Military Review

The atomic squire folds his armor. Part of 1

50
When once again in the press there are reports of the suspension of any equipment or the next scheduled technical inspections at the Rostov NPP, every time you think about national security when using atomic energy. Especially when Chernobyl today can become another bargaining chip for the machinations of the new authorities, who have received formidable hands as their inept hands. weapon, which was launched before World War II.


20-s. The beginning of atomic science

“The foundation of atomic science and technology was laid in 1922 by the organization of research institutes in Leningrad:

1. