Military Review

Armored battery-30: symbol of the defense of Sevastopol

89
The defense of Sevastopol, which lasted 250 days, from October 30 1941 to July 4 1942, became one of the brightest pages stories throughout the Second World War. A significant contribution to the defense of the city was made by the 30th and 35th armored turret batteries, which became the basis of the artillery power of the defenders of the main base of the Black Sea fleetinflicting heavy losses on the advancing enemy city and riveting enormous enemy forces on him. The 30th armored turret battery continued to fight until June 26, 1942, when the Germans were able to capture it, completely blocked.


The armored battle battery was a long-term fortification, armed with turret artillery. Such batteries were used from the end of the 19th century to the end of the 20th century, acting as an element of coastal defense or fortress fortifications. In the Soviet Union, armored batteries were part of the defense system of the Sevastopol fortified area and the coastal defense system of Vladivostok.

After the end of World War II, this battery was restored, in contrast to the 35 battery, which was abandoned for many years and was turned into a museum only in the XXI century. The armament of the 30 battery after the war was strengthened, new life support and fire control systems were installed on it. To rearm this battery in the USSR, they used two 305-mm three-gun turrets of the battleship Frunze (the former battleship Poltava). Two other towers from this battleship back in the 1930s were installed on Russky Island near Vladivostok on a Voroshilov battery. Currently, the 30-I armored battery is preserved, but can be alerted during 72 hours.

30 coastal battery these days


Battery construction history

Back in 1905, immediately after the end of the war with Japan, the Russian government decided to strengthen the defense of its naval base in Sevastopol. On the outskirts of the city it was planned to build two large-caliber shore batteries. In 1913, the construction of a coastal defense battery began on the Alkadar Upland (in the area of ​​today's village Lyubimovka). The design of the armored battery was developed by the military engineer General N. A. Buinitsky, who took into account the recommendations of the famous Russian fortifier (as well as the famous composer) General Caesar Antonovich Cui. It is worth noting that in his special work, Cui studied the features of the defense of Sevastopol in 1854-1855 and suggested the most advantageous position for battery equipment. It was without any exaggeration a brilliant project, which was proved during the Great Patriotic War. The domination of the battery over the surrounding terrain provided two-gun 305-mm turret installations, turning 360 degrees, circular fire.

More than 100 years ago, the coastal battery was already planned to be completely electrified. All operations to hover and load the guns were to provide 17 electric motors. Only gun turrets with 200-300 mm armor were placed on the surface. The rest of the premises were placed in a reinforced concrete array of length 130 and width of 50 meters. Inside this unit were power station, residential and office space, ammunition cellars. There was a railroad rail with hand trolleys in which the ammunition was delivered to the charger. With the command post, the battery was planned to be combined using an underground corridor of 600 meters.

Construction work on the battery went quickly enough, but in 1915, the towers, tools and mechanisms that were designed to equip the Sevastopol battery were sent to Petrograd, where a new coastal battery was being built in the Peter the Great Sea Fortress. In 1918, at the height of the Civil War, construction at the facility was completely stopped, by which time the battery was already ready at 70%. Only the 1928 year returned to the construction of the coastal armored battery. For this, an 6,5-km railway line was laid from the station of Mekenzievy Gory to the construction site. The massive parts of the battery were unloaded from the railway platforms and mounted into place with a special crane.

Tower MB-2-12 under construction


In 1934, the internal work was completed and the gun turrets were put in place. A test shooting was made from the guns, and a new fire control system was also tested. In the 1936 year, the main command post of the battery was fully completed, and a system of fire adjustment posts was also prepared. They were located on Cape Lukull, in the mouths of the Alma, Kachi rivers, as well as on the headlands of Fiolent and Khersones and above the western shore of the Balaklava Bay. Such an extensive network of observation posts was necessary due to the long range of the battery - the maximum range of the 305-mm projectile of the 1911 model of the year was 27980 meters. Minor improvements on the 30-th battery were carried out until the 1940 year.

Coastal Battery Device

Coastal armored battery №30 consisted of the following objects:

- monolithic reinforced concrete block on two towers, in which there were almost all the logging, utility and storage facilities, premises for communication, corridors, etc .;

- two towers MB-2-12 (in the amount of 4х305-mm guns);

- command-range station (KDP) with a conning tower, a central post, an armored range tower with an 10-meter rangefinder from the Ceys company and a radio box;

- electric transformer substation unit.

The main armament of the 30 battery was two MB-2-12 two-gun turrets, which were produced by the Leningrad Metallurgical Plant. The towers were located 305-mm guns with a barrel length 52 caliber. The maximum firing range was 27 980 meters. The maximum angle of elevation of the guns is 35 degrees. Maximum rate of fire - 2,1 shot per minute. Four such guns of the 30 armored battle coastal battery (from the north) and its twin - the 35 battery (from the south) were to securely cover the Black Sea Fleet base from shelling from the sea with enemy battleships of large-caliber artillery. The weight of 305-mm shells ranged from 314 to 470 kg, the weight of the powder case - 71 kg.

Tower MB-2-12 in a cut


When making a full shot, two cards were used, with a half-shot - one cap. Kartuzy were placed in special metal cases and lay in honeycomb racks. In the cellars shells were stored in piles. Unlike the 35 battery, in which the charges and projectiles were pushed out of the cellars through special pipes, on the 30 battery they rolled out along a special roller conveyor (roller table). In the reloading compartments in which the shells and charges were being prepared for loading, a rotating electric drive platform was mounted

The BM-2-12 towers possessed the following parameters: diameter - 10,8 m; height - 2,25 m; gun barrel length - 16 m; gun barrel weight - 50 t; weight of the entire tower (without guns) - 300 t; total weight - 1000 t; thickness of the front and side plates, as well as the rear plate and the door - 305 mm, roof thickness - 203 mm. 400 shells (200 per barrel) and 1200 half-charges were stored in the cellar of the turret. To replace the gun barrels and repair the towers on the battery, a special 75-ton rail crane was provided. For him, even a special shelter was erected to disguise it and protect it from possible shelling from the sea.

A single-storey 30 coastal battery unit with a total length of about 130 meters and a width of 50 meters had two entrances with armored doors and vestibule gateways in the rear part. To communicate with each other 72, the premises of the gun block had a longitudinal corridor approximately 100 meters long and 3 meters wide. This block housed the wells of the gun installations, the charging and slug cellars, the local central post with a backup group of fire control instruments, the boiler room, the power station, pumping and compressor stations, filtering equipment, service rooms and living quarters for the battery personnel. Under the floor of the premises were placed tanks for water, oil and fuel, there were engineering communications. All casemates of the gun block had a vaulted coating made of monolithic reinforced concrete with thickness from 3 to 4 meters with a hard anti-layer made of steel channels No. 30, as well as an insulating layer of asphalt concrete. The total area of ​​the various rooms in the single-storey gun block exceeded 3 thousands of square meters.

The layout of the gun unit


Especially for the storage of water reserves under the floor of the gun block were organized concrete tanks, containing 500 cubic meters of water. To maintain the required humidity and temperature conditions in the premises, a vapor-air heating system was installed (two underground boilers produced steam). The power station of the gun unit received an air cooling unit.

The underground battery command post was a concrete tunnel with a length of 53 and a width of 5,5 meters. It was located on a hill north-east of the gun block. It contained the central coastal battery post, a filtering unit, a boiler room, a power station, a fuel tank and a barracks. In the direction of the gearbox, located at a depth of 37 meters, from the artillery block led concreted deep bedding with a length of 650 meters. A branch was taken to the side of the waste, which was used for air intake and removal of drains from the casemates (drains were discharged through pipes that were laid directly under the floor). In the place of branching of the drain and the wort, another reserve underground passage with a small room, the barracks, was opened.

From the underground part of the checkpoint to the surface, to the ground part led a mine, equipped with an elevator. The ground part of the KP was a reinforced concrete block of size 15x16 meters, which was mounted armored wheelhouse. The thickness of the vertical armor was 406-mm, horizontal armor - 305-mm. Inside this unit there was a personnel room with four viewing slots and an optical sight, as well as a radio station.

305-mm coastal battery shells


To protect the 30 coastal battery from the air, it was armed with an 4 anti-aircraft machine gun. The 2 casemate with winches, which were designed to lift barrage balloons, were attached to the rear of the gun block. The 6 reinforced concrete five-stoned double-deck machine gun pillboxes with wall thickness up to half a meter covered the battery from the land. These bunkers were armed with 7,62-mm machine guns "Maxim". Directly around the battery was a system of wire obstacles and trenches. The road, which approached the positions of the battery, had a special stone retaining wall, which also served as a small parapet for its defenders.

Armored battery-30: symbol of the defense of Sevastopol
Powder semi-charge and bannik


Defense of Sevastopol

As of June 22, 1941, both the 30th and 35th armored coastal batteries were part of the 1st separate coastal artillery battalion division of the Main base of the Black Sea Fleet, along with an open 203-mm battery number 10 and 102-mm battery number 54 . Directly the 30th battery was commanded by Georgy Aleksandrovich Alexander, a hereditary military man who came from a family of Russified German immigrants. Both batteries (both the 30th and 35th) were built as coastal, but fate had a different role for them. Instead of ships, they fought the advancing infantry and armored vehicles of the enemy, protecting the fleet base from land. They became the main artillery caliber of the defenders of the city. It should be emphasized that the 35th coastal battery was located at a distance from the area of ​​the German offensive and with its fire only reached the Mekenzievy Gory station. For this reason, it was the “thirty” that were destined to play the most striking role in the defense of the city.

11-I German army launched its attack on Sevastopol 30 October 1941 of the year. The artillerymen of the 54 coastal battery, which was located 40 kilometers from Sevastopol near the village of Nikolaevka, were the first to enter the battle. 30-I battery opened fire on the enemy motorcycle infantry 1 November 1941 of the year. She conducted her first combat shooting in parts of the Ziegler mobile group, which concentrated in the area of ​​Alma Station (today Pochtoe). The significance of the “thirty” is indicated by the fact that one of the main blows of their already December offensive on the city the Germans inflicted in the area of ​​the Mekenzievy mountains and the Belbek river precisely with the goal of completely destroying the 30 armored turreted battery.

So much so that on the morning of December 28, 12 German tanks with the support of infantry units, they were able to break through almost to the ground part of the battery pack. The tanks lined up and opened fire on the CP. It was on that day for the first time in history that a case of firing a large-caliber coastal battery with direct fire on advancing armored vehicles was noted. The sight of the tanks, which literally disappeared from direct hits of 305 mm shells, shocked the Germans so much that they panicked back and no longer tried to send tanks in a head-on attack on the battery. The German command gave the 30th battery its designation - Fort "Maxim Gorky I" (35th battery - "Maxim Gorky II). At the same time, Erich Manstein, who commanded the 11th German army, justified the fighting qualities of the 30th battery before Hitler justified his failures in the assault on Sevastopol.



For two months of active battles "thirty" fired 1238 shells on the Germans. When using a full charge of gun barrels should have been enough for 300 shots, after which they needed to be changed. For this reason, the battery command was firing half charges. However, by the beginning of 1942, the gun barrels had completely worn out. In this regard, spare 50-ton barrels were removed from the secret repository in Sevastopol. On the night of January they were taken to the battery and carefully masked. According to the instructions in peacetime, gun barrels with an 75-ton crane had to be changed in 60 days. However, the battery personnel together with the specialists of the Artillery Repair Plant of the Black Sea Fleet No. XXUMX and the Leningrad Bolshevik Plant could replace the barrels for 1127 days almost manually with a small crane and jacks. And this despite the fact that the front line at that time already passed in 16 kilometers from the battery positions.

According to the document "Brief results of combat shooting of coastal batteries of the BG GB ChF for 7 months of defense of Sevastopol 30.10.1941 - 31.05.1942", which was compiled by the Combat Training Department of the Black Sea Fleet Headquarters. As a result of the 30 coastal battery fire, 17 tanks, 1 locomotive, 2 car, approximately 300 different vehicles with troops and cargo were destroyed and damaged, 8 artillery and mortar batteries were destroyed, 15 detached cannons, 7 fire points, up to NN, 3, NN XNN X, NN XNUMX, NNXX XNUMX, NNXX XNUMX tanks soldiers and officers of the enemy. It was also noted that the battery fire had a huge moral effect on the enemy.

Taking into account the failures in the assault on the city in 1941, the German command planned a new attack on Sevastopol, which was called “Sturfang” (Fishing sturgeon). Understanding the importance of the “thirty” in the system of defense of the base of the fleet, the Germans transferred here a huge amount of heavy artillery. In this case, it was not limited to 240-mm and 280-mm heavy howitzers and 305-mm mortars. The Germans transferred two special 600-mm self-propelled mortars "Karl" and 810-mm supergun "Dora" under Sevastopol. Concrete shells of the mortar "Karl" weighed more than two tons, and the weight of the concrete-shells "Dora" exceeded seven tons.



5 June 1942 of the year in 5: In the morning, the first concrete shell from the Dora cannon was fired at the northern part of the city of Sevastopol. The following 35 shells were fired at coastal battery No. 8. Columns of smoke from explosions rose to a height of more than 30 meters, but there was not a single hit in the towers, the accuracy of shooting a super cannon from a distance of almost 160 kilometers was very low. Not “Dora”, but exactly two mortars “Karl” turned out to be the most dangerous opponent for the 30 armored battery.

From June 5 to June 14, 1942, the Karl mortars fired at thirty each of a total of 172 concrete-piercing shells and another 25 high-explosive 600-millimeter shells, severely damaging battery reinforcements. The Germans managed to achieve direct hits in both battery towers. Already on June 6, the armor was broken in the second gun turret and the gun was damaged. Also June 6th German aviation bombed the battery position with 1000-kg bombs. The damage in the second tower was repaired on the night of June 7, but now the tower could fire only with one gun. However, already on June 7, a 600-mm shell hit the first battery tower. The second hit occurred in the concrete array of the battery, a powerful projectile pierced a three-meter layer of reinforced concrete, disabling the separation of chemical filters.

By 10 June 1942, the battery could fire only with two guns (one in each tower). At the same time, the "Thirty" was under constant artillery shelling and bombing of the enemy. On the Germans' approach, they say dry statistics figures, only from 6 to 17 in June, the enemy fired on the battery around 750 shells of medium, large and extra large caliber. German aviation also bombed the position of the battery with bitterness, but was not successful. At the same time, by June 12 from the battalion of marines, which covered the battery, there were fewer companies left in the ranks. By June 16, the Germans managed to cut off all the Thirty’s external telephone communications and knock down all the installed radio antennas - the coastal battery communication with the city’s defense command was interrupted. At this point, the battery remained until the 250 man, including the gunners, the marines, and the soldiers of the 95 th rifle division.

Positions of a destroyed 30 battery aerial view


By 17 June, the battery was finally blocked by enemy forces, at that time all the existing machine-gun bunkers were already destroyed. Defensive positions turned into a solid pile of rubble. Understanding the importance of the 30 coastal battery in the defense of the city, the Germans did not stop their attacks on its positions by infantry and tank forces. By 17 June on the battery ran out and shells. During the reflection of one of the attacks, the battery workers fought off the training metal blanks. The hit of one of these discs to a German tank that was trying to bombard battery positions from the estate area of ​​the Sophia Perovskaya State Farm Plant, tore off the tower. Despite the fact that the Germans surrounded the battery from all sides, its advocates did not give up. When German infantrymen and sappers penetrated close to the gun turrets, the defenders opened fire on them with single shots, using only powder charges - a stream of powder gases with temperatures of the order of 3000 ° C literally erased the enemy’s infantry from the earth.

But the forces were too unequal. The Germans broke into the position of the battery. Enemy sappers used flame throwers, blasting charges and poured gasoline into the fortifications. Alexander decided to blow up turrets, powerplant and all diesel engines, to destroy the latest firing equipment, which was done by 21 June. By that moment, water and food had come to an end on the battery, wounded defenders were dying from the smoke being forced into the rooms. Trying to break the resistance of the Soviet soldiers, German sappers fired several powerful explosions inside the already destroyed towers. After that, a fire broke out in the gun block. The last decision of the battery command was the decision to break through, but not towards the city, but into the mountains to the partisans. June 25 battery commander, Major G. A. Alexander with a few sailors broke out of the concrete block, using the drain. However, the next day the group was found in the area of ​​the village of Duvankoy (now Verkhnaya Garden) and captured. Then, on June 26, a strike group of Germans stormed inside the gun block, where 40 captured prisoners, many of whom were wounded and exhausted. By that time, most of the garrison had already died, suffocating in smoke or from explosions.



