 February 2016 12: 06
    +3
    Quote: AK64
    From low altitudes, where attack aircraft operated, it’s difficult to miss
    It’s like it, it’s proving it! Difficult overshot
    / And a long laugh in the hall. /
    And you get in a car, accelerate to at least 100 km / h, and try pebble to get into the stobik of the motorway guard on the go. Or in a pillar.


    Duc must fly over the road. Along it. It is only in the computer game "IL-2" that the plane, when attacking enemy planes standing in a row along the runway, will chord across the runway, strictly on a specific machine. And in life they always storm along the line, and not across. Well, if you believe Musa Gareev. And not to believe him is difficult.
    He clearly described that it was better to catch the train at the end of the descent before the ascent. The composition of the fire lead RSami, not bombs, etc. If in the forehead on the locomotive then guns. And he flew on a ground attack aircraft, sometimes cutting leaves from the tops of trees.
    1. AK64
      AK64 2 February 2016 12: 38
      -4
      Duc must fly over the road. Along it. It is only in the computer game "IL-2" that the plane, when attacking enemy planes standing in a row along the runway, will chord across the runway, strictly on a specific machine. And in life they always storm along the line, and not across. Well, if you believe Musa Gareev. And not to believe him is difficult.
      He clearly described that it was better to catch the train at the end of the descent before the ascent. The composition of the fire lead RSami, not bombs, etc. If in the forehead on the locomotive then guns. And he flew on a ground attack aircraft, sometimes cutting leaves from the tops of trees.

      He would kill the sofa theoreticians.

      So, you’ll get into a column with a pebble, at 100 km \ h?
      "Along, across" ... On the Il-2, the couch soldier, there was no bombsight. And the view forward and backward, the huge engine hood covered. And the bombs were on the ground (for obvious reasons), and after the fall, they naturally began to jump: where will it jump, do not tell me? A hit from an IL-2 is excellent, it is a circle with a 25m radius - how much damage will the rails, or even the train, be from such a hit?

      Tales about "tree foliage" ... One once something got into the back of the boat, it immediately became normal.

      About RS: in fact, RSs were extremely ... unimportant weapons: The same Emelianenko said in a private conversation that fortified missiles were being launched in the sky. And this is not surprising given the culture of manufacturing / handling: if the stabilizer is slightly bent, then the waltzes will be written out in the air. And even with whole stabilizers, they weren’t very much caught. I am too lazy to explain the reasons: couch strategists will still argue until the wheeze.

      And their effect on the target should not be exaggerated: the action on the ground target was vanishingly small.

      Just in case: this is my last answer to you: I am lazy to argue with "experts".
      1. iouris
        iouris 2 February 2016 14: 56
        0
        Right. You will not envy pilots of IL-2. No wonder there was a norm for 100 sorties, survivors received a Hero.
        The Americans in Vietnam, while trying to bomb only one strategically important bridge, made hundreds of sorties, losing about 100 aircraft. So there was a laser guidance system and guided bomb.
        1. Dekabrev
          Dekabrev 2 February 2016 22: 26
          0
          Well, on the bill, "laser" is from the heart!
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 2 February 2016 16: 18
        +5
        Quote: AK64
        About RS: in reality, RSs were extremely ... unimportant weapons:

