According to some data, during the development of a promising weapon for replacing the Berdan rifle, it was proposed to abandon the traditional needle bayonet and use a cleaver. Nevertheless, supporters of waste solutions managed to defend the existing structure and "push through" its use in the new project. At the same time, it was proposed not only to borrow a ready-made blade, but to create a new version of it, refined taking into account the operating experience of the weapon and the requirements for the advanced rifle. Thus, from the point of view of general ideas, the Mosin rifle bayonet represented a further development of the “Berdanka” blade. It should be noted that in the future, some rifles did receive bayonets with knife-like blades, however this was a necessary measure.
The Red Army soldiers are studying bayonet fighting. Photo of Wikimedia Commons
The overall architecture of the first bayonet for the Trilinek corresponded to the structure of the bayonet for the Berdan rifle. At the same time, the design was refined in accordance with new calculations and experience with the use of existing weapons. As a result, the size and weight of the bayonet, as well as some of its elements, have changed. To fasten the bayonet on the rifle barrel, it was still suggested to use a tubular bushing with a clamp. However, the blade is now proposed to attach to the tube without any additional supports, providing removal from the barrel. To mount the bayonet no longer needed special emphasis on the barrel.
The tubular bushing had a thickened rear end and a shaped slot in the middle. With the help of the latter, the sleeve should be in contact with the front sight, and also ensure the correct interaction of the yoke with the barrel. Fixing the bayonet on the barrel was carried out using a metal clamp with a screw. For ease of use of the weapon, the relatively long ends of the clamp were brought to the same side as the blade. Installing the bayonet on the barrel was made as follows. It was necessary to put the sleeve on the muzzle of the barrel and turn the bayonet to the desired angle in a clockwise direction. In this case, the angle of rotation, depending on the series and manufacturer, fluctuated within 30-90 degrees. The blade of the mounted bayonet was to the right of the barrel.
The blade of the new bayonet had a four-sided needle shape. For greater rigidity on the side surfaces of the bayonet there were valleys. To sharpen, as before, it was proposed only the edge. At the same time, it had the shape of a screwdriver, which allowed not only attacking the enemy, but also using a bayonet as a screwdriver when servicing a weapon. The lack of sharpening on the side faces should have ensured the safe operation of the weapon with the bayonet attached.
Bayonets of the 1891 sample. Photo by Zemlyanka-bayonets.ru
The total length of the bayonet for the Trilinek was 500 mm - it was noticeably shorter than the rifle of Berdan rifle. The length of the tubular bushing was 70-72 mm with an inside diameter of 15 mm. The blade accounted for 430 mm from the total length of the product. Due to some technical and technological differences, the weight of the bayonets fluctuated within certain limits. Basically, this parameter ranged from 320-325 to 340-345.
It is known that the first batch of serial bayonets for the new rifle was ordered not to Russian industry, but to a foreign enterprise. In 1891, the order for the production of rifles with bayonets was issued to the French factory Chatelleraut. From 1892 to 1895, this enterprise supplied 509539 rifles to the Russian army, equipped with four-sided needle-bayonets. The bayonets of French production had some characteristic features, thanks to which, in particular, they were obtained more easily by later products made in Russia.
The most notable difference in the French bayonets was the construction of the blade's blades. These grooves began immediately after attaching the blade to the tube, while Russian bayonets had a significant gap between the anchorages and the valleys. Another difference was in the shape of the part connecting the blade and the sleeve. Due to the wider slot in the tube, the bayonet had to be rotated 90 ° during installation. Finally, there were noticeable differences in labeling: size of letters, location of stamps, etc.
Sleeve for fastening the bayonet. Photo Zemlyanka-bayonets.ru
From the point of view of the main features of the design, the Mosin rifle bayonet was a further development of the blade “Berdanki”. Such features have affected the guidelines for the use of weapons. New rifles, like the old ones, were prescribed to shoot with fixed bayonets, which made it possible to reduce the effect of the derivation during the flight of a bullet. Store and carry weapons also followed with a bayonet. To remove it was required only when traveling by rail or road. In all other situations, including during the battle, the bayonet was to be located on the rifle barrel.
The first three-line rifles and bayonets for them were produced in France, but later the production of these weapons was transferred to Russian enterprises. Weapons produced in Tula, Izhevsk and Sestroretsk. New domestic bayonets were produced in accordance with the project, but outwardly and in design they differed from weapons made by French industry.
Battle ends of bayonets, made in the form of a screwdriver. Photo Zemlyanka-bayonets.ru
For several decades, the bayonet for the Mosin rifle did not undergo any changes and, from a certain time, were issued only in Russia. Nevertheless, in the future, the list of countries-manufacturers added another item. The beginning of the First World War led to the need to increase the release of weapons, but the Russian industry could no longer cope with new orders. Because of this, there were contracts with US companies. The Remington and Westinghouse plants were supposed to produce about 2,5 a million rifles and the same number of bayonets. American-made weapons were similar to French, and also had similar characteristics.
Before the 1917 revolutions, Russia managed to get no more than 750-800 thousand American Trehlinek. Due to the change of power and the difficult economic situation, the Russian side could not pay for and pick up new batches of weapons, which caused problems with the status of these products. The problem was solved by the US government. Wishing to support factories that were experiencing economic difficulties, the state bought back the rifles produced but not delivered to the customer and transferred them to the National Guard. Some of these weapons also went to the army. Since the acceptance of "unclaimed" rifles and bayonets was carried out by the US military, these weapons received the appropriate marks.
Kabakov-Komaritsky construction bayonet fastenings. Photo Bayonet.lv
The development of the bayonet to the three-line rifle was not conducted until a certain time. New modifications of this weapon, including serial ones, appeared only after the creation of the Soviet Union. Over the next few decades, a number of modifications of the basic bayonet were created, differing from each other and from the original structure with some features and even purpose. Part of the bayonet modifications successfully passed all the necessary tests, and then entered the series.
The first new modification of the bayonet was training. In the twenties, a new design of the bayonet was proposed, which allowed the fighters, with the use of appropriate means of protection, to work out methods of bayonet combat in joint exercises. The training bayonet differed from the combat design of the "blade" and its mounts. The latter were made in the form of two metal plates with holes for two screws or rivets. Between the plates was placed a flexible plate simulator of the bayonet, fixed in place with screws / rivets. By its dimensions, the flexible blade simulator corresponded to a combat product. For safe use of the combat end of the simulator was bent and formed a loop.
According to some reports, the training flexible bayonets were made not only by arms factories, but also by sports equipment factories. In addition, there is information about the continuation of the production of such products until the sixties. Training bayonets could be used with both combat and training Mosin rifles. During the Great Patriotic War, the training bayonets were converted into combat ones: for this purpose, a blade blade of handicraft was installed in the mountings.
At the end of the twenties, work began on the modernization of the Trehlineyka, which led to the emergence of Mosin rifle arr. 1891 / 30 One of the areas of modernization was the creation of a new bayonet, which differs from the base one with more advanced fixings. Engineers Komaritsky and Kabakov created a new version of the system for installing a bayonet on a rifle, which included a spring latch and the earpiece of the gunsmith design Panshin.
From the basic version of the new bayonet differed in the design of the tubular sleeve. On its side surface there was a large slot connected to a small slot in the upper surface. Above the latter was a large frame of the frame. In fixing the blade located mechanisms latch. To install such a bayonet on the rifle, you had to put the tube on the barrel, running the front sight along the side slot, then turn the bayonet on 90 ° and put it on the latch. In this case, the blade appeared to the right of the trunk, and the open front sight - under the namushnikom.
Bayonet mount arr. 1891 / 30. Photo Bayonet.lv
In the near future, based on the design of Komaritsky-Kabakov, a new bayonet was developed, which was later used with a rifle mod. 1891 / 30 The design of the bayonet actually remained the same, but he lost his earbud. During the modernization, the rifle received its own defense of the flies, because of which it was possible to abandon the corresponding parts on the bayonet. In this configuration, the bayonet was mass-produced and delivered to the troops along with the upgraded rifle. It is noteworthy that the bayonets of the first series were completed with leather sheath, but later they were abandoned due to the lack of need for such products.
In 1943, a new version of the bayonet with original mounts was developed. Within the framework of the competition for the development of a promising bayonet, a design was proposed that allows both to dismantle the blade and fold it into the transport position. To do this, on the tubular sleeve installed several new parts. In the back of the bracket appeared with holes for screws or studs. On it, a blade with an elongated back part was supposed to be mounted. At the muzzle level, a movable latch with a ring for mounting on the barrel was provided. Thus, the new bayonet should be mounted on a rifle without the possibility of quick removal, however, it was possible to fold the blade. To move to the stowed position, the latch was moved forward and released the blade, allowing it to turn on the axis. Blade fit along the bed. Return to the fighting position was made by turning forward with the subsequent installation of the latch.
According to some reports, these bayonets were released in a relatively small series and were used only in tests. They did not go to the series, but they became the basis for a new bayonet, which, in turn, was issued in large batches and was used in the troops.
For certain reasons, the new folding bayonet began to be produced in the 1943 year, but in the documents it is listed as a bayonet arr. 1944 d. Such a blade option was designed for Mosin carbines and, above all, different in size. At the same time there were differences in the design. Thus, instead of a tube with a shaped slot, a metal clamp with a hinge for the blade, rigidly mounted on the trunk, was used. The latch for fixing on the barrel remains the same. The total length of such a folding bayonet was 380 mm with a blade length of 310 mm.
Folding bayonet with rigid fixed fasteners was used only on Mosin carbines mod. 1944 of the year. This weapon was produced serially and delivered to the Red Army. In addition, part of the stocks of carbines in the future transferred to friendly states. Also within the framework of international cooperation, the USSR transferred production documentation to third countries. Production of license carbines was conducted in Hungary, China and other countries.
During the war, improvised modifications of bayonets for the Mosin rifle, based on the available parts, were also created. Thus, in Leningrad, during the blockade (according to other data, in the field workshops) bayonets with knife-shaped blades were made. In this case, a triangular mount was installed on the tubular sleeve, to which the blade was welded. As the latter, blanks for SVT-40 rifle bayonets or other similar products could be used. Such blades had a one-sided sharpening and dale on both side surfaces. For obvious reasons, the dimensions and weight of such products differed markedly and depended on the “raw materials”.
An improvised makeshift bayonet made using a non-standard blade. Photo Bayonet.lv
Rifles si Mosin in various versions were made until the mid-sixties of the last century and for several decades were one of the main types of small arms of the Russian, and then the Red Army. During this time, several modifications were made to the weapon itself, as well as bayonets for it. Depending on the requirements of the troops, removable or folding bayonets of various designs were developed, and, if necessary, an improvised modification was even created, which could be produced in conditions of a shortage of resources. Being an integral element of the rifle complex, Mosin rifle bayonets were actively used by soldiers during several wars. Thus, the bayonets of this weapon are worthy of consideration and study no less than the rifles themselves.
On the materials of the sites:
A detailed review of the various bayonets for the “Trilinek” with photos: