Military Review

Slaughter something prettier (part of 4)

Carried away by cold samples weaponsI completely forgot about the theory, but as you know, there is nothing better than a good theory. For example, the compilers of the British Encyclopedia of Weapons classify it according to the shape of the blade and its section. In the first case, there were seven types: a wide triangular blade that easily compensates for the softness of the metal, a narrow triangular blade — a perfect weapon in every sense, an asymmetrical blade, an example of which is the Malay kris (can have a “flaming profile”), a leaf-shaped blade, Arabic Jambia A “curved blade,” a double-curved blade, is characteristic of India and Iran, a bowie blade, with a characteristic tip shape.

The dagger of the natives of New Guinea from the bone of the cassowary. From the collection of the Penza sculptor I. Zeynalov. Very deadly thing!

There are also seven sections: a blade formed by two flat parallel surfaces (the weakest but flexible), a lenticular blade, a blade with grooves, lenticular with stiffening ribs, rhombic (most durable), triangular or ticked, round, square, octahedral - only for punches.

Material: the most ancient - stone, obsidian or flint, bone, wood. For example, the Indians of North America made daggers from the elk horn, the Australian aborigines made quartzite daggers, and the handles from wood and thickened latex.

Slaughter something prettier (part of 4)

Very sharp volcanic glass knife. It remains only to attach the handle of the tree.

In France, they found a bone dagger of the Paleolithic era in the province of Dordogne, and he had no cutting edge and, therefore, it was only a piercing weapon! The Eskimos made themselves a bone of a walrus, and the ancient Chinese made them out of jade, the “stone of eternity.”

Chinese Bronze Dagger, 1300 - 1200 BC. The blade and the hilt are decorated with a mosaic of tortoise shell. Smithsonian Museum of Asian Art, Washington.

Another ancient dagger: the Dong-Son culture from Indonesia, 500 BC. - 300 AD Metropolitan Museum, New York.

Well, now we are transported to the hot Africa, with which we began to get acquainted with cold weapons in the past material. There, especially in its northern regions, the influence of the Arabs and Islam was very strong, and, accordingly, this influenced the shape of the daggers of this region.

This is a typical Moroccan (Berber) dagger of kumiya (or kumiya), XIX century. Steel, silver, brass silver. Length, 43,8, see, weight, 422,4, Metropolitan Museum, New York. Pay attention to the ricasso - not sharpened part of the blade near the handle. You can even take a sword blow on it and still cannot cut the blade.

Another dagger kumya XIX century. Steel, wood, silver, brass, gold, mobile. Length 42,7 cm. Length without sheath 42,2 cm, weight 272,2 g., Sheath weight 377 Metropolitan-Museum, New York. In the area of ​​ricasso inscription in Arabic in the technology of notching gold.

Dummy with silver trim and silver sheath. Late XIX century. Interestingly, daggers of this type were also produced by Toledo armorers. It was necessary to trade something with Berbers!

But this is an Indian Jambia with a “pistol grip” and again with a shackle-guard - again a guard, in any way Indians cannot build a guard ... But why such a guard with a dagger with a pistol handle? Chris also has a pistol grip, but there has never been any guard! Northern India XVIII - XIX centuries. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

This Persian Jambia is interesting not with a blade, but with a hilt. She is made of bone and ... who is it saying that Islam forbids depicting human figures? Here they are, and besides, naked! And that's how this man walked with such “non-housing” behind his belt?

Turkish dagger XVIII - XIX centuries. from Christie's auction. Vulgar trim corals and turquoise, without measure, without taste, but expensive!

In the collection of edged weapons of the American Metropolitan Museum there are several different crises. Traditionally, a kris is a weapon with a wavy blade (forged Damascus steel), but in reality this is not the case, the main difference is not in this, but in the presence of a characteristic spur in the handle. As you can see, the whole blade of this kris is covered with various images. The popularity of Chris is so great, in 2005 the year UNESCO declared it a masterpiece of the world heritage of mankind!

On the island of Sumatra, too, were their very, very unusual type of daggers. For example, this one with a L-shaped handle. XVI - XIX centuries. Weight 212,6 g., Sheath weight 107,7 Metropolitan Museum, New York.

The barong was just as original - a leaf-shaped dagger with a thick blade-blade sharpened on one side of the Moro people in the Philippines (among Islamic tribes) in the Southern Philippines and in the Asia Minor state of Sabah on Kalimantan Island. The length of the barongs ranges from 20 to 56, see. Most of the handles have a handle that is curved and extends toward the end. Barongs were used in World War II. The hilt ornaments were made of silver, but you will not see corals or rubies on this weapon.

As you can see, we moved from richly decorated blades to more functional ones, and if so, then it makes sense to go back to Africa, but not to the north, but to its natives, who were not influenced by Islam. There, you will not see any special ornaments on the weapons, including the spela from the Congo, the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, including this spear-like dagger. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

These two “daggers” are also from Africa: left from Congo, right from Uganda. Moreover, it is surprising how much the left blade resembles the Xiphos ancient Greek sword. Cleveland Museum of Art.

This "dagger" simply shakes the width of its blade, which is also decorated with a slit pattern. And this is again the Congo. The handle has a massive conical top-counterweight and is wrapped with wire. Cleveland Museum of Art.

No less strange looks this dagger, or rather not even a dagger, but a short sword from the Cleveland Museum of Art. He is from Gabon, he has a thin steel blade, and a strange (why is she so?) Shaped handle wrapped in brass wire.

A cleaver with a colorful cast brass handle is suitable only for chopping. Its length is 57,5 cm, that is, it is a real short sword! Why on the dumb side of the blade punched holes? Exactly the same were pierced in the axes of the Russian city archers. But there the matter is clear: rings were inserted into them, and those bypassing the city by night watch strummed them, scaring “dashing people”. But why are they here?

Even more strange looks like this “knife”, belonging to the people of Mongo, again from the Congo. Steel blade, the handle is wrapped with copper wire. Why such “frills” on the blade? This is not a combat, but a ritual weapon. Not exactly known. Brought from Africa, bought from the people of the Mongo - that's all! Cleveland Museum of Art

Tlingit - coastal people of the North-West United States. They learned from Europeans to forge excellent blades, which were decorated in their national taste. XIX century. Cleveland Museum of Art.

Well, this is Mother Europe! The dagger is Holbein 1592. Note that in his sheath, like a Japanese, a small knife and an awl were also placed. The blade is rhombic and very durable. Interestingly, in the 30 of the twentieth century, it was the daggers of this form that were copied by the German Nazis for their own shaped dagger. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