        And you know, I don't want you to get under this vanishingly small effect of the RS-132. They fired not with single missiles, but with volleys. And what you write here was known in 1939, when the RS-82 was first used by Captain Zvonarev's squadron on Khalkhin-gol. And a large dispersion and a small amount of explosives in the warhead. But to bend the stabilizer, so it was necessary to try and apply a force. But what the missiles of the fortel were written out so for this the British should be "thanked". With a large load of gunpowder factories, pyroxylin powder for engines of Katyusha projectiles was supplied to the USSR by the British and Americans, and if the Americans supplied products in accordance with the specification, then the British often supplied outright substandard.
        1. Cap.Morgan
          Cap.Morgan 2 February 2016 17: 42
          +1
          The British still have to be thanked for kerosene for Molotov cocktails, for tanks in the 41st, for Spitfire and Hurricanes, for trucks, and much more for that ... The Americans did supply gunpowder. Therefore, there were no problems with ammunition in the Red Army. And no one complained.
          The red commanders threw 6 million rifles in the border strip, and Hitler drove to Moscow on Soviet gasoline and bombed the red army with Soviet bombs from border warehouses. There was no substandard condition in Soviet warehouses. Everything was of high quality.
          It was really very difficult to get into a single target, for example a tank or an armored personnel carrier. One tank could be destroyed by the forces of an air regiment. If you're lucky. This was the era of unguided ammunition, so the problem was solved by the massive use of attack aircraft.
          The military train, however, is not a tank. This is a pretty big goal. IL 2 just showed itself during the assault on supply columns and railway levels.
          1. bober1982
            bober1982 2 February 2016 18: 35
            -1
            .... one tank could be destroyed by the forces of an air regiment. If you are lucky ..... the end of the quote. In my opinion, you got excited so to speak.
            In this case, the regiment commander would be shot, and correctly done. The effectiveness of the IL-2 combat work was very high, including on targeted targets.
            1. Cap.Morgan
              Cap.Morgan 2 February 2016 22: 27
              +2
              Conducted experiments at the test site.
              They put a German tank and it was shot by an attack aircraft.
              The results were sad. Shells from the armor ricocheted.
              You think what is the caliber of the gun. 23 mm. Unreal.
              The attack speed is under 400. The aim in the sight is a second. Then they suggested getting a pebble into a pillar from the window of a rushing car. This is the same thing - uncontrolled ammunition in the tank.
              Only when small-caliber cumulative bombs appeared - then a chance appeared. There were a lot of bombs. They covered the square.
          2. 97110
            97110 2 February 2016 20: 28
            +1
            Quote: Cap.Morgan
            The British still need to thank for the kerosene for Molotov cocktails

            Cocktail, cocktail! I told Bill - there was no such thing in the USSR. There was a Molotov cocktail. Well, to you, as a connoisseur of history, where our homeland has never fought with the United States, this is not known.
            1. Cap.Morgan
              Cap.Morgan 2 February 2016 22: 35
              0
              Don't find fault with words. "Molotov cocktail" is the now generally accepted name. Although they were used in Spain. We just modernized them. Something with sulfur was mixed for spontaneous combustion.
              We did not fight the United States. How would you not like that. The USA both times supplied us with equipment. And very good. And they were allies.
              With Great Britain, which is so disliked here, they fought once in the Crimean.
              Our enemies are Germans, Poles, Turks, and we fought with them more than once.
              1. miv110
                miv110 3 February 2016 15: 30
                +2
                If I am not mistaken, it will be correct "Cocktail for Molotov" and this name appeared in the "Finnish" war among the Finns. It was replicated by Western propaganda and over time was transformed into a term without "for". This stamp, which is endlessly used in the media, is terribly jarring.
                1. 2news
                  2news 3 February 2016 16: 00
                  +1
                  Quote: miv110
                  If I am not mistaken, it will be correct "Cocktail for Molotov"

                  You are not mistaken.
              2. 97110
                97110 4 February 2016 20: 29
                +1
                Quote: Cap.Morgan
                "Molotov cocktail" is
                so creative! It is immediately clear that Maine is not a scoop, for him Molotov is a Shaise. About fought - not fought. My ancestors fought. In 1918-19. There was a 6-inch battery not far from my great-grandfather's house - to meet. And "Karl Liebknecht", "Rosa Luxemburg", "Clara Zetkin" are not German comrades for me, but at the beginning tugboats-raftsmen, then gunboats in 1918, which sank the hotly defended pin.dos, along with the White Guards and other brazen -Saxon Holy Church in the Bolshaya Northern Dvina. On VO there was material about the exploits of the "exceptional" in the North. And about Mudyug. Which is not an ELEPHANT, so it does not prick your eyes. Rejoice, Maksimka also says that they did not fight with us - America is with you.
          3. Old old
            Old old 2 February 2016 23: 52
            +1
            The English still have to be thanked for the kerosene for Molotov cocktails, for the tanks in the 41st, for Spitfire and Hurricanes, for trucks, and many more for that ...

