Military Review

Combat "Owl" Luftwaffe

43
Combat "Owl" Luftwaffe



With the start of the bombing of German cities in the summer of 1940, a sensitive blow was struck against the complacency that prevailed among the high command of the Luftwaffe, where only a few, including the future general "from night fighters" Joseph Kammhuber, considered it necessary to have specialized night fighters in the air defense system. The Germans were forced to improvise, adapting existing machines for this purpose. With the increasing activity of the British night bombers, the inadequacy of their opposition to the Bf.110 fighters became more and more apparent. An urgent need has been to provide groups of nightlights with more efficient and suitable aircraft for this purpose. In addition to the increased production of fighters based on Ju 88 bombers in the summer of 1942, the Technical Department sent some wishes to the Focke-Wulf and Heinkel firms. According to them, “Focke-Wulf” was to immediately begin to develop a new specialized night fighter, and “Heinkel” - to adapt a project for this purpose, which was launched two years earlier.

The development of the new machine, the Ta-154, was never brought to the adoption of the aircraft. But the Heinkel fighter He 219, originally created as a multi-purpose machine, eventually became a highly specialized night fighter, and as such has achieved remarkable success. Not 219 turned out to be one of the most effective aircraft of the Second World War. And in the case of mass use (as envisaged in the original plans), he, according to experts, could lead to a change in the situation in night battles in the sky of the Third Reich. But first things first.

Small german aviation Ernst Heinkel’s company, established in 1922, by the beginning of World War II turned into a huge concern uniting several factories. Of all German firms, it was Heinkel that was considered the most advanced in the creation of high-speed aircraft, distinguished by perfect aerodynamic forms. A clear evidence of this was He 70 and He 100.

Since 1936, the company has been doing a lot of work to create a twin-engine high-speed reconnaissance bomber He 119, which had an unusual layout. Its two engines were not placed on the wing, but in the fuselage behind the crew cabin, and the propeller was rotated by means of a long shaft.



In spite of good flight data, the difficulties of bringing the twin engine installation placed inside the fuselage did not allow the Germans to launch the aircraft into mass production. Nevertheless, Heinkel, on his own initiative, continued research in this direction. The project of the new improved intelligence officer, the work on which began in August of 1940, was in many ways reminiscent of Non-119. He also had two twin engines installed behind the cockpit. True, the propellers had to be coaxial, and the tail - two-tail. By analogy with He 119, the aircraft received the designation He 219, to which was then added the name "Uhu" ("Owl").

In July, the second version of 1941 appeared, on which the twinned DВ613 engine was located already in front of the cabin in the forward fuselage. This placement of the power plant did not require an extended shaft. This somewhat worsened the aerodynamics, as it was necessary to perform the cockpit protruding beyond the fuselage, to provide the necessary overview. But even in this case, the frontal resistance was significantly lower than that of similar twin-engine aircraft with the placement of engines on the wing.

But he failed to realize the intended. At this time, the English night bombers more and more began to strike at the "millennial Reich." To repel these air raids in Germany, anti-aircraft interceptors were used based on heavy Bf.110 fighters and Ju 88 and Dо217 bombers. However, the speed of these aircraft was insufficient. And then they remembered about the Heinkel company and its high-speed cars.

At the beginning of 1941, Heinkel received a task to build a night fighter, and in April of the following year, the drawings of the new aircraft were completed and their implementation into metal began. From the original layout had to be abandoned. Coaxial screws installed in the nose of the fuselage, prevented the placement of the radar station, whose experimental version of which was created by the Germans in the summer of the 1941 of the year and gunfire weapons. Therefore, the aircraft, to the detriment of aerodynamics, had to be done according to the classical scheme with two DВ603А engines with 1700 hp power installed on the wing.



Due to the fact that when attacking enemy bombers, the fighter was subjected to heavy shelling, it had to have a very powerful reservation. From the front hemisphere, the crew of the Non 219 was reliably protected by armor plates with a thickness of 15-20 mm and armored glass. Moreover, in front of the bulletproof glass there was another mobile armored shutter with a small cut for the sight, which at the time of the attack additionally covered the pilot from enemy fire. The armor plates installed in the engine pods covered the maslobak. The reservation of the crew and systems from the rear hemisphere was absent, since it was believed that the night interceptor would not be bombarded from this direction.

The aircraft’s armament was also very powerful. It included six MG 151 / 20 guns of the 20 caliber mm (two guns stood in the root of the wing and four in the removable fairing under the fuselage). Instead of 20-mm guns, 30-mm Mk 103 or Mk 108 could be installed. For this, the walls of the cartridge boxes could be rearranged for any cartridge. According to such a criterion as the weight of a minute salvo, the 219 He was not considered one of the most powerful fighters of the Second World War period.

The night interceptor fighter did not need defensive armament; therefore, two remotely controlled machine gun turrets located on the He 219, which was originally developed also in reconnaissance and bomber versions with defensive armament, were dismantled. Because of this, on the fuselage of an experienced fighter He 219V1 preserved characteristic protrusions, which were subsequently eliminated on production machines.



It is worth noting that in the design many new technical solutions were used, such as ejection seats of the pilot and radar operator. Chassis with nose wheel, flaps with a profiled slot, automatically closed with special flaps, hanging ailerons, adjustable stabilizer in flight, associated with flaps, and much more. To ensure all-weather conditions and eliminate icing, the toes of the wing and the stabilizer were warmed by warm air. The air was heated by special gasoline heaters installed in consoles and a stabilizer.

First flight Not 219V1 was made on November 15 1942 of the year. Tests revealed a number of shortcomings: poor road stability, tail vibration, defects in the mechanism for cleaning the front landing gear. In this regard, the aircraft V1 was used mainly for testing the chassis in terms of its behavior during landing. Due to numerous changes in the design of the wing, this specimen was not subjected to high overloads in flight.

More serious tests passed the improved Non 219V2. Despite the fact that in the end the car crashed, it fulfilled its role. In particular, during the comparative tests with the Ju-188S interceptor, conducted in January 1943 of the year, He 219V2 was the winner (piloted by the plane already mentioned Streib), and was adopted by the air defense aircraft. However, the mass production of the aircraft began only in June. Before this company had to eliminate a number of shortcomings. Ten more experimental machines were built.

The first series of non-XNUMHA-219 fighters was launched at a pilot plant in Vienna, not adapted for mass production. This affected the pace of release. In a month, all 0 machines could be released here. Therefore, the Germans soon had to use for the production of Non-14 and an aircraft factory in Rostock, where it was planned to produce fighter jets on the 219-150 monthly. Fortunately for the Allies, these plans did not come true. Until the end of 200, the German Air Defense received all 1943 vehicles of this type. It was very difficult for the Germans to organize the large-scale production of the new aircraft during the war. In addition, the Allied bomber aircraft did not leave the German aircraft manufacturing plants without their "attention." Otherwise, as the experience of combat use showed, non-26 fighters could cause the British severe trouble.



In April, 1943, the first group of night fighter-interceptors, supposedly consisting of four experimental aircraft Not 219, under the command of Streib was sent to Holland on an airfield near Ventlo, to the group 1 / NJG1. It was here on the night of 11 on June 12 that the baptism of new cars took place. Over the next ten nights, the "Owls" shot down British bombers 20, including six Mosquitoes, which were considered practically invulnerable. In the same period, a battle took place in which Streib dealt with five Lancasters. The first success was so great that after two weeks, Streib himself was appointed commander of the entire 1 / NJG1 (this unit was armed mainly with Bf.110 fighter jets), and Captain G. Frank took the place of the subunit of He 219. His career was short. Having shot down a total of 55 aircraft, he 27 September 1943, was killed in a collision with another interceptor. Meyer, who succeeded him, achieved great success, who personally shot down the 1943 Lancaster and Halifax in the second half of 30. But he, too, on the night of 21 on January 1944 of the year, while repelling an Allied air raid on Magdeburg, died crashing into an English bomber on his Heinkel. By this time, 65 air victories were in his combat score.



The loss of the best German pilots testified that the first shock from the appearance of the Non-219 in the enemy had passed. Nightlights increasingly began to fall under the powerful barrage of fire bombers. It is not surprising that all four experienced "Owl", aimed at front-line tests, were destroyed. True, in July, the 1943-219, not the 0-219, but already the upgraded Not 2-2, began to come into service on 219. On A-0 series machines, as well as on some He 30-108, instead of two front vent guns, two 65-mm short-barreled X-guns of the 2, whose barrels were directed upwards at an angle 5 ° to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, were installed. Such an armament scheme was proposed by gunsmith P. Maglet from 1943 / NJG219 and was intended to bombard bombers from the bottom of the so-called "dead zone". At the same time, the interceptor was supposed to pass under the enemy plane from below and “pierce” it with cannon fire from the tail to the very nose. Tests of such inclined weapons were carried out in August 0. Not 219А-17 was used for these purposes, it was designated Not XNUMXVXNUMX (on this plane the Germans tried to install turbo-compressors and new engine cooling system radiators, and later the same machine took part in front-line tests against the invulnerable Mosquito).

The attempt to introduce general-purpose tactics did not bring success, although many Bf.110 and Dо 217 fighters were similarly refined (the last number of guns mounted at an angle to the horizon reached four). The fact is that the first success was largely due to a complete surprise for the enemy. In addition, it turned out that aiming at a large angle was very inconvenient and made piloting the aircraft more difficult. And the shooting itself at an angle to the oncoming flow caused a strong dispersion of projectiles. As a result, the accuracy of firing of oblique guns was low, and this negated all the advantages of the attack from below.



Far from all the "Owls" had similar weapons, but the command of the British Air Force, greatly concerned about the actions of the German interceptors, decided to move to an active fight against them. Possessing high-speed Mosquito fighter-bombers, it laid upon them the function of hunting for the Luftwaffe night-lights. Since December 1943, special "Mosquito", equipped with radar, began to accompany the "Lancaster" and "Halifax" during night raids. Other "Mosquitoes" lurked German fighters in the home areas, or simply blocked their airfields. Under these conditions, the Germans urgently needed an “anti-moskito”. And the only plane that could become one was Not 219.

The new version, designated No 219А-6, was specially facilitated. There was no reservation on it, and there were only four 20-mm guns that fired ahead. But the engine power DВ603L increased to 1980 HP As a result, the maximum flight speed reached 650 km / h and was comparable to the speed of "Mosquito". The "NJGr10" experimental group based in Vermeseni near Berlin specialized on "mosquito" operations.

At the same time, the release of conventional X X NUMX interceptors continued. Thus, the development of aircraft modification A-219 was not 2А-219 with more powerful 5-powerful engines DВ1800Е. At the same time, the A-603 / R5 series aircraft were triple and had an elongated cabin that housed the MG 4 heavy machine gun for defense against enemy fighters from behind.



The most common modification was He 219A-7. Its armament consisted, as a rule, of six forward-directed Mk 103, Mk 108 or MG 151 / 20 guns in various combinations and two 108 Mk mounted at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. One option (Not 219А-7 / В5) was designed to hunt for "Moskito" and equipped with 1900-strong YuMO 213 engines with a water-methanol boost system. According to various data, its maximum speed ranged from 640 to 670 km / h. Throughout the complex flight performance of the aircraft was quite successful. According to the statements of the flight crew and a number of specialists, He 219 had the best flight performance among all reciprocating twin-engined fighters in Germany.

