Military Review

Baydan rifle bayonets

26
For a long time rifle weapon could not boast of high performance, which is why after several shots the armies had to switch to bayonet fighting. This feature of the wars of the past is perpetuated in the famous thesis of A.V. Suvorov: “the bullet is a fool, and the bayonet is a good fellow”. Later, more advanced weapons with enhanced characteristics appeared, which led to a noticeable reduction in the role of the bayonet in battle. In addition, a curious consequence of this process was the fact that when examining various types of small arms, due attention was not paid to bayonets. We will fill this gap and consider several samples of bayonets used by our army in different periods.


In 1869, the Berdan rifle was adopted by the Russian army. This weapon was actively used by the army for several decades and gave way only to the so-called. Russian three-line rifle arr. 1891 g. (Mosin rifle). A curious feature of the Bardanka was the use of a new needle bayonet, which later became the basis for several new designs used in the composition of later weapons. In addition, the Berdan rifles of various modifications had different bayonets.


Rifle Berdan №1. Figure Kalashnikov.ru


Infantry rifle Berdan arr. 1868 of the year was equipped with a triangular bayonet, which in the future was repeatedly refined to change the characteristics and ergonomics of the weapon. The bayonet was attached to the muzzle of the rifle with a tubular sleeve. This part had an L-shaped notch in the side surface, designed to secure the bayonet in the desired position with the help of the so-called. bayonet rack soldered to the trunk. In addition, on top of the cutout held metal clamp with a screw. With this device, the base of the bayonet was supposed to clamp the barrel and hold on to it due to the friction force.

On the bottom surface of the tubular sleeve there was a bayonet bearing, made in the form of a single L-shaped part with the blade itself. For greater rigidity and safe handling, the elongated blade of the bayonet had a triangular shape without sharpening on the edges. The rigidity of the structure was provided by the valleys in the side surfaces of the bayonet. A characteristic feature of the bayonet to the rifles of Berdan, both No. XXUMX and later No. XXUMX, was the sharpening of the blade. Its point was made in the form of a narrow sharp plate, which allowed the use of a bayonet as a screwdriver. This feature of the bayonet greatly simplified the maintenance of weapons with full or incomplete disassembly.


Rifle Berdan №2. Figure Kalashnikov.ru


According to reports, the Berdan rifle bayonet No.1 had a blade 20 inches long (510 mm) and weighed 1 pounds (just over 400 g). The bayonet was supposed to be kept on the rifle all the time, with the exception of operations for the maintenance of weapons. The shooting was also carried out with a closed bayonet. Due to the relatively large length and weight of the blade had a significant impact on the firing characteristics of the rifle.

In 1870, the so-called rifle Berdan №2. She had a number of important differences from the first modification, as well as an updated bayonet. The main features of the design of the bayonet remained the same, and the method of attachment has not changed, but the shape and location of the blade have been modified. Instead of a triangular shape, it was decided to use tetrahedral, which provided greater rigidity and strength. To compensate for the derivation that occurs during the flight of a bullet, it was decided to move the blade from under the barrel to its right side. Thus, the bayonet with the support was transferred to another part of the tubular sleeve, the design of which, however, has not changed. As before, the mount on the muzzle of the barrel was carried out using a clamp with a screw.


Baydan rifle bayonet. Photo Germans-medal.com


Dimensions, weight and shape of the bayonet of the updated design, despite all the changes, have not changed. All these parameters have already been worked out in the framework of the basic project, which is why it has become possible not to introduce fundamental innovations while maintaining acceptable characteristics. The requirement concerning the constant use of a rifle with a closed bayonet also remained the same. In this case, this requirement made it possible to increase the accuracy of the fire at the cost of some reduction in the usability of the rifle.

“Berdanka” №2 was produced in several versions: the troops received an infantry, dragoon and Cossack rifle, as well as a carbine. They differed from each other in various design features, including bayonets. Thus, a copy of the base bayonet from the No. XXNX rifle with a modified blade position was completed with an infantry rifle. Dragoon rifle differed from the infantry in smaller sizes, achieved, including, due to the design of the bayonet. The main difference of the latter was the reduced length of the support connecting the blade and the sleeve. Cossack rifle and carbine, in turn, were supplied to the troops without bayonets. The use of this device was not provided.


