In our society, there is a difficult process of understanding Gaidar's reforms, which are already a quarter of a century. What did they bring to the country? For the sake of whom and for what were carried out? How have the welfare of the people, the economic security of the country? Without answers to these questions can not do if you do not want to step on a rake. This was a conversation at the X International Security Forum, which was held at the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation.
Economic security is of particular importance in the face of acute opposition to external threats. So, the policy of protecting national interests must be supported by the economic power of the country.
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Recall the situation of the end of 70-x - the beginning of 80-x, when we were dragged into the war in Afghanistan. At the same time, artificially collapsed oil prices, and the Soviet Union was faced with a sharp reduction in foreign exchange earnings, respectively, imports, without which we, unfortunately, could not do. And the American program of "Star Wars" was launched, the level of military spending turned out to be transcendent, which ultimately led to the collapse of the USSR, the change of the political system.
Today, there is a sense of deja vu, but the Soviet economy was much more stable than the Russian one. Therefore, our country is in dire need of a new economic security strategy. What we lack and what to do in order to move on? According to the coordinator of the working group of the Expert Council of the Duma Committee on Transport, Yuri Nagerniak, there are several fundamental elements that determine the structure of economic security.
First, the level of development of competitive countries. “Scientist Mikhail Lifshits, our compatriot living in Germany,” says Yuriy Nagernyak, “invested more than two million euros of his own money in researching Russian problems, worked in the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and for several years together with his colleagues created a coherent theory of the Europeanization of our economy. I proposed a detailed program with a volume of 400 pages of text and 600 tables. In it, 1400 has specific ways, ideas that should be borrowed in Germany and transferred to our soil in order to bring the Russian economy closer to the German one in terms of efficiency. ”
Lifshits took 10 subjects of the Russian Federation and compared them in terms of per capita production with Lower Saxony and Saxony. The first is the land of West Germany with the center in Hanover. The second is part of the former GDR with its center in Dresden. Having carried out a rigorous analysis of production volumes in German lands and relevant subjects of the Russian Federation, Lifshits came to the conclusion that the production per thousand people in Germany, Lower Saxony or Saxony in 5,1 – 14 is more times than in average Russian regions. That is, we lag behind in macroeconomic indicators. One of the reasons is low labor productivity, poor provision with automation and mechanization tools.
Secondly, the security of real production and the domestic market. This is the legal basis for the functioning of the entire economic system. And there is something to work on.
Thirdly, the level of well-being of the population and the system of income distribution between different strata. Here the situation is depressing. Even if you rely on official data, the gap between the average incomes of 10 percent of the richest Russians and 10 percent of the poorest 14 – 17 is multiple.
Moreover, the concentration of wealth and property in the Russian Federation is the maximum. Two percent of the country's population owns 80 percent of industrial assets, and 10 percent of the “highest” class 71 percent of national wealth. In the capitalist country itself, as we like to say, the USA is the last figure equal to 34 percent. In Europe, in the hands of 10, the percent of the wealthiest citizens is concentrated from 25 to 30 percent of the national wealth.
Its uneven distribution stands out Africa. But even in Nigeria, which occupies the top line on this indicator on the continent, it is 44 percent. Thus, only two countries - Russia and, as it is easy to guess, Ukraine - demonstrate a gulf in the incomes of the population.
“A year ago, we made a forecast and identified three possible options for the development of the economic situation in Russia,” recalls Vladimir Popov, Ph.D. “We came to the conclusion that GDP will fall gradually, at least five years.” Pessimistic forecast criticized. But scientists were right. Of the three options for the development of the economy, life chose the worst. Alas, our officials today do not know economics, hence all the troubles. This is evidenced not only by academician Sergei Glazyev.
According to the forecast of Japanese futurologists, in the twenty-first century, countries will be divided into four groups. The first will sell creative goods, new ideas, projects, inventions, know-how and will provide citizens with a high level of income. The second will continue to produce high-quality, but traditional technique, a classic set of products, such as electronics or cars. This will provide the population with an average level of income. The third group, which supplies the world with raw materials, will give people lower than average incomes. No energy prices will fix the situation. The fourth group - countries - suppliers of cheap labor - will have the lowest income level of the population. Where will Russia be?
The downturn in the economy is the result of a management crisis. He, in turn, is a consequence of the lack of demand for the achievements of science, which today is also in failure. And when it is not needed, stagnation begins in it, condemning a whole generation to stagnation.
Philosopher Ivan Ilyin, analyzing the causes of the February revolution, came to the conclusion: "Russia was ruined by semi-science." Today, the situation in the country is similar to the February rehearsal. “I hear some of our ministers, and sometimes it seems to me that in their minds, in their interpretations, in some analytical materials there is, perhaps, only half-science,” states Vladimir Popov.
The smaller the number of intelligent people in society, the more the intellectual and cultural layer becomes thinner, the more destructive tendencies and weaker economic security are expressed. Consciousness, as is known, not only reflects, but also creates the world. Deprived of such an opportunity, it comes to a state of chaos.