The deteriorating politico-military situation led the Hitler leadership to take a decision to stop all fighter improvement programs (with the exception of Dо 335) in favor of jet aircraft. However, Heinkel, at his own peril and risk, continued to refine his car, and his factories even in 1945 had time to launch the 62 aircraft, which, however, could no longer extend the agony of the third Reich.

With 1944, the main works were associated with an increase in the ceiling, range and airspeed of He 219. First of all, it concerned the installation on it of the newest YuMO 222 engine 2500 horsepower.



The first such aircraft was an experienced Not 219V16, taken from the A-0 series. In addition to the new engine, a wing with an increased span and a chassis with larger diameter wheels were tested on it. Then followed Non-219V23 and V27. The last of these was the benchmark for the HeN XXUMXВ-219 series of high-altitude interceptors. These aircraft also had to have a larger wing and a greater range due to the placement of fuel tanks in the wing (on He 1A, the fuel tanks were located only in the fuselage). The trophy materials indicate that the He 219В-219 had a two-seater cabin and YuMO 1А / В engines (later-Е / F). Experienced aircraft Not 222V219 and V37, equipped with YuMO 38 engines were taken from the B-222 series. In addition, two more aircraft, Not 1V219 and V39 (both from the А-40 series), as well as V2, were modified according to the B-27 standard. Thus, at least one standard, two experimental and two serial machines of this modification were built.



The next modification was Not 219B-2. According to Soviet reports, this car was quite different from the previously created machines. First of all, his three-seater cabin had completely different outlines. But most importantly, the ventral cannon gondola was removed, with the result that the midsection of the fuselage decreased. The armament was placed as follows: two guns of the 108 Mk in the root of the wing, two more - in the nose of the fuselage and two inclined in the fuselage behind the wing. The plane was also installed improved radar equipment. Two such aircraft were built, or rather, they were converted from He 219B-1 (meaning not previously mentioned 219V37 and V38).



The modification of Non-219-1 for captured materials did not differ much from В-2. This "Owl" had the same fuselage (but with a new cabin), the same wing, engines and weapons. The only difference is the heavy tail defensive installation of four large-caliber MG 131 machine guns. To maintain the necessary centering, the engines were carried forward by 30 cm, and the cockpit — a full meter. A series of such planes was laid, but due to the seizure of Heinkel factories by Soviet troops, the work stopped. A further development of the C-1 series was to be a multipurpose Non-219C-2, capable of carrying up to 1500 kg bombs. Powerful offensive (four ZO-mm guns) and defensive weapons, the ability to fly at speeds up to 700 km / h (without flame arresters and radar antennas) would allow using it as a day attack aircraft and high-speed bomber even at the final stage of the war in conditions of superior enemy aviation .

It should be noted that since the end of 1942, in parallel with the development of this fighter, work was also carried out on the design of a special high-altitude aircraft not 419, equipped with turbo-compressors and a pressurized cabin. Moreover, the bomber versions were first worked out, and then, as happened with the He 219, the high-altitude interceptor. It was built six such aircraft. More precisely, they were converted from serial 219 He and differed wing increased area (59 square meters against 44,5 square meters in He 219) and DВ603G engines with turbochargers.

Separate Non-219 was used for various research projects and as flying laboratories. So, on experienced Not 219V24 and VZO jet engines ВМW00З were tested for the fighter Not 162. Electric defrosters and brake parachutes (Not 219V11) were tested. On airplanes He 219V15 and V32 installed chemical weapons and conducted experiments with the spraying of toxic substances. The 219V-33 did not have a parabolic antenna closed by a nose cone.

It is worth noting that the leadership of the Luftwaffe noted the fact that He 219 practically had no problems with the development in combat units, unlike many other machines. It was a really successful and promising aircraft, which allowed him, despite the relatively small number of aircraft built (total 268 machines), to occupy a prominent place in the overall list of the best fighters of the Second World War period. And many of the pilots who flew on it, became famous aces.





Sources:
Borisov Y. Not 219. Luftwaffe Night Hunter // Wings of the Motherland. 2001. No.12. C. 23-28.
Firsov A. Not 219 // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 1995. No.11-12. C. 71-78.
Bakursky V. Night Predator // Ac. 1993. No.2-3. C.19-24.
Kotelnikov V. “Anti-Moscito” Heinkel He.219 // Aviation and Astronautics. 1998. No.8. C. 26-29.
William Green. Wings of the Luftwaffe. Part III. M .: ONTI TsAGI, 1993. C. 65-73.
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  1. magician
    magician 3 February 2016 06: 12
    +8
    Thank you for the article! interesting plane.
  2. Kir1984
    Kir1984 3 February 2016 06: 19
    +5
    I have long been interested in this plane. I would like to know a little more about the design and operation of the radar installation, and so in the article everything is fine.
  3. Nix1986
    Nix1986 3 February 2016 06: 59
    11
    In the carpet bombing, the Allies did not go far from Hitler in the extermination of the civilian population, and they did not achieve much intimidation, on the contrary, the German population was increasingly convinced of the need to continue the war and more supported Hitler. Much more effective was the tactics of strikes on objects of production bottlenecks, the failure of one rolling bearing plant knocked out all engineering, the same applies to fuel production facilities. As one example, the destruction of the heavy water plant in Norway dealt one of the main blows to the German nuclear program.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Bosk
      Bosk 3 February 2016 15: 31
      +7
      Well, with these "carpet" bombings, it is also not so simple, the Germans are clear that they bombed to intimidate the enemy population with whom they were at war at that time, but the allies ... That was why it was "to ruin" Dresden ( quite "peaceful" city at that time) and two cities in Japan in 45 when the outcome of the war was clear to everyone ?, here it already looks like intimidating not current enemies but future ones ...
      1. Dekabrev
        Dekabrev 3 February 2016 23: 51
        -3
        Well, the outcome of the war with Japan was not so simple. There is information that the Americans roughly estimated their probable losses in the upcoming operations to seize the Japanese islands and they turned out, if I am not mistaken, thousands of seven hundred. At that time, their losses throughout the war were smaller. And they felt that such impending losses were unacceptable. Therefore, they decided to use nuclear weapons. By the way, the Japanese made the decision precisely after the second atomic bomb dropped, because they realized that the Americans have a lot of such bombs and resistance is useless. You need to understand that landing operations are very dangerous and not entirely predictable. To capture all the Japanese islands with fierce resistance from the Japanese, it would cost the Americans dearly. I remember when we were told in childhood that Japan was crushed by the defeat of the Japanese army in Mongolia by Soviet troops. Therefore, Japan capitulated to the Americans. We were small and believed.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 4 February 2016 06: 33
          +2
          The Germans targeted the British civilian population in general from aircraft did not bomb. Then there were V-1 and V-2, which in response to the British bombing of residential areas launched "somewhere there", but still half of the V-2 fell on the port of Antwerp in Belgium to disrupt the transport of troops.

          With the outcome of the war with Japan, everything was simple - the use of nuclear weapons forced the USSR to quickly enter the war with incompletely concentrated troops (and he had every right to dynamite the allies with the 2nd front) and take away bacteriological weapons of mass destruction from the samurai in Manchuria. "By the way, the Japanese" made a decision only on May 15 after they could not recapture its warehouses from the Soviet paratroopers. And they also realized that they would soon be captured by a blow from the north through the narrow straits of the USSR, having landed in Japan on small and medium landing craft (you cannot single out kamikaze to each of them). And it will be almost as swift as the offensive in China was.

          The landing of the Americans on the Japanese islands, on the contrary, was impossible, and was not planned, since large warships against the coast are very vulnerable. And besides kamikaze, Japan already had German licensed jets and the production of their own, reduced copies of them, which could fly on synthetic kerosene from Manchurian coal, began.
          Or for this landing they had to request a springboard from the USSR in Kamchatka (as before for landing in Normandy from England) and then go down the chain of the Kuril Islands for a long time, which no one would allow them ...

          Even without nuclear weapons, the Americans destroyed by ordinary bombing of Hiroshima a week, the atomic bombs made almost no impression on the Japanese. For example, 300 thousand were killed in Tokyo in a night, 150 thousand in Toyama (raid of only 70 bombers) at least 225 thousand in Dresden. It was only a surprise that 3 planes did the same as 70 or 300 did before ... In total, during the non-nuclear bombing of Japan from February 1945 more than 2 million civilians were killed, in connection with which she planned in the fall of 1945 to respond to the United States with submarines with bacteriological weapons.

          What were you small and believed in? bully You have not yet been told all this truth ...
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 4 February 2016 18: 50
        0
        "Dresden (quite a" peaceful "city at that time)" ////

        All institutions of the SS and the National Socialist Moved to Dresden at the end of the war
        parties (since his only one was not bombed). Therefore, it began to be called the "city of the SS."

        There were two blows to Dresden: the first at the station and the surrounding area had a military
        value - Dresden was the largest transshipment railway center (Stalin
        in Yalta, I specifically asked to bomb the Dresden railway junction), and the second strike was
        in the city center as part of a systematic revenge of the British for shelling
        London ballistic and cruise missiles.
    3. Dekabrev
      Dekabrev 3 February 2016 23: 37
      0
      The Germans’s atomic program was crippled not by the lack of heavy water, but by the assessments of the Nobel laureate Heisenberg, who believed that the creation of an atomic bomb was impossible in the coming years. As a result, the nuclear program in Germany was funded on a residual basis as not a priority. Although in Germany at that time the world's first experimental nuclear reactor was already operating. For him, in fact, this heavy water was needed. There is a version that Heisenberg deliberately made a mistake in calculating the critical mass, greatly overestimating it. Therefore, it was believed that such an amount of enriched uranium in Germany could not be obtained in the near future and it was not worth spending money on it. Although overheard by the British in the 45th conversation of the German talks about the atomic bombing of the Americans, indicate that this was precisely a mistake in the calculations. German physicists did not believe that the Americans managed to create an atomic bomb even after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, because they believed that this was impossible. At the same time, physicists such as Bohr and Einstein believed that such great German physicists with Heisenberg, headed by a reactor, could create an atomic bomb already in the mid-40s, and therefore wrote a letter to Roosevelt about the urgent need to develop nuclear weapons so that lag behind the Germans. Therefore, they drowned vehicles with heavy water. Something like that.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 4 February 2016 06: 47
        +1
        Nothing undermined the atomic program of the Germans except for the failure in Hungary when they failed to stabilize the front along the Danube, after which they simply stopped resisting in the west so that the Soyuzneks would occupy as much of their territory (and not the USSR) as possible. In France, there were no such atrocities as in the occupied territory of the USSR.