Alexander the Germans were sent to a prison located in Simferopol, where they were then shot. Perhaps for refusing to disclose in detail the information on the 30-th coastal battery. The banner of the battery also did not get the enemy. Most likely, it was destroyed by the defenders of the battery, however, there is a legend that the banner had been bricked into one of the walls of the underground complex. But, on the other hand, the lack of a banner, perhaps, was the reason why the battery commander Alexander was not posthumously presented to the rank of Hero of the Soviet Union.

Information sources:
http://flot2017.com/item/history/19376
http://warspot.ru/1805-geroicheskaya-30-ya
http://www.bellabs.ru/30-35/30.html
http://wiki.wargaming.net/ru/Navy:305-мм_орудие_Обуховского_завода_образца_1907_года
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  1. V.ic
    V.ic 29 January 2016 06: 42
    18
    I read earlier about firing blanks at enemy infantry. Impressed! Article plus.
    1. gray smeet
      gray smeet 29 January 2016 10: 06
      15
      Impressive Soviet people of the war years !!! Truly - they are all heroes and those who fought and those who worked in the rear!

      Add a few photos, with your permission ...

      It doesn’t work (the comp slows down) to lay out the entire series, I give a link a lot of photos about the Crimea, Sevastopol: http://back-in-ussr.com/2016/01/krym-v-gody-velikoy-otechestvennoy.html
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 29 January 2016 10: 22
      +2
      In the magazine "Technology of Youth" from which it is reprinted?
      1. smershxnumx
        smershxnumx 29 January 2016 16: 25
        +6
        As a child I had a book "The feat of the third battery". I read it in two days, although it was a very large book, with documentary photographs. I was deeply impressed by the feat of the batteries. I want to find exactly the same book, in a gray cover. For the son to read too.
        1. SIvan
          SIvan 29 January 2016 22: 53
          0
          Here in text form. And there are photographs.

          http://ava.telenet.dn.ua/bookshelf/Musyakov_P_I%20-%20Podvig_BB-30/index.html
    3. RUSS
      RUSS 30 January 2016 20: 00
      0
      Quote: V.ic
      I read earlier about firing blanks at enemy infantry. Impressed

      I wonder what remained of the tank when they hit it with direct fire from such a gun? I read the article in one go!
  2. semirek
    semirek 29 January 2016 07: 00
    +8
    The article is certainly excellent, only one question - from childhood I remember that the gun turrets on one of the batteries were from "Maria" sunk in 16 and were raised by Epron, maybe I missed something in the article?
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 29 January 2016 08: 13
      +9
      Quote: semirek
      The article is certainly excellent, only one question - from childhood I remember that the gun turrets on one of the batteries were from "Maria" sunk in 16 and were raised by Epron, maybe I missed something in the article?

      Regarding the towers of Mary: I don’t know their fate, like the towers of the battleship Free Russia. I know that a special ring pontoon was designed to lift the towers of both battleships, with the help of which the towers were raised. I had the book “Special Forces”, there were photos of the lifting The guns had low survivability, only 100 shots per barrel, so already during the construction process, a second set of guns was made for each battleship. And if you look at the Fortress Russia 3 almanac, dedicated to the Voroshilov battery, you can see in the photo a second set of barrels near towers. Now, seditious thought may. In Chernov's book "The War Extinguished the Lighthouses", about the defense of Moonsund, it was that the Germans tried to recruit our coastal officers for their coastal batteries. The fact of such an attempt was recorded in relation to the commander of BB-315, Captain Stebel. Thanks to the author for the article and especially for the photo. Despite the fact that I have quite a lot of materials on coastal artillery, I see some of the photos for the first time. THANKS TO THE AUTHOR AGAIN.
      1. xan
        xan 29 January 2016 13: 18
        +4
        Quote: Amurets
        The guns had low survivability, only 100 shots per barrel,

        400 rounds per barrel. Although these Obukhov guns are already very suspicious in terms of their characteristics, or the engineers really managed to create an artillery masterpiece. With the same mass of the barrel with the bolt and the survivability of the barrel, these cannons fired a heavier projectile compared to their English and German contemporaries at almost the same projectile speed. As a result, foreigners threw 20 km, and the Obukhov cannon as much as 29 km - an unattainable range for that time. In theory, Russian battleships of the "Empress Maria" type could shoot foreigners from an unattainable distance for them.
        It's fun to read how, after the Battle of Jutland, the Germans rested and managed to bring the range of their guns on some battleships (in particular on the Derflinger) to 22 km.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 29 January 2016 16: 01
          +5
          Quote: xan
          400 shots per barrel

          This durability of barrels with a deep bore. Our factories received new cutting heads only in the 30s from Italy. Due to deeper cutting and changes in the barrel wear criterion, as well as the use of powder with a phlegmatizer, it was possible to increase the durability of the barrels. Links: Perechnev " Soviet coastal artillery ". Shirokorad" Secrets of Russian artillery.
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 29 January 2016 17: 34
          0
          Quote: xan
          With the same mass of the barrel with the bolt and the survivability of the barrel, these cannons fired a heavier projectile compared to their English and German contemporaries at almost the same projectile speed. As a result, foreigners threw 20 km, and the Obukhov cannon as much as 29 km - an unattainable range for that time. In theory, Russian battleships of the "Empress Maria" class could shoot foreigners from a distance unattainable for them.

          In theory, yes. The problem is that the maximum HLR of the Gangutov and Empress family BSGCs was only 25 degrees. As a result, the standard 132-kg charge sent the BBS weighing 470,9 kg for only 23,23 km.
          It was not for nothing that the USSR was perverted with an increased 140-kg charge and a high-explosive long-range projectile mod. 1928 (lightweight 314-kg projectile with improved aerodynamic shape). It was easier for the USSR to develop a new projectile than to carry out a complete modernization of the BShGK of the LK and the 981st battery that remained in service. Before the war, they were able to do this only on the Parizhanka, increasing the air pressure to 40 degrees (and spending several years on this).

          EMNIP, SW. Vladimir Kalinin wrote that although the naval towers with their full-time 981 degrees of UVN were installed on a 25 battery, rumors about the increased UVN and 30 km of range were intensely spread about it. smile

          It's funny that the similar 305/52 coastal guns of the SA had their own system of shots:
          The 12 "/ 52 SA cannons originally had shells weighing 446,4 kg and a length of 4,4 clb. For them, charges weighing 141,3 kg of the B12 brand with Vo = 792,5 m / s were adopted. Model 1911 shells also had a 2,5% higher charge, Vo = 777,2 m / s, range 24 541 m at an angle of + 25 °.

          However, we are not the only such fanciers: the Yankees, for example, coastal artillery guns with the same caliber with the naval, had a completely different design: the naval guns were fastened with cylinders, and the army ones had wire winding. smile
    2. Severok
      Severok 29 January 2016 19: 44
      0
      I know that several towers with guns from battleships of the "Sevastopol" class stood on the Rybachy Peninsula before the war, blocking the entrance to Pechenga. Some of the Empress Mary's guns were used on heavy railroad platforms near Leningrad. The calibers of the guns are 180 mm (most) and 230 mm (or 250? I don't remember).
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 1 February 2016 10: 16
        0
        Quote: Severok
        I know that several towers with guns from battleships of the "Sevastopol" class stood on the Rybachy Peninsula before the war, blocking the entrance to Pechenga.

        Oh-ho-ho ... if that were the case, General Kabanov would be the happiest person in the world. smile
        In fact, on Rybachy’s, there were 130 mm batteries, the only defense of which was shields and courtyards. Moreover, the entrance to the fjord was blocked by a battery, the armament of which was not even the B-13, but the pre-revolutionary 130/55 of the Obukhov plant.
        Quote: Severok
        Some of the Empress Mary's guns were used on heavy railroad platforms near Leningrad.