Bayonet from a different angle. Photo Zemlyanka-bayonets.ru


It is known about the existence of an alternative bayonet, used by some army units. Thus, Berdan’s rifles, equipped not with a four-sided needle bayonet, but with a cleaver, were delivered to the guards units. The cleaver had the same fastenings as the needle bayonet, but differed in blade shape and length. The rifle with a cleaver was half an inch longer than a gun with a needle bayonet, and also weighed more spools on the 60 spools (255 g).

The bayonet rifles Berdan two modifications well established itself during the operation in the army. Being a further development of previously existing ideas, already tested and tested in practice, such a bayonet made it possible to effectively solve the tasks. The rifle, equipped with a needle bayonet, was a versatile weapon, suitable for shooting at the enemy and using in combat with cold weapons. In the case of the latter, the long length of the weapon and the bayonet could give some advantage over the enemy with other weapons.

Baydan rifle bayonets
General view of the bayonet dragoon rifle. Photo Forum.guns.ru


In parallel with the creation of the rifle Berdan, as well as for some time after its adoption into service, among the army command there were disputes about the prospects for the bayonet. Some military leaders proposed to recycle infantry weapons on the model of foreign countries. By this time, the Prussian army began to abandon needle bayonets and switch to bayonets, which had some advantages over their predecessors. Several times the controversy reached its peak, however, supporters of the needle construction managed to defend its preservation. The adherents of the cleavers, nevertheless, succeeded in "pushing through" such bayonets for the guards units, but the rest of the army, as before, was supposed to use needle-blades.

Also at that time, the question of carrying and connecting bayonets was considered. According to the manuals on the use of weapons, the bayonet had to reside on the barrel of the weapon, both during transport and in combat. Nevertheless, it was proposed to change this order, based on considerations of ergonomics. It was proposed to transfer the weapon without a bayonet, which reduced its length and, as a result, affected the convenience, attaching the blade just before the battle. According to some reports, even Alexander II was a supporter of such changes. However, even the support of the authorities did not help this proposal. Proponents of the current approach to handling weapons were able to defend it.


Bayonet mount. Photo Forum.guns.ru


Rifles Berdan in the infantry and dragoon modification with bayonets of several structures used by the Russian army until the end of the XIX century. After the start of the transition to the “Trekhlineyka”, the write-off of the outdated “Berdanok” started, but a number of units continued to use these weapons over the next few years. The decommissioned rifles were sent to warehouses and became a reserve that could be used if necessary.

In the late eighties of the last century, work began again on the creation of promising weapons for infantry. In this regard, the proposals to switch to bayonets again sounded, but the command of the army chose to leave the existing structure, albeit in a modified form. In 1891, the Russian trilinear rifle was adopted, which was equipped with a four-sided needle bayonet, based on the corresponding unit of the Berdan rifle. This allowed needle-bayonets to maintain their place in the nomenclature of infantry weapons over the next few decades.