        The Germans had a bomb at the end of the war, the technology of centrifuges for isotope separation then fell into the USSR, and in the first 15 years the USSR mined almost all of its uranium in the GDR.
        A nuclear reactor is not required at all to create a uranium bomb
        They could destroy several large cities, but the advance of the Soviet troops with the subsequent payment for this, this would not stop.
        1. Dekabrev
          Dekabrev 4 February 2016 22: 27
          -2
          Maybe there is a document about the Germans having a bomb?
          Everything is correct. And the Germans had centrifuges and weapons-grade uranium, they worked out for the future, and a nuclear reactor is an indicator of the level of development and a tool for research, and not for the production of enriched uranium. I'm not talking about that, but about the fact that Heisenberg incorrectly calculated the critical mass (it was too large). At the then rate of production of enriched uranium, it took many years to make the first charge (according to Heisenberg's calculations). To a direct question - is it possible to create an atomic bomb in the coming years - Heisenberg gave the Reich leadership a direct answer - no. Therefore, the program was not seriously funded. Maybe someone can tell you where the Germans had a large nuclear center for a project like "Manhattan"? Heisenberg had a world name and the German leadership had no reason not to believe him.
          And most importantly, the overheard conversations of German physicists showed that they had no idea how to make an atomic bomb and in the first days after the atomic bombing of Japan, they did not believe that they were atomic bombs.
          I understand that some consider the Germans to be the most ingenious nation and cannot believe that they could have made mistakes and lagged behind in some ways, however, this is the case - Heisenberg miscalculated. This, of course, was not an arithmetic error.
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 5 February 2016 05: 43
            0
            Large print requisition act in English?
            Wrong non-arithmetically with comma? And why were there centrifuges then, if everything was so "bad"? laughing And why haven't the Americans created them in their "funded center"? lol
            Quote: Dekabrev
            And most importantly, the overheard conversations of German physicists showed that they had no idea how to make an atomic bomb and in the first days after the atomic bombing of Japan, they did not believe that they were atomic bombs.

            Why do you just believe that? winked what bully And the "talk about conversations" that supposedly took place?
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 5 February 2016 05: 44
              0
              Although, they could well not believe that they were American nuclear bombs (or simply nuclear bombs) based on:
              1. the destruction of 67 Japanese cities, and 165 German in the usual way,
              2. America’s worst access to uranium ore deposits,
              3. of those stupid questions that they were asked by representatives (not from among the scientists dressed as civilians) of those nations that before that were not able to build themselves not only much more engineering complex than a rocket bomb, but even a rigid airship ... after the WWII, two were built - one of them fell apart, the second without dismantling the metal immediately after the disaster, the first was rolled into a cake with a bulldozer so that the insurance experts could not see the degree of their technical stupidity because of which it happened, the Americans flew ... because they first on reparations and then for the money they built Zepellin laughing
              Then, in exactly the same way, von Braun built rockets, (Korolev almost like himself), the British - a bummer.
              Then they also stole the same as Harrier’s cork from the British,
              Then, in exactly the same way, the more complex F-35 (Yak-141B) in Russia from all sides, and then they also made and brought the FGB "Zarya" / "Dawn", and then almost everywhere ... This of course, starting with von Braun, everything was later, but it should be clearer that such cases - it may not be an accident bully

              In general, based on the fact (with all its Teutonic arrogance) that America could not make them as fast as Germany for objective and subjective reasons! yes Especially considering what an intellectually backward country it was, even before the cruiser "Maine", a master of provocations - first they cut off the supply of helium for civilian ships for the Germans, although they themselves always refueled "their" air ships with it, and then the "anti-fascist" was mistaken with a stopwatch blew up the "Hindenburg" on American soil in 1937, and the FBI knew all this from the very beginning, but it was silent and the newspapers wrote about some kind of "spark" request And in Germany, everyone heard this "case" over in spite of the fact of such usual bombings, and seven years had not yet passed.
              It could well be considered that the Americans bombed hundreds or three hundred bombers with raids, then they gave them away as having ready nuclear weapons. And if there is such a possibility of ordinary carpet bombardments, then while there are few JBCHs, it’s also wiser to not save and save them ... yes

              And, yes - why did the Germans need centrifuges? repeat laughing wassat
    4. Dekabrev
      Dekabrev 4 February 2016 00: 39
      -1
      The British were especially fierce, since their bombers had weak defensive weapons, they had to bomb at night. And getting into the night was not just a particular factory, even a city, it was difficult, so I had to choose more goals - i.e. big cities.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 4 February 2016 07: 03
        +1
        Especially everything was normally lit up at night with lightning bombs on parachutes and they knew very well what bombings were in what city ... The bombing of sleeping quarters and hospitals was only to kill more people.
        Specifically, the plants were not bombed because they worked for the Wehrmacht, which killed Russian people in the east.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Bosk
          Bosk 4 February 2016 12: 08
          +1
          Indeed, the example of the bombing of the same Dresden shows that the goal there was to inflict maximum damage on the civilian population, this can be seen in the choice of the target (lack of air defense, a small amount of air defense and the presence of a large number of hospitals and refugees), the interval of air strikes and the mixed use of bombs (high-explosive lighters).
        3. Dekabrev
          Dekabrev 4 February 2016 22: 42
          0
          Well, by the middle of the war and beyond, yes. And in the beginning it was worse with lighting. And then yes. Ahead were planes with light bombs, then incendiary. Fires were additionally highlighted. Then there were airborne locators on the leading aircraft. According to the outlines of the coastline and large objects, they looked exactly at the city, highlighted, the next group of bombers was set on fire, then with high-explosive bombs. Something like that, but, anyway, I'm not sure that it was so easy to navigate at night in the light of light bombs. In the daytime, city blocks are alike, and nobody wanted to hang out over the city for a long time in search of a plant. Well this is not on Google maps to navigate on a smartphone. Therefore, they covered the squares. Although air terrorism, of course, was present on both sides. The Germans, simply, had much less opportunity.
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 5 February 2016 04: 37
            0
            Everything during the war was covered in the same way - they also covered how the battlefield is illuminated at the front. Using the navigation system, we went to the city and then checked the area.
            No need to cover them. The Germans limited air counter-terrorism only began systematically after landing in Normandy, which created a threat to the V-1 launchers, before which they had been accumulated.
  4. qwert
    qwert 3 February 2016 07: 20
    +6
    Quote: Nix1986
    In carpet bombing, the Allies did not go far from Hitler in the extermination of civilians,