        If you are talking about the TM-3-12, then they used re-barreled 305/52 guns from stocks. From "Maria" there were only some units and mechanisms:
        They used 305-mm machine tools and some other mechanisms taken from the three-gun turrets of the battleship "Empress Maria", as well as electric motors that were dismantled during the modernization of the cellars of the battleship "Paris Commune".

        In addition, there was no TM-3-12 in WWII near Leningrad. The battery No. 9 after the SWF was sent to Hanko, where the Finns went in a seriously damaged condition.
        Quote: Severok
        Gun calibres 180 mm (most) and 230 mm (or 250? I don’t remember).

        The Empresses carried only 305/52 and 130/55 guns.
    3. leshiy076
      leshiy076 29 January 2016 22: 51
      +1
      It is unlikely. On "Empress Mary" the towers were three-gun.
  3. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 29 January 2016 07: 13
    +5
    the article is very good ......... addition above fair- thanks Semirek! and the author for the article ........ we will remember the exploits. I’ll let the children read ...... They already read an article in the old TM. BUT here is more informative.
  4. Alexy
    Alexy 29 January 2016 07: 29
    +6
    Sevastopol was not taken until it was razed to the ground. Therefore, I think that the military genius of von Manstein is, to put it mildly, exaggerated.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 29 January 2016 21: 26
      -3
      The army from Sevastopol was not evacuated.
      The commander flew away, leaving his fighters, and part of the senior officers slowly escaped.
      Then the Germans finished off the remaining defenders in the catacombs.
    2. Alex
      Alex 30 January 2016 15: 13
      +2
      Quote: Alexy
      Sevastopol was not taken until it was razed to the ground. Therefore, I think that the military genius of von Manstein is, to put it mildly, exaggerated.

      As a matter of fact, there were no other successes for Mr. Lewinsky. Peter didn’t take it, Stalingrad didn’t unblock it, it’s not so much near Kursk either ... In general, "someone is always to blame."
  5. Alexy
    Alexy 29 January 2016 07: 34
    14
    By the way, many thanks to Alexei Mikhailovich Chalom for the 35 battery museum.
    1. Alex_59
      Alex_59 29 January 2016 09: 12
      +8
      Quote: Alexy
      By the way, many thanks to Alexei Mikhailovich Chalom for the 35 battery museum.

      That's for sure. Was there. There still close by the sea the remains of the pier (a rail sticks out of the water) from which the last surviving defenders of the boat were taken. And my grandfather managed to evacuate by plane, one of the last flights.
    2. indeveral
      indeveral 29 January 2016 13: 14
      +3
      The museum is excellent. were there as a family in 2014. And the blown up battery positions impressed, and the Pantheon, where photographs of the defenders of Sevastopol are displayed. I’ll be in Sevastopol again, I’ll try to get close to the 30th. Whoever knows whether there is open access, or a protected area?
      1. Alex_59
        Alex_59 29 January 2016 13: 17
        0
        Quote: indeveral
        Whoever knows whether there is open access, or a protected area?

        There is no access, the territory is guarded, it is active military unit, so I do not advise you to climb.
  6. Korsar4
    Korsar4 29 January 2016 07: 35
    10
    The 30th battery, the 35th battery - everything is watered with a blood. The director of the 35th Battery Museum is a son who survived the defense. One of those places where you need to visit Sevastopol.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 29 January 2016 08: 20
      0
      Quote: Korsar4
      The 30th battery, the 35th battery - everything is watered with a blood. The director of the 35th Battery Museum is a son who survived the defense. One of those places where you need to visit Sevastopol.

      Here Semirek asked a question about the towers of the "Empress Mary", and as a child I read that the towers were built on batteries 30 and 35. Because I found out that it was not so. Maybe you know how the fate of the towers of Mary and Catherine developed.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 29 January 2016 22: 11
        0
        Offhand, unfortunately, I will not answer. By the way, the first photo in the article is one-on-one like on Russky Island. You can go there. The truth is on the other side of the country.
      2. Alex
        Alex 30 January 2016 15: 18
        +2
        Quote: Amurets
        Here Semirek asked a question about the towers of the "Empress Mary", and as a child I read that the towers were built on batteries 30 and 35. Because I found out that it was not so. Maybe you know how the fate of the towers of Mary and Catherine developed.

        The already mentioned article from "T - M" "Land battleship Alexander" said, EMNIP, about the guns (not towers) intended for battleships of the "Empress Maria" class.

        PS And the article is cool, I advise you to read. He was reading out as a kid, then he quoted pieces in the classroom as a keepsake.
      3. KOMA
        KOMA 23 June 2017 06: 07
        +1
        Not the turrets themselves were installed, but the guns of the battleship, on the "Empress Maria" there were three gun turrets, on the BB 30 and 35 two gun turrets. After the war, on the 30 BB they set up towers from the battleship Poltava.
    2. Alex_59
      Alex_59 29 January 2016 09: 22
      +6
      Quote: Korsar4
      One of those places where you need to visit Sevastopol.

      Just before that, read something about the defense of Sevastopol. And then, in addition to what is presented in the official exhibition of the museum, there are a lot of not designated, but no less valuable historical places around the battery. You can’t put a memorial plaque on every cobblestone. You look from above - people in the blue bay are swimming, peaceful life, the sun, the sea. And there, after all, is essentially a mass grave at the bottom. It is unlikely that all the bodies lifted. Here they lay down so that children in water could splash over them after 70 years. The tower is torn off by such a thought.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 29 January 2016 22: 12
        0
        Search work continues. And every year in the Pantheon of Remembrance - new names.
      2. Alex
        Alex 30 January 2016 15: 22
        +2
        Quote: Alex_59
        You look from above - people in the blue bay are swimming, peaceful life, the sun, the sea. And there, after all, is essentially a mass grave at the bottom. It is unlikely that all the bodies lifted. Here they lay down so that children in water could splash over them after 70 years. The tower is torn off by such a thought.

        I’m not a mystic, but sometimes (especially with regard to the sea) the idea arises that those soldiers and sailors who found their peace at the bottom of this gulf, and protect our children from the enemies of the undeveloped. I would only like them to be worthy of this sacrifice and memory.
    3. vinc
      vinc 29 January 2016 21: 36
      +2
      Our guide was on the "35th battery" a girl no more than thirty, she told me that the whole group swallowed tears. It seems that the exposition is not rich either, the impression of words cannot be found. The museum workers did not try for money, thank them very much.
  7. parusnik
    parusnik 29 January 2016 07: 48
    +3
    The museum had 35 batteries impressive .... The German command gave its 30th battery its designation - Fort "Maxim Gorky I"... We must pay tribute ... respect ... bastards ... Thank you for the article ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. creak
      creak 29 January 2016 13: 48
      +4
      Quote: parusnik
      The German command gave the 30th battery its designation - Fort "Maxim Gorky I" ... We must pay tribute .. respect ... bastards .. Thank you for the article ...


      In the memoirs of Lieutenant G. Biderman "In mortal combat", a participant in the assault on Sevastopol, the last minutes of the battery's defense are set out as follows:
      "The Russians have sent a radiogram - there are 32 of us left, we are getting ready to blow up and cut off the connection. Goodbye."
      Of the total of more than a thousand defenders of the fort, only 40 were taken prisoner with too serious wounds to continue resistance. "
  8. inkass_98
    inkass_98 29 January 2016 07: 50
    +8
    In ancient times, there was an excellent article in "Technology-youth" (I don't remember the exact date, the end of the 70s - the very beginning of the 80s) "Alexander's land battleship". Then I first became acquainted with the feat of the soldiers of this battery.
    Many thanks to Sergey for refreshing his memories.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 29 January 2016 08: 43
      +1
      Quote: inkass_98
      In ancient times, there was an excellent article in "Technology-youth" (I don't remember the exact date, the end of the 70s - the very beginning of the 80s) "Alexander's land battleship". Then I first became acquainted with the feat of the soldiers of this battery.
      Many thanks to Sergey for refreshing his memories.

      Recently I came across an old, but interesting book "The feat of the 30th battery" in Internet libraries. My first book is about coastal workers. Unfortunately, I read everything else much later. Ponochevny's book "On the right flank of the front", and other books about coastal workers ...
      1. oborzevatel
        oborzevatel 29 January 2016 10: 57
        10
        Quote: Amurets
        Recently I came across an old but interesting book in the Internet libraries "The feat of the 30th battery". My first book about coastal workers.