On the materials of the sites:
http://kalashnikov.ru/
http://ww1.milua.org/
http://opoccuu.com/
http://forum.guns.ru/
http://zemlyanka-bayonets.ru/
http://germans-medal.com/
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  1. alex-cn
    alex-cn 27 January 2016 06: 43
    +5
    In general, the bayonet of the 7-line infantry rifle remained with minor changes. But he made his adversaries no less fearful ... I read somewhere that in the West there were many yells about the "inhumanity" of the Russian bayonet. As if the war is generally humane ...
    1. gla172
      gla172 27 January 2016 06: 50
      +2
      Well, it was such that almost all the wounds were fatal or did not heal for a very long time, and the bayonet-fighting technique we had was peculiar ... under the rib ...
  2. gla172
    gla172 27 January 2016 06: 47
    +6
    Article plus. I did not know about this bayonet, I thought that they were identical with the "three-lined", but these "raised" ...
    1. remy
      remy 31 January 2016 23: 57
      0
      I wonder why in the army battle axes are not used. very comfortably
  3. Captain45
    Captain45 27 January 2016 08: 18
    17
    I did not evaluate the article because I do not quite agree with some points, for example:This feature of the wars of the past is immortalized in the famous thesis of A.V. Suvorova: “the bullet is a fool, and the bayonet is well done”
    "In the original, the words of A. V. Suvorov in" Science to Win "sound like this:" Take care of the bullet for three days, and sometimes for a whole campaign, as there is nowhere to take. Shoot rarely, but accurately; with a bayonet if it is strong. The bullet will be misled, bayonet will not cheat: a bullet is a fool, a bayonet is a fine fellow. "This fragment as a whole completely changes the understanding of the phrase that is usually illiterately snatched from the works of a commander. weapons forced to try to shoot accurately, the importance of accurate shooting was impossible to underestimate. But smooth-bore rifles with bag loading could not provide a high rate of fire, the required accuracy, and good command of a bayonet in battle was very important. This is emphasized by other Suvorov words: “One person can stab three, where four, and a hundred bullets fly into the air. "(c) Further:A characteristic feature of the bayonet to Berdan's rifles, both No. 1 and later No. 2, was the sharpening of the blade. Its tip was made in the form of a narrow sharp plate, which made it possible to use the bayonet as a screwdriver. This feature of the bayonet greatly simplified the maintenance of weapons with complete or incomplete disassembly. "A bayonet sharpened to a plane, and a standard rifle screwdriver (for example, the Berdan No. 2 system). It is unreasonable to think that such a bayonet is intended for unscrewing the screws. When you try to do this, the tip of the bayonet will be damaged and most likely the unscrewing one will get a serious injury to those who jumped bayonet "(c), unfortunately the photo was not inserted. It shows a bayonet for" Berdan No. 2 "and a special screwdriver for the rifle. Quotes are taken from the article "Russian Bayonet" by authors Alexei KLISHIN, Agop KAZAZYAN on http://topwar.ru/33946-russkiy-shtyk.html.I think the article more fully talks about bayonets. Although this is my purely personal opinion.
    1. An64
      An64 27 January 2016 14: 39
      +2
      photo unfortunately did not fit
      1. Captain45
        Captain45 27 January 2016 19: 35
        +1
        Thank you for the addition in the form of a photo hi
  4. thinker
    thinker 27 January 2016 08: 24
    +3
    The bayonet was attached to the muzzle of the rifle barrel using a tubular sleeve.

    Bayonet connection from the French baïonnette - bayonet, is widely used to indicate the bayonet is attached to the gun and comes from the name of the French city of Bayonne (French Bayonne), where according to legend the bayonet was first invented.
    I read somewhere that it is the trihedral bayonet that is called Russian.
  5. alex-cn
    alex-cn 27 January 2016 08: 36
    +2
    In many ways, I agree, but in the days of Suvorov "the bullet did not provide the required accuracy", in fact, it was possible to get into the system for 100 steps, and a single one only by accident, and of course the baggy loading. Very rarely, the infantry could fire two volleys before approaching the bayonet. So, the shootout was only a preliminary moment to hand-to-hand combat.
    But the sharpening "under the screwdriver" made it possible to avoid breaking off the end of the bayonet upon impact.
    But the question I didn’t figure out was bullets to smooth guns. In the 17th century, they were definitely chopped from a bar, and later they still poured or not. For the pistols, it’s like they were pouring, but for the infantry rifle?
    1. dedBoroded
      dedBoroded 27 January 2016 21: 17
      0
      if you unscrew the screws with a bayonet, you will either cripple your hands or spoil the finish. Your assumption about the purpose of sharpening is closer to the truth than others.
  6. igordok
    igordok 27 January 2016 10: 49
    +1
    I agree with many comments. Weapons must be judged based on the time of their creation. Looking from today I was "killed" by the name of the instruction. Description, assembly and disassembly SMALL 4_x linear rifles Berdan. The times when the caliber in the 4 line (10,75mm) was considered small, it is difficult for us to understand.
    About Krnka and Karle rifles - 15,2mm I am in the know.
    Description, assembly and disassembly of the small-caliber 4_x linear rifle of Berdan.pdf - https://yadi.sk/d/1qtby-0jb7ksk
    1. alex-cn
      alex-cn 27 January 2016 11: 30
      +2
      Against the background of calibers of 17,8 -15 mm, this is not surprising
      By the way, the Mosin rifle went to the troops, like a small-caliber.
  7. Grigorievich
    Grigorievich 27 January 2016 12: 25
    +4
    Berdan's rifles were bored and converted into hunting rifles, so all single-barreled rifles were called "Berdanks. And the four-sided bayonet survived to the SKS carbine. During my military service, I had a carbine my age of 1946 with such a bayonet." smile
    1. AUL
      AUL 27 January 2016 14: 38
      +3
      I also had a SCS of 1949 with a needle bayonet. They also said that needle bayonets were banned by the Geneva Convention as inhumane weapons - wounds from it heal poorly. As if a similar wound from a knife bayonet would be nicer ...
      1. uwzek
        uwzek 27 January 2016 17: 04
        +1
        Quote: AUL
        they said that needle bayonets were banned by the Geneva Convention as inhumane weapons - wounds from it heal poorly.