    And even spat. During World War II, Leipzig was the victim of aerial bombardments in the 1943 and 1945 years. As a result of which almost 60% of the city was destroyed, the city center suffered the most. Explosions and fires engulfing the city killed more people than in Hiroshima. The same thing happened in Dresden. English Coventry, looking at such a scale nervously smoked aside.
    But in general, if Hitler did not get carried away with jet engines, the large series of He-219 and Ar-240 series could well pinch the Allied bombers.
    1. Stirbjorn
      Stirbjorn 3 February 2016 09: 06
      +4
      Yes, the Germans didn’t have strategic bombers - the Allies had thousands, the scale is completely different. Coventry, in general, was an industrial city, where a fire spread from bombed factories
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 4 February 2016 07: 12
        0
        Non-177 can be attributed to the strategic, just almost everyone stood with empty tanks.
        1. Dekabrev
          Dekabrev 4 February 2016 22: 43
          0
          Yes, and there were not enough of them.
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 5 February 2016 04: 43
            0
            More than 1150? Why?
    2. Scraptor
      Scraptor 4 February 2016 07: 11
      0
      Me-262 and plucked, just because of a lack of kerosene flew only 300 of the 1500 built. By launching V-1/2 they achieved more, especially since V-1 consumed less bezin (and much worse gas than a bomber), and V-2 used methanol in general.
  5. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 3 February 2016 08: 08
    +5
    An interesting aircraft with a high degree of novelty. It is surprising that in a war, competition between designers and lobbying of interests led to the fact that successful aircraft were not launched in a large series. Well, they didn’t respect Heinkel in Germany. It was also in the USSR ... Instead of Tu-2, they "drove" a light Pawn, and the excellent Polikarpovsky I-185 was released in a small batch, and "pushed in", so that Polikarpov himself died in 44, I think, out of chagrin.
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 3 February 2016 09: 11
      +4
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      Well, Heinkel was not respected in Germany.

      Where did you get the idea, dear colleague Eugene? Heinkel was still that "undercut bourgeois" who would grab his "tuft of wool" in any situation. From any, even a tragic situation, he will get out with a profit. What happened after WW2.

      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      It was also in the USSR ... Instead of Tu-2, they "drove" a light Pawn

      Do you think that in the leadership of the USSR sat alone AND D AND ABOUT?
      What the front needed was released. Tu-2 was brought to mind (in fact) after the Second World War. Then he went into mass production. This car is Tupolev A.N. never taught me to dive. So the Tu-2 was a clean bomber, and the cost was 2 and a half times more expensive than a "pawn".

      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      and the excellent Polikarpovsky I -185 was released in a small series,

      I-185 was not even produced in a small series. All three vehicles that underwent military tests on the Kalinin Front were prototypes (experimental vehicles). View test reports. Yes, the car with the M-71 engine had decent performance (but there was no serial engine), but with the M-82 it did not stand out against the background of the La-5. If La-5 was mass-produced, then a plant was required under I-185. In conditions of war, when stopping the production of weapons was a disaster, at the end of 1942 no one could afford to stop the production of fighters at one of the plants for almost a year. And by 1944, the La-7 surpassed the performance of the I-185 and the issue of mass production was no longer raised.

      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      Polikarpov himself died in the 44th, I believe, from chagrin.

      Polikarpov N.N. died of cancer. Alas, this disease today does not spare anyone, and some noticeable success in the fight against it, something is not noticeable.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 3 February 2016 10: 28
        +4
        Quote: Gamdlislyam
        Yes, the car with the M-71 engine had decent performance (but there was no serial engine), but with the M-82 it did not stand out against the background of the La-5.

        Hehehehe ... when comparing the TTX I-185 and La-5 with the M-82, one subtle point is usually overlooked: the experimental I-185 was a normal experimental machine, assembled and licked with great care. But the experimental La-5 was obtained by remaking one of the serial LaGG-3 - with all the charms of a series of wartime, such as rough finishes, cracks, etc. In those days, when switching from prototypes to series, the car, even in peacetime, could calmly lose 20-30 km / h of speed.
        In addition, technologists hung over the designers of the La-5 with a sword of Damocles: it was necessary to preserve the manufacturing technology of the LaGG-3 as much as possible. Otherwise, the production of the new aircraft in series would have been delayed for a long time - for example, the plant director said that he did not have specialists who could design and make equipment for a new fuselage with a "wide forehead". As a result, aerodynamics and weight were partly sacrificed to the speed of serial production: for example, for the first six months the La-5 was produced with a "double nose" - the nose of the native LaGG-3 was hidden under the outer light skin, cut off for the installation of an air-cooled motor (as on the submarine - lightweight and durable body smile ).
        Pomnitsa, when La-5 got to specialists from TsAGI, they gave out a list of design changes that increased the speed by the same 20-30 km / h.
    2. Dekabrev
      Dekabrev 3 February 2016 23: 59
      0
      Maybe I don’t understand something, but no one explained to me how the Polykarpov fighter was so fundamentally better than the La-5, the production of which had already been mastered at that time, and with the engine for the I-185 it was still very muddy.
  6. bionik
    bionik 3 February 2016 08: 43
    +2
    German night fighter Heinkel He.219A from 1.NJG1 At the airport near the city of Venlo. The fighter is equipped with a FuG-220d radar.
  7. Engineer
    Engineer 3 February 2016 08: 52
    -1
    Primitive metallized tapes disabled the entire night aviation of the Germans until the war. They interfered with German early warning radars, so they could not direct fighters at them. What reduced the effectiveness of night fighters to 0. That's how the EW era began.
    1. Nexus 6
      Nexus 6 3 February 2016 09: 22
      +3
      The tapes are only one episode from the EW "war", which, with varying success, continued throughout WWII. Once the Germans were unable to direct the fighters, the second time they changed the wavelength of the radars, and ... it started!
      However, this is a separate, interesting topic about EW of that period.
      1. Dekabrev
        Dekabrev 4 February 2016 00: 09
        0
        I read somewhere that the British put a microphone under the engine hood, connected the bomber to the standard radio station and set the radio station to the frequency of the German radar, thus jamming it. I don't know how true this story is. In my opinion this is from the book "Bomber".
        1. Gamdlislyam
          Gamdlislyam 4 February 2016 13: 45
          0
          Quote: Dekabrev
          I read somewhere, as if the British put a microphone under the hood of the engine, connected it to a standard bomber radio station and brought the radio station to the frequency of the German radar, thus jamming it.