            The British need to "thank" the first about the beginning of the Second World War. Hitler's aggression in Europe, and then against the USSR, began with their scurrilous defamation.
            1. 2news
              2news 3 February 2016 00: 20
              -1
              Quote: Nursing Old
              Hitler’s aggression in Europe began with their bashful devotion.

              Well, some countries did not "tacitly encourage", but rather actively "aggressed" together with Hitler. Then, however, the friendship went apart. And the jackals fought. But, of course, the British are to blame. There is no one else.
          4. Old old
            Old old 2 February 2016 23: 52
            0
            The English still have to be thanked for the kerosene for Molotov cocktails, for the tanks in the 41st, for Spitfire and Hurricanes, for trucks, and many more for that ...

            The British need to "thank" the first about the beginning of the Second World War. Hitler's aggression in Europe, and then against the USSR, began with their scurrilous defamation.
        2. 2news
          2news 2 February 2016 19: 44
          0
          Quote: Amurets
          But what the missiles fortelle wrote out so for this the British "thank"

          The designers of this van der wafer. Dissipation of RS eliminated only closer to the end of the war (1944). They were called differently, TS-46 and TS-47. Actually, the principle was the same as that of German Nebelwerfer jet mines. Only the effect was achieved not by oblique nozzles, but by oblique plumage with direct nozzles.
  8. Kir1984
    Kir1984 2 February 2016 13: 20
    +7
    everything worked badly, the guns didn’t shoot, the chassis didn’t ride, the rs s flew in a spiral, the bombs were flying in all directions, in the end we got to the captured F16, and the IL-2 was an openly sloppy plane and generally half wooden, the attack aircraft were maniacs and sadists who dreamed for the sake of Stalin, a killer ap column and only because of this they won. We heard this song
    1. iouris
      iouris 2 February 2016 16: 19
      +1
      To get into a rut with a bomb from an IL-2 is almost impossible. In practice.
      "High-precision" complexes of modern aircraft give the probability of hitting 0,5 in a circle with a radius of 60 m. The distribution law is normal. Calculate the probability of a direct hit on the tank yourself.
  9. ism_ek
    ism_ek 2 February 2016 16: 18
    -2
    The title of the article is erroneous. Attacks of attack aircraft were not on rails, but on train echelons and train infrastructure.
  10. 2news
    2news 2 February 2016 19: 21
    -2
    Quote: Technical Engineer
    The "rail war" of Soviet aviation has fully justified itself.