        Also in childhood read this book.
        There is such a moment:
        All large-caliber batteries had small-caliber barrels for training firing. In everyday life, they were called “stems”, and firing from them - “stems”. This was done to save ammunition. A shot from a 12-inch gun costs many thousands of rubles, while a shot from a 45-mm gun - a “barrel” - several hundred rubles.
        When the land defense of the battery began to be strengthened, the senior mechanic Andrienko suggested using the “trunks” for shooting, which at the beginning of the war were removed from the main caliber guns and put into the battery workshop.
        Four guns, even forty-five millimeters, are a big help in land defense. Skillfully directed shells can cause considerable harm to the enemy: to break through the side armor of a tank, armored car or armored personnel carrier, to turn the shield of an anti-tank gun. This is a great tool for "picking out" the enemy from the craters, machine gun nests. A direct hit on a machine gun will immediately destroy it along with the calculation ...
        When Andrienko started designing the carriage, it turned out that all the work would take months. And it was necessary to do very quickly.
        Andrienko went to the rear artillery department, where they promised to give old gun carriages of seventy-six millimeter guns. This greatly simplified the matter. But so far there has been only one gun carriage. Reported to Morgunov, he ordered to make one gun and try it on fire.
        The carriages were dragged quickly. We figured out its details, measured and established that almost all lifting and turning mechanisms should be done anew. Specialists quickly made guidance mechanisms. It turned out to be much more difficult to mount the sight on the barrel: earlier, during the “barrel” shooting, the sights of main-caliber guns worked. After a long fuss, the sight was fixed quite accurately.
        Andrienko and his fighters very quickly converted the guns: they fastened them firmly to the carriages, made sure that the guns were exactly aimed at the target. From them it was possible to successfully shoot at a distance of three to four kilometers. But more could not be expected. But for the pillboxes they still could not be adapted. Yes, in addition, the guns were more important as maneuvering weapons, and not as stationary.
        So the battery in the battery went into operation. She was affectionately called a “little one,” “a little thirty,” and each gun was called a “trunk.”
        Having placed the "baby" on the highest part of the hill, Alexander could shoot it with fire almost the entire visible part of the Belbek valley and the opposite hill. And this was of great importance for the defense of the Thirtieth Battery. The “baby” was especially needed during the second assault and after it, when the front line ran a mile from the battery along the right bank of the Belbek River.
        The mobile battery helped the army team well. The battles at the firing position of the battery did not occur often, and the “trunks” would have nothing to do for a long time, if not for the requests of the army.
        Fire "baby" was required in different circumstances. So the army team discovered the traffic on the German side, we need a "twinkle". Yarovenko clarifies the coordinates and gives several volleys. The movement stops. But the Germans do not remain in debt and hammer on the "baby" with heavy shells. It often happened that in response to ten or twelve shells of the “baby”, up to hundreds of fascist shells fell on the battery. There were, of course, losses, improvised guns failed, but, having fallen into the hands of the elders of the electromechanical warhead, they quickly came to life and returned to service.
        Taken from here:
        http://www.litmir.co/bd/?b=236988
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 29 January 2016 11: 44
          +2
          Quote: oborzevatel
          All large-caliber batteries had small-caliber barrels for training firing.

          In the almanac "Fortress Russia", issue 3, everything is about the construction of the "Voroshilov battery" and there is a photo of how these barrels were placed. I don’t remember in which books I read, but it was in the ship conditions that artillery barrels were placed and even Berdan's rifles were attached. allowed every day to practice shooting at a target that was placed on the bow of the ship and was equipped with a device that catches bullets.
    2. _my opinion
      _my opinion 29 January 2016 18: 36
      +1
      Quote: inkass_98
      In ancient times, there was an excellent article in "Technology-youth" (I don't remember the exact date, the end of the 70s - the very beginning of the 80s) "Alexander's land battleship". Then I first became acquainted with the feat of the soldiers of this battery.
      Many thanks to Sergey for refreshing his memories.

      Technique - Youth 1985 №10
      PAGES OF THE MILITARY CHRONICLE: L. Vyatkin - 'Land battleship' Alexander.
  9. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 29 January 2016 09: 46
    +7
    An important detail: how much I read and looked about the feat of the 30th battery, among other things, indicate that at the time of the capture, Major Alexander was in civilian clothes, but he was identified and issued by one local traitor / scammer / informant. The article does not, but personally my opinion is a very important detail.
    1. oborzevatel
      oborzevatel 29 January 2016 11: 05
      +4
      Quote: Vladislav 73
      An important detail: how much I read and looked about the feat of the 30th battery, among other things, indicate that at the time of the capture, Major Alexander was in civilian clothes, but he was identified and issued by one local traitor / scammer / informant. The article does not, but personally my opinion is a very important detail.

      from the book "The Feat of the 30th Battery"
      Aleksander failed to break through to the partisans. It is not known exactly where he was captured: according to one version - near the Mekenzievy Gory peninsula, according to another - somewhere in the Baidar region, and according to the third - near the battery itself. The Germans in one of their official documents reported: "24.VI commander of a strong point crawled out through the drain and was captured the next day." If you believe this, then the first guess is most likely. If Alexander had made his way to the Baidar region, he would surely have got to the partisans. But in a day he could hardly get to Baidar.

      According to the captive commanders, Alexander, being in the camp, told them that his small group had fought the Germans, killed several people. Alexander, shocked by the explosion of a grenade, lost consciousness. He woke up bound. He tried to hide who he was, but someone betrayed him.
      1. Vladislav 73
        Vladislav 73 30 January 2016 18: 41
        0
        Thank you for clarification. Yes, I also read who, as the author, points to the village of Duvankoy, who is the Mekenzievy Gory, they don’t indicate the exact location somewhere, but mostly they indicate the betrayal of some locals everywhere! And it seems to me personally that this is a very important detail in terms of understanding that war. Someone was dead, and someone was paying for their filthy little soul with other people's lives!
  10. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 29 January 2016 10: 58
    17
    You read such materials, goosebumps -
    "... at that time all the available machine-gun pillboxes had already been destroyed .... they used flamethrowers, explosive charges and poured gasoline into the cracks formed in the fortifications ...."
    and after all the boys were 18-19-20 years old.
    They never played Doom, nor did they have iPhones.
    And they stood simply. To end.
    .
    We who write now can write because our "boys" - grandfathers, fathers - survived.
    And for those guys who died there, in the scorched rocks, there is no one to write.
    Except us.
    .
    Do what is necessary - and let it be, that will be.
    .
    Awesome stuff.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 29 January 2016 12: 24
      0
      Quote: Bashibuzuk
      ... at that time, all the existing machine-gun pillboxes had already been destroyed .... they used flamethrowers, explosive charges and poured gasoline into the cracks formed in the fortifications .... "

      Unfortunately, this is so, I will not tell you what the article was called, I can’t even tell the site. Winda flew off, and the archives on DVD for some reason were not unpacked. I remember that the site was fortification. That’s not the point. There were eyewitness memories of the "Molotov line". And how the Germans used similar methods to smoke and destroy our garrisons in bunkers. There were instructions for the destruction of garrisons. But the bunkers are much smaller in size than coastal tower batteries. And the Germans did this: they poured gasoline through the ventilation ducts or engine exhaust gas, and then after some flamethrowers let out a stream of flame. People with weak nerves should not look at photographs of such pillboxes, and the Germans supplied their reports with photographs.
      1. Bashibuzuk
        Bashibuzuk 29 January 2016 15: 09
        +2
        Thanks for the information.
        But reality doesn’t torment me, ours, when smoking the Mannerheim line, acted the same way, and indeed ... it’s such a war ..
        how much the fact that very young boys stood to death. To a terrible death.
        They stood.
        And do not whine.
        How many of them will be typed in the average graduation of the school, relatively speaking, 1XXX in Moscow, in St. Petersburg ..
        Zero integers, fucking tenths ... or how much?
        .
        One reassuring - now there are still the same. Which were noted in Chechnya, my fellow countrymen, both in the Crimea and in the Donbass.
        Is.
        .
        But, it is amazing that then - practically EVERYTHING.
        Why not?
  11. 25ru
    25ru 29 January 2016 11: 03
    +1
    Excellent article, but not without inaccuracies. Within 1-2 hours I will find a Russian translation of the ZhBD of the German units that stormed the battery.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 29 January 2016 13: 34
      0
      Quote: 25ru
      Excellent article, but not without inaccuracies. Within 1-2 hours I will find a Russian translation of the ZhBD of the German units that stormed the battery.

      I dumped what you asked for, if not difficult to send a confirmation of receipt.
      By the way In the book of Kaabanov S.I.I., the first shooting of the Voroshilov battery with the help of a locator in 1945 is described.
  12. 25ru
    25ru 29 January 2016 11: 11
    0
    It turned out faster.
    German document: Translated from German “Supplement to the memorandum on foreign fortifications” published in 1943 in Berlin [Nachtrag zu den Denkschriften uber die fremde Landesbefestigungen. Berlin: Reichsdruckerei, 1943], in the chapter “Fighting for Sevastopol” it was said:

    “Medium, large and extra-large batteries took part in the preparation of the assault. In total, from 6.06 to 17.06.42, [they fired] about 750 shots, half of them - before noon on 17.06. At half past one on June 17.06, 20 bombs were dropped on field structures by dive bombers. With concentrated artillery shelling, wire fences were broken through and minefields were bombarded.
  13. 25ru
    25ru 29 January 2016 11: 12
    +1
    The funnels resulting from the explosions of bombs and mines facilitated the advance of the attacking forces. The garrisons of the structures of the external defensive belt were mostly destroyed, and the light defenses included in it were destroyed.

    As a result of the shelling, the western armored turret got a side hit, due to which one gun was completely and partly disabled, the east turret got a direct hit in the embrasure, which put both guns out of action. The underground passage to the rangefinder was bombarded. However, all the entrances and the reinforced concrete cover of the casemate remained almost untouched. The battery defenders (according to their testimony) were not impressed by the shelling.

    For the last assault on the battery, 213 regiments, 1 and 2 battalions of 132 sapper regiments, and 1 battalion of 173 sapper regiments were assigned.

    Early in the morning and before noon on June 17.06.42, XNUMX, an assault was launched in the direction of the anti-tank ditch, open to the east of the battery across the watershed. The enemy put up stubborn resistance. The firing points that fired at the front and flanks were brought to silence through infantry and artillery fire.

    1 and 2 battalions of the 132 sapper regiment attacked the fortifications located in front of the battery. 122 infantry regiment attacked structures located on the southern and western slopes of the mountain. The advance of the attacking units was impeded by strong enemy artillery and mortar fire from the Belbek Valley and south-facing slopes, as well as sniper fire and counterattacks.

    About half past three in the afternoon, as a result of a second attack, the western slope of the mountain was occupied. The approach to the command post at the eastern end of the underground passage was also busy.
  14. 25ru
    25ru 29 January 2016 11: 14
    +1
    At 2 hours and 45 minutes, the second battalion of the 213th regiment launched an attack on the eastern slope and at 3 hours and 15 minutes reached the destroyed fortification at 400 m east of the first armored tower installation, and the first battalion of the 173 sapper regiment, under the protection of infantry fire, attacked the tower installation. At 3 hours and 45 minutes, six sappers penetrated the unit with bundles of hand grenades and destroyed its garrison. The garrison of the second installation fiercely fired with rifle fire from the holes pierced by artillery shells in the armor plates of the tower. The sapper attack was successful only thanks to the flank shelling of the installation by infantry units. The enemy was destroyed by hand grenades. At this time, the infantry advancing along the northern slope was able to control the western slope. At 4 hours and 30 minutes, as a result of several repeated attempts, sappers reached the heavily defended main entrances, machine guns were installed to block the entrances. As a result of these actions, the garrison was locked in gun units.

    In the following days, the enemy was destroyed inside the fort with subversive charges, gasoline and combustible oils. About 1000 kg of explosives and 1000 liters of combustible materials were brought inside tower installations. Defectors issued the location of the fort device. On June 20, during the preparation of the explosions, an explosion occurred in the western tower installation, which cost the lives of three sappers. As a result of several consecutive explosions in the installation, severe fires began, the interior was filled with smoke. In this regard, to break into it was not possible because of the fear of the enemy capturing the entrances. On June 22, the 6th battalion of the 173rd sapper regiment was replaced by the 3rd battalion of the 2nd sapper regiment. The garrison defended itself by undermining the reserve exit and burning smoke-forming mixtures and oils.

    25.06.42/26/40 commander of the strong point crawled out through the drain and the next day was captured. On June XNUMX, the strike group broke into the block and captured another XNUMX prisoners. Most of the garrison died from explosions or suffocated in smoke. The accumulation of flammable materials in the course of communication of the fort contributed to the spread of fires along internal corridors and rooms.

    Armored doors in places of explosive explosions were pressed in, and in other places so deformed from the blast wave that smoke could penetrate into the utility rooms. Reinforced concrete structures suffered little from the explosions. ”

    Excerpt from the Report on hostilities 1 OAD BO GB BSF

    Data as of June 10, 1942
    Source: Forum of the Russian Fortification Site, explanations - Dmitry Stoniy.
    * * *

    “The battery array is badly beaten, has cracks, and is broken in many places. The wall [room] of the left wing filters is broken and burst inward from the side impact of the projectile.

    Filters and pipelines are damaged, the reservoir is broken. The sewer is inundated, which is why all the lower holds of the left wing are flooded. Pumping [water] from diesels, lathes, washbasins is done with hoses.

    The through and entrance to the first tower are completely destroyed. Destroyed all the wiring of the boiler room and the insulation of the chimneys. The right wing lighting panel fell off. Pressure ventilation system cannot work. Sealing the array zero. "
  15. 25ru
    25ru 29 January 2016 11: 16
    +1
    Very sad, but somehow. As far as I was interested, no one survived.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 29 January 2016 11: 59
      0
      Quote: 25ru
      Very sad, but somehow. As far as I was interested, no one survived.

      Alas, this is most likely the case today. Musyakov's book "The Feat of the Thirtieth Battery" contains several names of the surviving batteries, but the book was published in 1961
  16. Nikita Orlov
    Nikita Orlov 29 January 2016 11: 24
    0
    It is about this story that the film needs to be filmed with parallels about two soldiers of the American "Private Ryan" and about ours, so that it was clearly how we and they fought.
    About 3-4 years ago I read on the Internet a diary of a participant in the defense of Sevastopol, a look from the inside, unfortunately 30 of Alexander was the main link in the defense, the 35th, as it were softer, were commanded by not very competent specialists. In any case, judging by the diary of the participant in those events.
    Article plus.
  17. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 29 January 2016 11: 30
    +3
    At the very end of World War II, the secret archives of the Third Reich fell into the hands of the Soviet command. They contained drawings and technical documentation about the “monster” guns already known to us, about unrealized projects of all kinds of “miracle weapons”. But what a surprise it was when descriptions and drawings were found among these papers ... Alexander batteries made by German experts.
    This was a genuine scientific study, including calculations on the strength of the artillery system, barrel wear, analysis of gunpowder and a number of other purely special issues.
    At the end, the conclusion was made that "the Russian fort" Maxim Gorky 1 "was a true masterpiece of military engineering."
    1. Alex
      Alex 30 January 2016 15: 34
      +3
      Quote: Thunderbolt
      At the end, the conclusion was made that "the Russian fort" Maxim Gorky 1 "was a true masterpiece of military engineering."

      Not for nothing D.M. Karbyshev was persuaded throughout the war to go to the service of the Reich. Those who were with him and survived said that only a golden statue in height and a bunch of diamonds by weight were not offered. They understood what the fortifier talent was, although there were enough of them.
  18. 25ru
    25ru 29 January 2016 11: 37
    +1
    Quote: Thunderbolt
    Descriptions and drawings were discovered ... Alexander batteries made by German experts.
    This was a genuine scientific study, including calculations on the strength of the artillery system, barrel wear, analysis of gunpowder and a number of other purely special issues.
    At the end, the conclusion was made that "the Russian fort" Maxim Gorky 1 "was a true masterpiece of military engineering."

    That's right. What I quoted above is part of those materials hi I took this as a source: http://www.bellabs.ru/30-35/Timeline-30.html
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 29 January 2016 12: 58
      -1
      Thank you for the article. Good --- detailed and interesting, although you never have bad ones. And I came across once watching short footage of newsreels, literally seconds. Alexander is on his battery. Without sound, but very valuable for history, and especially for all of us. For those who "uncover" the battery in 72 hours, if necessary. hi
  19. 25ru
    25ru 29 January 2016 11: 50
    +2
    Quote: Nikita Orlov
    The 35th was commanded, as it were softer, by not very competent specialists. In any case, judging by the diary of the participant in those events.

    Do not give a link? Of course, I could be wrong, but like this, one of the resources of neta says about the 35th battery:
    http://www.bellabs.ru/30-35/Photos-35.html
    http://www.bellabs.ru/30-35/35.html#5




    .
  20. KVIRTU
    KVIRTU 29 January 2016 11: 57
    +1
    "In 1949-1954, the battery was restored (instead of the old two-gun, three-gun tower installations MB-3-12-FM, removed from the battleship Frunze (formerly Poltava) BF, were installed, power equipment was replaced, a new, very perfect for that time, the Shore fire control system with a radar station and heat direction finders) and reorganized into the 459th separate tower artillery division. Until the mid-1990s, as part of the 778th artillery, and then the 51st missile and 632th missile and artillery regiments of the division provided coastal defense of the main base of the Black Sea Fleet. In 1997, the personnel of the division was transferred to the Caucasian coast, and the fortifications were transferred to the 267th conservation platoon. "
    “The gun turrets of the battery are capable of firing even today, despite the fact that the last shot of the gun was fired in the early 70s during the filming of the film“ The Sea on Fire. ”Old residents of the village of Lyubimovka still remember this volley, when in the whole district in the windows glass flew out, several roofs were torn off and a barrel of wine burst in the state farm named after Sofia Perovskaya. "
    1. 25ru
      25ru 29 January 2016 12: 26
      +1
      [b] [/ b] Extreme combat firing of battery No. 981, aka "Voroshilovskaya", was conducted on Russky Island in 1997.
      Opinion of the extreme battery commander:
      [b] Colonel Georgy Shabot leads us through the Voroshilov battery. He is the last commander of 122 separate tower artillery battalions, and now he is a researcher at the third branch of the military-historical museum of the Pacific Fleet (the first two are S-56 and Krasny Vympel). On August 6, 1984, George Eduardovich came commander of the first tower. In 1991, he became a divisional commander - and he was until 1997, until the division was reduced.

      “Until 1992, inclusively, we fired every year - we carried out artillery calculations from the main caliber. The target was a large shipboard or support ship. All our shooting is excellent. Until 1997, all the mechanisms worked, the ammunition was in the cellars, after the directive to reduce the division, the ammunition was destroyed. But in general, "Voroshilovka" can shoot even now, - says our guide. - We are located at the southern end of Novik Bay. The command post is located at a height of 102,7 meters - on a hill in front of Cape Vyatlin, from there fire control was conducted. Here the firing position is closed, the firing sector is circular. The tower rotates without limitation. Sighting range - 35 km, up to Lesnaya Zaimka. ”[B]
      [b] The opinion of Shabot is not entirely accurate, the tabular range of 37,2 km of the OFS with the standard table of charges.
  21. br21
    br21 29 January 2016 12: 07
    +2
    Quote: semirek
    The article is certainly excellent, only one question - from childhood I remember that the gun turrets on one of the batteries were from "Maria" sunk in 16 and were raised by Epron, maybe I missed something in the article?


    The batteries were with two-gun towers. There were three-gun towers on the battleship. I could be wrong, but the maximum trunks with Mary could be.
    1. 25ru
      25ru 29 January 2016 12: 42
      +1
      Quote: br21
      The batteries were with two-gun towers. There were three-gun towers on the battleship. I could be wrong, but the maximum trunks with Mary could be

      No. Let's dot the points. The head group of towers from "Poltava / Frunze" is Vladivostok. Battery No. 981 (Voroshilovskaya). Stern group of towers - restored battery No. 30. Karaulov gully - Sevastopol. The famous saying about the longest battleship in the world. The bow is in Vladivostok, the stern is in Sevastopol. About trunks from "Maria" - I have not seen any data. About the trunks with the LK "Alexander-III" - it was. One of the Fritz BBs was armed with them, the allies did not dare to stick in there until the very surrender.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 29 January 2016 14: 50
        -1
        Quote: 25ru
        One of the Fritzev’s BBs was armed with them, the Allies didn’t risk popping in there until the very surrender.

        Look on the Internet for a compiled book by Bragin "Cannons on Rails" is about the Hanko railway batteries. When the French dismantled the battleship Emperor Alexander III, the guns were handed over to the Finns. Eight cannons successfully arrived in Finland, and four to the Krupp factories for conversion for German ammunition and made carriages. And here you are right, the British got their hands on the Mirus battery only after the end of World War II. By the way, Amirkhanov's book "Sea Cannons on the Railroad" describes the creation and transportation of railway transporters from Leningrad to Vladivostok. A base was created in Vladivostok The author will excuse him, but everything in this world is interconnected, and the barrels of large-caliber guns are so valuable that they were handed over to scrap metal only when they could not be restored.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 29 January 2016 15: 27
        +4
        Quote: 25ru
        The famous saying about the longest battleship in the world. Nose in Vladivostok, feed in Sevastopol.

        I’ll take a step: BShGK No. 2 and No. 3 — average — went to Vladivostok. A terminal number 1 and number 4 were used to restore the battery number 459 (former number 30).

        So the battleship turned out to be even longer - it turned around the Earth: the bow and stern met in Sevastopol, and the midsection was in Vladivostok. smile
  22. Recoil
    Recoil 29 January 2016 12: 51
    0
    Read
    Now ask yourself the question - "Could I beat the enemy like that?"
    GLORY TO THE HEROES!!!
    1. 25ru
      25ru 29 January 2016 13: 03
      +1
      Quote: Rollback
      Read
      Now ask yourself the question - "Could I beat the enemy like that?"
      GLORY TO THE HEROES!!!

      Are you this to me? I've done enough in this world recourse
  23. code54
    code54 29 January 2016 13: 01
    +1
    Quote: gray smeet
    Impressive Soviet people of the war years !!! Truly - they are all heroes and those who fought and those who worked in the rear!

    Add a few photos, with your permission ...

    It doesn’t work (the comp slows down) to lay out the entire series, I give a link a lot of photos about the Crimea, Sevastopol: http://back-in-ussr.com/2016/01/krym-v-gody-velikoy-otechestvennoy.html


    great photos on the link! Thank! Places are many recognizable! Photo captions are funny!
  24. 25ru
    25ru 29 January 2016 13: 31
    0
    Quote: code54
    Quote: gray smeet
    Impressive Soviet people of the war years !!! Truly - they are all heroes and those who fought and those who worked in the rear!

    Add a few photos, with your permission ...

    It doesn’t work (the comp slows down) to lay out the entire series, I give a link a lot of photos about the Crimea, Sevastopol: http://back-in-ussr.com/2016/01/krym-v-gody-velikoy-otechestvennoy.html


    great photos on the link! Thank! Places are many recognizable! Photo captions are funny!
  25. 25ru
    25ru 29 January 2016 14: 08
    +1
    Quote: Amurets
    The first shooting of the Voroshilov battery with a locator in 1945.

    You are not mistaken in the date?
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 29 January 2016 15: 18
      -1
      Quote: 25ru
      Quote: Amurets
      The first shooting of the Voroshilov battery with a locator in 1945.

      You are not mistaken in the date?

      I took the data from the book by S.I.Kabanov "Battlefield-shore". The exact date is not indicated. Summer 1945. The battery commander, Major P.M. Yakimenko. Then I read that the name of the commander Kabanov indicated incorrectly, in the almanac "Fortress- Russia is standing Yakimov Pyotr Mitrofanovich, who fired a large-caliber battery for the first time in the Soviet Navy using a radar.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 29 January 2016 15: 22
      0
      Quote: 25ru
      You are not mistaken in the date?

      Judging by Kabanov's "Battlefield - Shore", this shooting took place in the spring of 1945:
      Soon, several English radar stations were delivered to the fleet. For them, we had to build special protection from reinforced concrete on large-caliber batteries, the most important in operational-tactical terms. The commander also supported all our plans.

      ... in particular, it was possible to conduct a planned fire on a towed shield with the lighting of its SABs being dropped from an airplane. We conducted this shooting and proved that it is better to illuminate the target with the corresponding shells of the firing battery itself, as was done in the North during the blockade of Petsamo-vuono. In the Far East, unfortunately, not all batteries had lighting shells. The experience of the first shooting was adopted, and they began to study it.

      And a week later, the first in the coastal defense of the country was fired at an invisible target using radar. Arriving at the tower battery, I waited with great excitement for this firing. I also lived in my dissatisfaction with the firing on the Middle with the help of TPN. How reliable is the locator? The sailors in the North praised him, causing us frustration and envy. But how will it operate on a battery? ..

      During the shooting, I sat at the locator together with the battery commander Major P. M. Yakimenko. A shield towed by a destroyer was moving across the screen with a bright orange dot, and the line of bursts from falling shells was of the same color. Yes, with such devices we would send to the bottom of the Varanger Fjord twice, if not three times, more transports and tankers of the Hitler fleet and would make the Norwegian army starve and freeze! ..
  26. Saburo
    Saburo 29 January 2016 14: 34
    +1
    Currently, the 30th armored battery is on conservation, but within 72 hours it can be put on alert.


    Does that mean shells are stored somewhere? Until which year were they produced?
  27. SOBR_NSK
    SOBR_NSK 29 January 2016 16: 07
    0
    Was on this battery last year! The excursion was conducted personally by the commander of the battery, thank him very much! A fan of his battery, you could twist, touch everything - it's impressive, especially when you see the inscriptions on the breeches of the guns - "Obukhovsky plant is 1916 !!! There are no shells on the battery, only a few training ones were taken out. after the collapse of the Soviet Union. But I confirm - bring shells and you can bang, and more than once))
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. VITERIO
      VITERIO 10 May 2016 11: 27
      0
      Hello. Please write how you managed to get to 30 BB, where did you get permission, where did you contact, who did you call and if you can with coordinates. I really want to get there. I am very grateful.
  28. stas-xnumx
    stas-xnumx 29 January 2016 16: 57
    0
    I was with my son on a 35 battery 6 years ago, I flew specifically to Sevastopol for 5 days in the summer, I wanted to show my son a heroic city, 35 battery, Sapun-gora, Mekenziev’s mountains .... There, of course, also has its own tragic story, but people defended themselves heroically , there is a good memorial, a museum, well done, support the memory ...
  29. igorrus3
    igorrus3 29 January 2016 20: 56
    0
    To everyone who will be in Crimea this year, I recommend visiting the 35th battery. Here are a few shots.
    Main entrance.
  30. igorrus3
    igorrus3 29 January 2016 21: 11
    +1
    In the foreground is the Pantheon of Remembrance, further the necropolis - those whose remains were discovered during the creation of the museum complex are buried.
  31. igorrus3
    igorrus3 29 January 2016 21: 14
    +1
    Pointer.
  32. The comment was deleted.
  33. igorrus3
    igorrus3 29 January 2016 21: 23
    0
    Familiar and loved by many flags. Ksati has been fluttering since the creation of the museum complex, the flag of the country 404 did not rise.
    1. Serg koma
      Serg koma 30 January 2016 12: 53
      +1
      "It is necessary -
      not dead!
      This is necessary -
      alive!
      "(Requiem by R. Rozhdestvensky)

      Museum historical and memorial complex to the heroic defenders of Sevastopol “35th Coastal Battery” http://35batery.ru/index.php/ru/home.html
      Mass grave of those killed in the explosion of the tower 17.12.1941/35/2 http://ruinformer.com/page/XNUMX-ja-beregovaja-batareja-vzryv-XNUMX-j-bashni-versija-pr
      oisshedshego
    2. RUSS
      RUSS 30 January 2016 19: 53
      -1
      Quote: igorrus3
      the flag of country 404 did not rise.

      Is that what you call your country?
      1. biznaw
        biznaw 1 February 2016 00: 22
        0
        Quote: RUSS
        Quote: igorrus3
        the flag of country 404 did not rise.

        Is that what you call your country?

        Russ, you seem to have spent a long time on the Moon, since you don’t know anything about dill and kangaroos and their homeland 404.
  34. Denimax
    Denimax 29 January 2016 23: 26
    0
    "It was also noted that battery fire had a huge moral effect on the enemy."
    It could be a strong effect, i.e. you will not attack with an avalanche, because each square is shot and large losses are guaranteed. And seeping alone, this is no longer an offensive, and they will also be killed individually by other means.
  35. Serg koma
    Serg koma 30 January 2016 13: 00
    0
    Museum historical and memorial complex to the heroic defenders of Sevastopol “35th coastal battery”

    Prokuda Semyon Ivanovich
    He supervised the work on replacing the trunks with 30 and 35 ...
    Sevastopol Necropolis website http://tombs.sebastopol.ua/missing.php?id=20602
  36. Ruby
    Ruby 1 February 2016 00: 53
    0
    Quote: Alex
    Quote: Alexy
    Sevastopol was not taken until it was razed to the ground. Therefore, I think that the military genius of von Manstein is, to put it mildly, exaggerated.

    As a matter of fact, there were no other successes for Mr. Lewinsky. Peter didn’t take it, Stalingrad didn’t unblock it, it’s not so much near Kursk either ... In general, "someone is always to blame."

    Well, in general, after Stalingrad, this gentleman managed to stabilize the front practically out of nothing, and along the way also to arrange Kharkov-2 for us. And the destruction of our group in Kerch in 42 is on his conscience. But there, of course, our "generals" helped a lot. Whoever is in Europe, and the Germans were very good at fighting.
  37. MDVg
    MDVg 1 February 2016 12: 00
    0
    Excellent article.
  38. VITERIO
    VITERIO 10 May 2016 03: 07
    +1
    AND WHAT THIS ME IS THIS SITE DETERMINES SO HOW I WILL BE IN UKRAINE. I TOTAL IN EVPATORIA, AND EVPATORIA IS CRIMEA, AND CRIMEA IS RUSSIA !!!!!! soldier
  39. MDVg
    MDVg 3 July 2017 17: 02
    0
    Lucky to visit the 35th battery, impressed.
  40. Ildar Gaynetdinov
    Ildar Gaynetdinov April 7 2020 22: 58
    0
    I am looking for information about my grandfather (maternal) Baramikov Mukhlis Fayzulaevich, born in 1904, a native of Ryazan (?) Province, called up in July 1941 from Simferopol, Alminsky lane 15/16. Rank ordinary, specialty car driver. According to fragmentary information, he died in April 1942. during the defense of Sevastopol, on the 30th battery. Member of the Finnish War. There is a written response from the secretariat to the deputy representative of Council of Min. USSR K.E. Voroshilov from 16.07.1947. No. 40291 / KV that a letter of inquiry (written by my grandmother) was sent to the Office for the Registration of Dead and Missing Private and Sergeants in the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. As far as I remember from childhood, the answer was received from there that it was not found in the lists of the dead and missing.
  41. Andrey1945
    Andrey1945 24 September 2020 15: 27
    0
    In 2004 I was in Sevastopol, went to the battery number 30.
    Our Russian military unit was stationed there. The battery was completely in working order, just preserved.
    As I was told, the porch going from the towers to the rangefinder post is filled up, and the rest is whole.
    According to the military, the gunpowder and shells had been taken out just a couple of years earlier.
    Accompanied by one of the contractors, the batteries were taken to almost all the premises.
    The impressions are simply amazing, in many rooms and corridors you can see traces of the assault.
    On the metal anti-spalling ceilings, fragments of fragments and bullet hits are visible.
    All machines and mechanisms are in working order. There is a diesel power plant, a well with water, a compressor.
    The tower is simply amazing in size !!! inside, all electric drives are duplicated by manual feed.
    The cellars are empty, there are a couple of powder tubes. There are no shells, only a few are in the museum. A museum of the 30th battery is organized in one of the premises.
    Being inside you feel the power of this structure, how much effort and money was spent on its construction. Feels like it was built FOR CENTURIES !!!
    And she showed what she is capable of !!!!!!!!