          Dear colleague Dekabrev, if you do not know the principle of operation of the radar, then it is worth dropping into the "trash" the question of the principle of operation of the radar station and countering it. There are very sensible articles there, understandable even to morons. But talking nonsense with microphones is too much for a 9th grade student.
          Radar counteraction is carried out by passive methods (scattering of foil strips in the air) or using the EW station (signal emitter at those frequencies that operate the enemy radar). In both cases, there will be a flare on the monitor screens hiding the targets.
          1. Dekabrev
            Dekabrev 4 February 2016 23: 13
            0
            So they broadcast on the radar frequency. Hopefully there’s no need to explain the difference between the sound frequency and the carrier frequency.
            Вот тут https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%BB%D1%83%D1%88%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5
            about how at first the noise of a diesel engine was used to muffle enemy voices. I think that while there were no special electronic warfare stations for them, they simply had to submit something to the input of the transmitting station. Then they began to make special generators. Read the book "Bomber". There is about the actions of the allies over Germany. Maybe this is not a reliable source - for what I bought - for what I sell. I read it for a long time, so I don’t have links at hand. I have the honor.
          2. Dekabrev
            Dekabrev 4 February 2016 23: 59
            0
            I apologize. Long read, forgot a little.
            In this way, they jammed not the radar, but the negotiations of the Germans, but this is also electronic warfare. Quote: "Like all radio operators on bombers, Jimmy Grimm tried to detect enemy voices in the frequency range from seven thousand fifty to seven thousand one hundred kilohertz. Having found them, he could start transmitting signals on this frequency and thus hamper the conversation between the aiming operator on to the control tower and fighter pilots. To transmit such interference, a special microphone was installed in each engine of the bomber. Suddenly Jimmy heard German speech. "
    2. Dekabrev
      Dekabrev 4 February 2016 00: 04
      0
      Well, so to zero!
  8. bionik
    bionik 3 February 2016 09: 21
    +1
    .... many of the Bf.110 and Do 217 fighters were finalized (in the latter, the number of guns mounted at an angle to the horizon reached four).Night fighter Dornier Do.217N.
  9. Nikolay71
    Nikolay71 3 February 2016 09: 40
    +2
    In my unprofessional opinion, the Germans even interfered with the fact that they had a lot of interesting developments. They could not choose one thing. And our and allies drove successful options to large series. Truly the best enemy of the good.
  10. Nix1986
    Nix1986 3 February 2016 10: 29
    +2
    Quote: Stirbjorn
    Yes, the Germans didn’t have strategic bombers - the Allies had thousands, the scale is completely different. Coventry, in general, was an industrial city, where a fire spread from bombed factories

    For the Germans, all aviation was subordinated to the blitzkrieg strategy - the fastest possible advance, therefore, in the first stages of the war, their zoo of middle junkers, henkels and dorenier + dive bomber was quite happy with the bourgeoisie. Then they were already very sorry that there was no "Uralbomber", their hands did not reach the Urals.
  11. rubin6286
    rubin6286 3 February 2016 12: 45
    +1
    The article is interesting, informative. Probably not a single German aircraft of World War II can compete with the Heinkel-219 night fighter in terms of new design solutions that significantly increased its combat potential. On the whole, it was a rather complicated machine, which in many ways was ahead of its time and had a significant impact on the formation of the modern air defense concept, of which specialized fighter aviation is an integral element.
    Constructed very rationally, the Xe-219, theoretically, could successfully replace the Yu-88 and Me-110 as a reconnaissance and bomber, but in practice for this it was necessary to stop production in some industries and change the equipment of enterprises. There was no time, no opportunity for this.
  12. iouris
    iouris 3 February 2016 14: 57
    0
    The development of German air defense from the very beginning was complex. The Reich air defense system was formed on the principles of queuing theory. A very interesting topic.
    There was an interesting publication in several yearbooks of Figerrewu (GDR, 198xx) with diagrams.
  13. Nexus 6
    Nexus 6 3 February 2016 15: 45
    +1
    Recommend. About the air defense system there too. And about EW.
  14. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 3 February 2016 17: 24
    +2
    Say thanks to Stalin, the Red Army and the Soviet people, who ensured the transfer of industry beyond the Urals, and fascist planes could not reach them !! So the war was lost by Hitler by the end of 1941!
  15. Raphael_83
    Raphael_83 3 February 2016 17: 29
    +3
    Great stuff, thanks. Very nice art illustrations and photographs, the information is well structured and filed.
    It seems that so much has been read and watched, but come on! This is the first time I've ever read about "anti-mosquito" operations and the staffels narrowly sharpened for this case.
    From SW. hi
  16. Cobra77
    Cobra77 3 February 2016 20: 21
    +1
    Quote: JääKorppi
    Say thanks to Stalin, the Red Army and the Soviet people, who ensured the transfer of industry beyond the Urals, and fascist planes could not reach them !! So the war was lost by Hitler by the end of 1941!


    It goes without saying. But the Germans lost the war long before the 41st year. They extremely underestimated the industrial and engineering potential of the USSR.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 4 February 2016 18: 41
      0
      Not just a big prom. potential of the USSR.
      They underestimated and prom. the potential of England, which since 1940 (and until
      end of the war) produced more military aircraft than Germany.
      Hitler spoke very arrogantly about America (which since 1943
      produced more tanks than Germany and the USSR combined).
      Hitler did not think that the countries of the British Commonwealth (Canada, Australia) are full of factories, resources (any!) And soldiers.
      In general, Hitler began to fight with the three strongest military powers of that time,
      the industrial potential of which is more than 10 times higher than the German one (and of all the countries occupied by the Nazis).
  17. Dekabrev
    Dekabrev 4 February 2016 00: 21
    +1
    Furthermore. The entire Barbarossa plan was developed only up to the Urals. I wonder what would have happened if they had succeeded. Did they seriously think that the war would end there? I even think they were not as dumb as they wanted to appear. It's just that when the urine hit their silly Fuhrer in the head, his subordinates had no choice but to comprehensively substantiate and work out this idiocy in detail. By the way, this is the universal logic of the functioning of the bureaucracy in any totalitarian state.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 4 February 2016 07: 22
      0
      And what is beyond the Urals - Japan took away ...

      There was no point in planning beyond the Barbarossa line - then too many ambiguities began. Not even at the Ural Mountains (which are difficult to capture), but beyond the Volga, only where they reached the intended line at a width of only a few kilometers near Stalingrad and reached almost a year later than planned.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 4 February 2016 18: 20
      0
      No, not to the Urals - closer. It was supposed to go on line AA -
      Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan for 3 months. But that was completely absurd.
      Even theoretically - without encountering any resistance -
      such distances exceeded the resources of tanks and other equipment.

      "It's just that when their silly Fuhrer got piss in the head,
      his subordinates had no choice but to comprehensively
      substantiate and work out in detail this idiocy "///

      ABOUT! I subscribe to every word of your post.
  18. partizan86
    partizan86 4 February 2016 10: 33
    0
    So that’s where the Americans licked the appearance of their attack aircraft :)
    Very similar.
  19. Alex_623
    Alex_623 April 4 2016 09: 43
    0
    Quote: Nix1986
    In the carpet bombing, the Allies did not go far from Hitler in the extermination of the civilian population, and they did not achieve much intimidation, on the contrary, the German population was increasingly convinced of the need to continue the war and more supported Hitler. Much more effective was the tactics of strikes on objects of production bottlenecks, the failure of one rolling bearing plant knocked out all engineering, the same applies to fuel production facilities. As one example, the destruction of the heavy water plant in Norway dealt one of the main blows to the German nuclear program.

    And what about the bombing raids of the Red Army Air Force on the same Helsinki in the Winter War - this is nothing, does not count?
  20. Alex_623
    Alex_623 April 4 2016 09: 58
    0
    Quote: qwert
    But in general, if Hitler did not get carried away with jet engines, the large series of He-219 and Ar-240 series could well pinch the Allied bombers.

    In fact, Hitler just demanded that Messerschmitt make the Me-262 a blitz bomber.
    This dragged on the adoption and start of mass production of the Me-262.
    In another situation, jet fighters could appear in large numbers six months earlier - and this, in turn, could greatly change the situation in the sky over Germany.

    So it’s impossible to say about Hitler at all that the problems of the German aviation industry and the problems of the Luftwaffe of the 44-45th year arose from the fact that he became interested in jet engines.
  21. Kirill38
    Kirill38 13 August 2017 07: 56
    0
    Quote: voyaka uh
    "Dresden (quite a" peaceful "city at that time)" ////

    All institutions of the SS and the National Socialist Moved to Dresden at the end of the war
    parties (since his only one was not bombed). Therefore, it began to be called the "city of the SS."

    There were two blows to Dresden: the first at the station and the surrounding area had a military
    value - Dresden was the largest transshipment railway center (Stalin
    in Yalta, I specifically asked to bomb the Dresden railway junction), and the second strike was
    in the city center as part of a systematic revenge of the British for shelling
    London ballistic and cruise missiles.

    So write that they bombed for the genocide of the Jewish people !!
  22. Kirill38
    Kirill38 13 August 2017 08: 00
    0
    Quote: Alex_623
    Quote: Nix1986
    In the carpet bombing, the Allies did not go far from Hitler in the extermination of the civilian population, and they did not achieve much intimidation, on the contrary, the German population was increasingly convinced of the need to continue the war and more supported Hitler. Much more effective was the tactics of strikes on objects of production bottlenecks, the failure of one rolling bearing plant knocked out all engineering, the same applies to fuel production facilities. As one example, the destruction of the heavy water plant in Norway dealt one of the main blows to the German nuclear program.

    And what about the bombing raids of the Red Army Air Force on the same Helsinki in the Winter War - this is nothing, does not count?

    The scale is a bit different! And accordingly, the number of killed civilians varies by several orders of magnitude ..