    A highly controversial and mostly unfounded statement.
  11. evil partisan
    evil partisan 2 February 2016 19: 33
    +4
    In the book "I fought in Po-2" (A. Drabkin), one veteran tells how 1 Po-2, having successfully dropped its bombs, completely destroyed a large railway junction, on which several echelons with b / p accumulated. The regiment commissar personally flew out for inspection and said: "Even I liked it!"
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 2 February 2016 19: 42
      +2
      Yes, Po-2 was very well used on railway junctions (at night), like IL-2, they simply smashed and destroyed. The worst thing was anti-aircraft resistance. And the accuracy of hitting targets, both point and areal, was very high.
    2. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 2 February 2016 22: 38
      +1
      I also liked it.
      Probably the bombs were vacuum.
      Tollboy bombs give this effect. Drabkin must know this.
  12. Technical engineer
    2 February 2016 21: 58
    +2
    Rail war does not mean exclusively undermining communication lines. This is a fight against railway communications. This is how the wording from Wikipedia for a guerrilla rail war sounds: "A rail war is the actions of partisans with the aim of disrupting the operation of the enemy's railway transport and incapacitating manpower, equipment and materiel transported by rail."
  13. Ruby
    Ruby 3 February 2016 01: 58
    +1
    Gentlemen theorists! Put an old one on your computer. but a very wonderful simulator IL-2. Take our well-deserved stormtrooper, set the mode "as in life" and try to get somewhere. At the same time, make an allowance for the fact that you are sitting on a chair, and not in the cockpit of a combat aircraft, which is beaten by anti-aircraft guns, and you do not experience weak overloads on a dive, even a canopy.
    A single (in the sense of without a navigator) plane without a specialized bomb sight, in principle, had very little chance of getting anywhere with a bomb. Finally, read the memories of our or German pilots on this subject. And they both speak with one voice. The main weapon of the attack aircraft is the gun.
    Unfortunately, and by the way the perplexity of the enemies, our aircraft very little acted on the rear of the enemy. Even in the 45th year, the Germans maneuvered relatively freely with reserves in the operational rear in the east. Which by the way, they almost could not afford on the western front. There, it was the allies who worked mainly on the rear.
    1. ism_ek
      ism_ek 3 February 2016 10: 50
      0
      Quote: Yakut
      A single (in the sense of without a navigator) plane without a specialized bomb sight, in principle, had very little chance of getting anywhere with a bomb. Finally, read the memories of our or German pilots on this subject. And they both speak with one voice. The main weapon of the attack aircraft is the gun.

      Did you have a sight for firing guns? Also "by eye" shot at the target hit 3..4% of the shells.
      High-explosive bombs were designed to explode in the air and had a significant fragmentation zone. The zone of average defeats of the FAB-100 was 35 meters (football field).
      There were still PTAB bombs
      1. 2news
        2news 3 February 2016 11: 33
        +1
        Quote: ism_ek
        High-explosive bombs were designed to explode in the air and had a significant fragmentation zone.

        Such explosions did not destroy the railway track. The railway track was destroyed as a result of high-explosive rather than fragmentation. At the "hundred square meters" it was 4,8 m in diameter, 1,7 m deep and 10 m3 in volume.
        FAB-500 in loam gives a funnel of 8,5 m in diameter.
        Quote: ism_ek
        There were still PTAB bombs

        It was very difficult to destroy such a canvas. Because they were not high explosive.
  14. Ruby
    Ruby 3 February 2016 18: 01
    0
    Quote: ism_ek
    Quote: Yakut
    A single (in the sense of without a navigator) plane without a specialized bomb sight, in principle, had very little chance of getting anywhere with a bomb. Finally, read the memories of our or German pilots on this subject. And they both speak with one voice. The main weapon of the attack aircraft is the gun.

    Did you have a sight for firing guns? Also "by eye" shot at the target hit 3..4% of the shells.
    High-explosive bombs were designed to explode in the air and had a significant fragmentation zone. The zone of average defeats of the FAB-100 was 35 meters (football field).
    There were still PTAB bombs

    For guns, machine guns and RS, the sight was just there, not a god news of what, but it was. And for bombs, they drew risks on the fuselage. this is the method of bombing the boot :)
    As for PTAB and fragmentation bombs, as well as capsules KS. They are not intended to destroy engineering structures, but were used to destroy equipment and personnel in open areas. By the way, quite the crown of the tree protected from PTAB.
    And let me ask. And what kind of fuse provided detonation of a fragmentation bomb at an altitude of 30m? Is it really radar or laser :) This is in conditions when the bombs were made far from ideal in terms of aerodynamics.
    1. ism_ek
      ism_ek 3 February 2016 21: 41
      0
      Quote: Yakut
      And let me ask. And what kind of fuse provided detonation of a fragmentation bomb at an altitude of 30m? Is it really radar or laser :) This is in conditions when the bombs were made far from ideal in terms of aerodynamics.

      Bombs were dropped from a height of 15 ... 20 meters. A fuse with a moderator was used.
      There was no sight for the guns. Machine guns loaded with tracer cartridges, and aimed at them.