        It is unlikely that anyone would forbid a needle bayonet. Just on the bayonet-knife you can hang more functionality (saw, scissors for thorns, etc.) ...
        1. Kombrig
          Kombrig 27 January 2016 18: 59
          +1
          Quote: uwzek
          It’s unlikely that someone would forbid a needle bayonet


          The Geneva Convention recommended replacing the traditional bayonet strike in the stomach with a "more humane" strike in the chest .... It seems delirium, doesn't it? In general, no convention will prohibit cruelty in war ...
      2. RUSS
        RUSS 27 January 2016 22: 10
        0
        Quote: AUL
        They also said that needle bayonets were banned by the Geneva Convention as inhumane weapons - wounds from it heal poorly

        Yes, that's right it is forbidden.
    2. Captain45
      Captain45 27 January 2016 19: 41
      0
      Quote: Grigorievich
      Berdan's rifles were bored and converted into hunting rifles, so all single-barreled rifles were called "Berdanks.

      Perhaps I am mistaken, but as far as I heard, the Berdan rifles were not bored for hunting. Hunters for these rifles used 7,62x54 rifle cartridges from the Mosin rifle, but the muzzle was cut off from the cartridge case and the cartridge fit to the Berdan. Three-line cartridges were easier to get than relatives, so the craftsmen figured out how to use them.
    3. gross kaput
      gross kaput 27 January 2016 21: 49
      0
      If not a secret, what year was it?
  8. Kombrig
    Kombrig 27 January 2016 18: 51
    +1
    I read on some resource that for the refusal of the massive use of such an educational and training discipline as a bayonet fight, the USSR received some "nishtyaki" in the Olympic World Movement ... I can not say, maybe a duck .... Thank you, interesting article....
  9. bbss
    bbss 27 January 2016 20: 27
    +1
    Quote: Captain45
    Quote: Grigorievich
    Berdan's rifles were bored and converted into hunting rifles, so all single-barreled rifles were called "Berdanks.

    Perhaps I am mistaken, but as far as I heard, the Berdan rifles were not bored for hunting. Hunters for these rifles used 7,62x54 rifle cartridges from the Mosin rifle, but the muzzle was cut off from the cartridge case and the cartridge fit to the Berdan. Three-line cartridges were easier to get than relatives, so the craftsmen figured out how to use them.

    Yes, you are mistaken. The caliber of the Berdan rifle is 10,67. Where else to bore it? And berdanks were used for protection for several decades. At first, as a regular weapon of guard units, and then just as watchmen. Ammunition was relatively easy to reload at home. Black gunpowder, capsules (and most likely shells) could be purchased at hunter stores. Bullets were cast from lead in simple bullets. Bullets were planted in a sleeve on an oiled paper seal.
    Quote: Kombrig
    I read on some resource that for the refusal of the massive use of such an educational and training discipline as a bayonet fight, the USSR received some "nishtyaki" in the Olympic World Movement ... I can not say, maybe a duck .... Thank you, interesting article....