Another pattern: the lower the intelligence of the majority of the nation, the easier it is to manage.
Sometimes they say that we must again go to the mobilization economy. Vladimir Popov calls her intellectual and mobilization. He thinks: if we do not mobilize the mind of the nation, if we continue to destroy education, science, and to reform health care, we will not succeed. We will not stop the brain drain, for which there are deep reasons. It is necessary to work on projects not only on the use of intellectual property, but also on its formation.
In 90-ies, Popov read the phrase from the then Minister of Economy Yasin: “The brake of Russian reforms is the mentality”. But if so, where is the program of its correction, at least following the example of Japan? There was no answer and no. By the way, if you still do this correction, the results will appear only after two or three generations.
Our spirituality, of which we are so proud, today, according to measurements by sociologists, is no higher than in the same Germany, and economic traits - thrift, prudence, punctuality - less than 10 percent of German. There, in the first place order and only then everything else. This is where we need to “correct”. No wonder Ivan Ilyin bequeathed: "We all, from a ruler to a simple man in the street, must learn to recognize people of a quality-spiritual charge and put them forward in every way."
“We need an appropriate personnel policy,” Vladimir Popov concludes. - Speaking about how to conquer the US world leadership, Zbigniew Brzezinski recalls that in addition to the economic and informational wars, they also triumph in the cultural one. In the media, on television, he reveals, we omit all countries below the plinth due to low mass culture, planting a primitive level of consumption that provides only biological existence, further sex, violence and everything else. ”
According to the doctor of technical sciences, professor Boris Drozdov, the problem of economic security is not only and not so much in monetary and financial self-sufficiency, as in the reliability of the system of the living arrangement of the state.
A market mechanism has now been established in our country. More precisely, the liberal market, which is characterized by the fact that money, natural resources and the results of intellectual activity become a commodity. The fact that in principle - the public domain.
How to evaluate this system? The market economy is neither natural nor universal. Rather, it is a social construct that emerged as a deep mutation in the specific culture of the West.
Such an assessment is also known: liberal economists are adherents of a totalitarian sect, whose doctrine is a collection of superstitions and prohibitions aimed at the extermination of millions of people. These fools are cherished in Russia, because we are a kind of testing ground for experiments of world order.
How to change things? The well-known Soviet designer Pobisk Kuznetsov proposed the concept of a physical economy based on the use of natural science methods for describing production and business processes in which the unit of exchange has a real physical essence. Such, for example, energy ruble. Moreover, this approach has already been applied to some extent.
One of the methods of non-market management is the system of so-called balances. In the Soviet Union, 400 balance types were compiled at the highest stage of economic development. And for example, in Japan, 12 was made of thousands of specified balances, now their number is increasing. Is it capitalism or socialism?
Balances are a normal, natural way to ensure state security. Without them, there can be no viable economy. Energy, transport, water balances - its foundation. Or the balance of labor resources, building capacity and needs, graduating specialists by categories and demand for them.
Physical economics is also manifested in the fact that social funds are created that distribute savings. It is known that in Norway there is a National Development Fund (Future Fund), which is replenished by selling oil, carried out by a single state-owned corporation. Through it, science, the poor, the intelligentsia, etc. are financed. This is also an example of balance, non-market methods of economic management.
In Germany’s rail transport, for every euro spent by a passenger, the state adds six to compensate for the costs. In Russia, if we talk about the most mass transportation by suburban electric trains, the budget pays for the ruble of a passenger only 20 more kopecks more. The level of social support in general is several times lower than in Germany. By the way, in the 70s, which are now an unattainable example, urban public transport, for example, in Paris was subsidized by the state four times more generous than in Moscow.
What is a buffet? Food supply on demand. I paid a fixed amount, and take as much as you like. Completely non-market formula. But it works - even in the housing and communal services. For example, in the payment item "Common utility costs" the costs of using the elevator are averaged. It does not occur to anyone to calculate how much a person enters the elevator, which floor he rises to, how he descends.
There are situations when there is a sharp shortage of vital resources in the state. In such cases, non-market methods are also used. In 90-s, Russia was in an emergency situation and the only ministry that worked normally and really saved the country was the Emergencies Ministry. But the same fire protection in principle can not operate in a purely market relations.
There are areas of activity that are called life support systems: energy, transport, utilities. Other mechanisms operate there. For example, the efficiency of passenger traffic is determined not by the amount of money earned, but by how much a person’s transport fatigue, when he comes to work, and how it affects his performance.
All this suggests that Russia, having abandoned the planned economy in 90-s, fell into the trap of scholastic market mechanisms that do not take into account the particularities of the country and has been a hostage for a quarter of a century. For what?
The objective laws of the development of the country require the abandonment of the mossy market mechanism and the enslaving dogmas that were once imposed on us by the former editor of the Kommunist magazine Yegor Gaidar at the suggestion of American advisers.