An example of European rationalism and ingenuity: a "parrying dagger" with a drop-down blade. Germany, 1600 Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Well, and the conclusion? The conclusion is this: the most richly decorated daggers, and decorated not so coarse, but exquisitely, were made in Persia and in India. In this these countries are all others left far behind. Japanese blades are found and decorated in their own way, it is difficult to compare them. Turkish - often decorated tasteless. European ... depending on the century.
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  1. alex-cn
    alex-cn 5 February 2016 06: 50 New
    Thank you, it’s good in the morning!
    Can't tell if the "silver" kumya is sharpened only from the concave side?
    And another question arose: Do African daggers only strongly remind me of the tip of a hunting spear?
    1. kalibr
      5 February 2016 07: 38 New
      Not only for you! It can be seen with fantasy the blacks have always been bad, ha ha. We have already learned how to forge spears and, according to the same principle, went to make daggers ... But it’s just you that went well in the morning. It went disgusting for me. Again here we have "knights in armor" drowning in ice.
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 5 February 2016 09: 05 New
        Well, where do you wonder? I’ve watched the cycle of Russian commanders about Nevsky, one lady historian said that the armor of the 13th knight weighed 70 kilograms! She would have counted with a horse hehe. Chain hauberk, koif and highway with 70helm tophelm, ....
      2. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 5 February 2016 17: 47 New
        kalibr "It went disgusting for me. Again here we have" armored knights "drowning in the ice."
        Is it worth it to be upset because of this.))) They have been drowning for more than a century.)))
        1. kalibr
          5 February 2016 20: 13 New
          I'm not upset. I am surprised at human ignorance, unwillingness to see what is around, lack of elementary curiosity. And then, school ... In my class, the class where my granddaughter studies, it was already so that ... the teacher began to fiddle with the textbook (and the Internet!), How well they drowned there. It's good that there were two students who ... showed her ... it's good that she was smart enough to invite me and show and tell the guys everything. And if she were a vulgar know-it-all ... the children would have heard about the "couple", and the class ... what would the class have learned? And then in 20 years it would all come up again like manure in an ice hole. I don't want that!
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. bocsman
      bocsman 5 February 2016 11: 15 New
      I would like to clarify . The rings on the "axes" of the archers' cane were primarily designed to break it or prevent it from sliding onto a wooden shaft during parrying with a saber. Similar adaptations existed on European broadswords. The blacksmiths would not waste so much time and effort that there would be a ringing sound from someone.
      1. kalibr
        5 February 2016 16: 57 New
        But imagine what was enough. And how does the ring on the butt parry a saber hit?
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        3. saygon66
          saygon66 5 February 2016 21: 58 New
          - Rather than fend off, but to break and shorten the cutting edges ... Swords with such rings were used in China, Baguazhan school (Fist of eight trigrams)
    4. kalibr
      5 February 2016 20: 14 New
      Yes, with one concave!
  2. 31rus
    31rus 5 February 2016 07: 32 New
    Yes, beauty and variety, species, I see a lot in the first, thanks Vyacheslav!
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 5 February 2016 07: 37 New
    The dagger of the natives of New Guinea from the bone of the cassowary. From the collection of the Penza sculptor I. Zeynalov. Very deadly thing!.. And even "baubles" as decoration .. And the rest of the melee weapons, which are shown in the photo, just admire .. Thank you .. the photo is just pleasing to the eye ..
  4. sq
    sq 5 February 2016 08: 11 New
    good article, but I would like to read about the weapons of Russia.
  5. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 5 February 2016 08: 16 New
    At the Turkish dagger, the turquoise fell out ... Again, the Chinese did ((((
  6. Alex_T
    Alex_T 5 February 2016 08: 18 New
    Thanks to the author for the informative article. Add a photo of a classic wavy chris with a scabbard.
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 5 February 2016 22: 16 New
      - And what is it on a rack below Chris? What a beautiful thing ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
  7. otto meer
    otto meer 5 February 2016 08: 51 New
    A good article, a lot of photos, a description of a photo, in short, very worthy, BUT! I fundamentally disagree with the author's conclusions. The most exquisite weapons were produced by Hindus and Persians, and Europe so, depending on the century. I consider such statements to be incorrect. But what about the Italian school? Spain? And even before Franky. Yes, I agree that the Europeans did not hang so many tweezers on the handle, did not decorate the blades with stones (although there was such a thing), but we are talking about refinement, and not about crow's decoration. And in my opinion the most exquisite (precisely exquisite) weapon presented in this article is the German forked dag, and not African "choppers" or jambii, with kilograms of gold!
    I do not declare myself true in the last resort, but my vision of the situation is this.
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 5 February 2016 09: 01 New
      You simply appreciate the practical side of things, and you look at these weapons as exquisite jewelry, like statues and carpets, rings and earrings, tiaras and necklaces. You will immediately understand everything.
      1. otto meer
        otto meer 5 February 2016 09: 54 New
        Quote: cth; fyn
        You will immediately understand everything.

        Yes, I understand, only for me the general plasticity, the form, the completeness of the lines are much more important than the "oversized". And here the Europeans are head and shoulders above Asia and the East. For example, this replica, isn't it beautiful? although there are no emeralds or pearls, just a shape. And the swords? especially the XIV-XVI centuries. This is just a frozen quintessence of death and neither gold nor diamonds are needed there.
        I’m talking about that.
        1. alex-cn
          alex-cn 5 February 2016 10: 41 New
          there were also enough carved ceremonial weapons in Europe, I wanted to attach rice. from "people." but I can't.
          Well, then, almost all the precious stones, and even the corals, all the more, went to Europe through the Middle East, from India and others ... Naturally, their value soared to heaven, and attaching them to weapons was probably not that ...
          And the love of the medieval East for splendor is well-known, and it still remains.
        2. cth; fyn
          cth; fyn 5 February 2016 11: 03 New
          Unfortunately, such a dagger is not expensive, as Vyacheslav already wrote, sometimes the dagger finish was many times more expensive than the blade itself. And to have a status thing is worthy of a rich person, moreover, if you are rich it is not necessary to carry functional weapons, because there is someone to wear it and this someone is quite willing to provide their services.
        3. kalibr
          5 February 2016 17: 03 New
          Beautiful, yes, but ... at a price inferior at times to any Indian dagger. But more functionally, no one argues.
        4. ICT
          ICT 5 February 2016 18: 06 New
          Quote: otto meer
          from for example this replica, isn’t it beautiful? although there are no emeralds or pearls, just a form. What about swords? especially XIV-XVI centuries. It’s just the frozen quintessence of death, and neither gold nor diamonds are needed there.

          Quote: otto meer
          neither gold nor diamonds are needed there.

          well, they’re there if it’s a grand sword or knife, but they’re not in the first place,

          and just a song in the subject line

          1. ICT
            ICT 5 February 2016 18: 10 New
          2. saygon66
            saygon66 5 February 2016 22: 09 New
            “Isn't that the sword that the British gave to the inhabitants of Stalingrad ?!”
    2. kalibr
      5 February 2016 17: 02 New
      Your opinion is very interesting, but look, nowhere except where such processing of stone, bone, metal, and all in one sample is found. And harmoniously (not counting the Turkish samples) merged together. This was not the case in the West. However, look for yourself, show me everything else - everyone will be interested. This is great if you find a rebuttal.
  8. Nikolay71
    Nikolay71 5 February 2016 09: 24 New
    Quote: kvm
    good article, but I would like to read about the weapons of Russia.

    I join, and as they say it would be desirable to cover a wider range: from Kamchatka to the Carpathians.
    1. kalibr
      5 February 2016 17: 08 New
      And now like this: WHERE TO TAKE MATERIAL, tell me? In which of our museum will I find such high-quality photographs for FREE, who will give them to me? These photos are simply not easy to find, it’s even harder to find a help desk (except for MM), and it’s even harder to find out what museum they are in. EVERYONE IS DIFFICULT! And expensive! In the Penza Museum of Local Lore, one photo without a tripod costs 100 p. In the museum in Pyatigorsk, they wanted to collect from me by agreement ... oh. As a result, for the photo from the 1915 magazine of the year, they took only 80 p. - Honor and praise! But to shoot weapons - uhhh!
  9. miru mir
    miru mir 5 February 2016 09: 41 New
    Where did the wire come from in Africa in those years? Sami pulled?
    1. Alexey M
      Alexey M 5 February 2016 12: 57 New
      Quote: miru mir
      Where did the wire come from in Africa in those years? Sami pulled?

      Have you heard about the paleocontact? Someone from the local stole a transformer from the aliens and unwound it. wink
    2. kalibr
      5 February 2016 17: 08 New
      Bought from Europeans with beads!
  10. Free wind
    Free wind 5 February 2016 14: 30 New
    Beautiful, very beautiful. Of course, this is not a weapon, it is richly decorated things. In our weapons, the northern peoples, there is a special, cruel beauty, without any fentiklyushek
    1. otto meer
      otto meer 5 February 2016 15: 16 New
      Quote: Free Wind
      In our weapons, the northern peoples, there is a special, cruel beauty, without any fentiklyushek
      Here! A thousand pluses! Special
      Quote: Free Wind
      cruel beauty
      you can’t say better!
  11. Editor
    Editor 5 February 2016 16: 53 New
    Interesting article. I love aesthetics smile
    According to the kris: I heard that the "flaming" blade is a sign of a ceremonial weapon (to this day, it is worn with a national costume at important events, including at a reception to the sultan). The battle kris had straight blades.
    1. kalibr
      5 February 2016 17: 12 New
      The funny thing is that local natives often had worms parasitizing in their brains and then they were seized by amok - an irresistible thirst for murder, and they grabbed the cries, and fled, and they killed everyone on the way. I read about it somewhere ...
  12. saygon66
    saygon66 5 February 2016 22: 06 New
    - Photo # 17 ... Assegay? Already very similar ...
  13. Teplov
    Teplov 16 February 2016 13: 19 New
    The ancient Persians were Zoroastrians, not Muslims, and accordingly did not have a ban on images of people and animals.
  14. Gunther
    Gunther 4 March 2016 22: 03 New
    Quote: saygon66

    I am also a connoisseur of edged weapons, the other day on the market I bought an analogue of Shishpar - an instrument of crushing action (a Stayer hammer, I hope they did not invent it in China).