    And which of the modern rifles can be fenced with bayonets? My great-grandfather was a Life Guardsman. Under two meters tall. These are the soldiers' soldiers of the enemy on a bayonet just thrown over themselves. And now what? The bayonet seems to be outdated as a weapon. A multifunctional knife is more appropriate (the ability to attach to the barrel, in principle, can be preserved).
    1. Captain45
      Captain45 27 January 2016 20: 42
      0
      Quote: bbss
      Yes, you are mistaken. Caliber rifle Berdan 10,67. Where else to bore it?

      So I said that the rifles did not bore, and you yourself brought my comment
      Quote: bbss
      rifles "Berdan" were not bored for hunting. Hunters for these rifles used rifle cartridges 7,62x54 from the Mosin rifle, but the muzzle was cut off from the cartridge case and the cartridge was suitable for the "Berdan"
      1. bbss
        bbss 27 January 2016 21: 48
        0
        I don’t even dare to challenge your words. Then it’s not a cartridge, but a sleeve for reloading.
    2. Kombrig
      Kombrig 27 January 2016 20: 47
      +1
      Quote: bbss
      And which of the modern rifles can be fenced with bayonets?



      .... A Kalashnikov assault rifle with a bayonet attached, "If you use a bayonet!", "Hit it with the butt!", "Hit it with a shop!" Forgot, probably? hi Yes, still, the bayonet battle is very far from fencing (in its classical sense) .... Regards ...
      1. bbss
        bbss 27 January 2016 21: 52
        0
        I served urgent in air defense (with SCS). For him, the bayonet was quite out of place.
    3. gross kaput
      gross kaput 27 January 2016 22: 29
      +2
      Quote: bbss
      . Ammunition was relatively easy to reload at home. Black gunpowder, capsules (and most likely shells) could be purchased at hunter stores. Bullets were cast from lead in simple bullets. Bullets were planted in a sleeve on an oiled paper seal.

      No need to fantasize, from the beginning of the 20th century on ITOZ they serially converted into Berdan No. 2 rifles into hunting rifles (however, along with other obsolete designs but there were incomparably smaller ones) the barrel, the chamber, and, if necessary, depending on the cartridge, the receiver and the shutter of the canopy bore under hunting shotguns of 28, 32, 16 or 12 gauge while the last barrel was changed to a new one. Since 1908, Berdanks at ITOZ were altered exclusively in 12 gauges. In the USSR, the manufacture of such alterations was resumed from 1920, while mosquitoes with shot trunks were already used, though they were bored with a maximum of 20 caliber.
      Quote: Captain45
      Hunters for these rifles used rifle cartridges 7,62x54 from the Mosin rifle, but the muzzle was cut off at the cartridge case and the cartridge was suitable for the Berdanka

      Just do not cut it and if you roll out the sleeve of the sleeve, you get a poor but substitute for a rather scarce 32-gauge sleeve.
      1. alex-cn
        alex-cn 28 January 2016 04: 38
        0
        They did roughly the same thing with the Mauser, boring the barrel up to 32 caliber ..
        officially R-32A, it is the same "Frolovka", the kid was taught to shoot from it. Heavy - no return.
  10. gross kaput
    gross kaput 28 January 2016 10: 37
    +1
    Alex remade practically everything, if insanity doesn’t fail me, in 1928 a special audit commission conducted an inventory of arsenals, as a result of which the bulk of unusable, shot and outdated rifles, including foreign ones, went into remaking, still recaptured even from Arisaki 38, and rifles under smoky gunpowder were sent to alteration even without rejection, so Berdanki were the most common frolics, then there were mosquitoes and followed by Mausers - the one with a single-shot 20 gauge.
    1. alex-cn
      alex-cn 28 January 2016 18: 34
      0
      How! I saw only 32 and 28, I didn't even hear about 20. "Moi" was branded by the Germans for 42 years, and was also converted into a single charge
      Now I climbed a search engine, they write that Mauser and Mosin trunks were drilled only to 28, with large ones they completely redid the trunk.