      A guppaa out of 4..6 attack aircraft took part in the attack on the train. In the beginning, the locomotive was destroyed from the cannons, then bombs hit the cargo, if there was time, they hit the railway tracks, to make reconstruction work difficult. http://militera.lib.ru/science/skomorohov_chernetsky/02.html
  15. aba
    aba 3 February 2016 22: 33
    0
    In the fighting to liberate Donbass, a group of 18 IL-2s of the 305th Assault Aviation Division carried out an attack on ammunition depots at the Barvenkovo ​​railway station on August 25.

    As a schoolboy, he read the book of twice Hero of the Soviet Union Talgat Begeldinov "The Illy Attack" and since then has imbued with respect for these IL-2 war workers and their pilots.
  16. Ruby
    Ruby 4 February 2016 18: 06
    0
    Quote: ism_ek
    Quote: Yakut
    And let me ask. And what kind of fuse provided detonation of a fragmentation bomb at an altitude of 30m? Is it really radar or laser :) This is in conditions when the bombs were made far from ideal in terms of aerodynamics.

    Bombs were dropped from a height of 15 ... 20 meters. A fuse with a moderator was used.
    There was no sight for the guns. Machine guns loaded with tracer cartridges, and aimed at them.

    A guppaa out of 4..6 attack aircraft took part in the attack on the train. In the beginning, the locomotive was destroyed from the cannons, then bombs hit the cargo, if there was time, they hit the railway tracks, to make reconstruction work difficult. http://militera.lib.ru/science/skomorohov_chernetsky/02.html

    You contradict yourself. In one post, write that the bombs exploded at an altitude of 30 m, in another that the discharge was from a height of 20 m and the fuse stood in slowdown.
    At the expense of the sight. Look on Wikipedia for whether the PBP-1 on the Il-2, well, plus the collimators with a front sight were on the hood. And if PBP-1 could not be installed, especially in times of shortage of materials and optics. That collimators always set.
    The pilots of IL-2 can only admire how at the same time they managed to get somewhere. In particular, RS and bombs.
  17. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 15 February 2016 23: 08
    0
    The article left a double impression, on the one hand raised a rare question about the effectiveness and methods of attack on the railway echelons and transport arteries, on the other hand, as it is, well, not very ...

    A couple of comments: firstly, well, just weird - talking about the IL-2, our main attack aircraft, and in the figure Tu-2 (late period bomber, rarely used for attack) and below the figure with the Su-2 (light war bomber) , ended in the summer of 41). It would be more logical to add the legendary Pe-2.

    And about the effectiveness - the whole problem in learning.
    An untrained pilot will not even go anywhere with a superstar.
    A trained at inferior sight will lay bombs in a circle 10 meters (as experts at Ju-87).

    In general, I take off my hat in front of our attack heroes, who, after the simplest course of training, were thrown to death in heroic attacks, often without cover, on Ilah, who were barely riveted by children and women. More than 30 thousands of them died, and by the way, the life of a reverse shooter in 8-12 was faster than the pilot's life ... Eternal memory of them ...
  18. UnclePasha
    UnclePasha 24 June 2016 17: 14
    0
    Quote: Amurets
    Quote: oxotnuk86
    I read about this raid. The command did not believe the attack aircraft that they covered 4 echelons. When the 4VA commission confirmed the result of the assault strike, both pilots were already dead. Everlasting memory.

    http://www.tagilvariant.ru/news/kraeved/the_feat_in_the_sky_over_the_kuban/
    This is a link to a Tagil site with a photograph of Slepov. But the fate of S. Smirnov was different. Shot down, was taken prisoner, fled, fought in a partisan detachment in Czechoslovakia. After the war he worked as an engineer. Details in V. Emelianenko's books "Severe Military Air" IL-2 is attacking.

    When I started reading this article, I also remembered Emelianenko's book "In the harsh military air ...", which he read to the holes in school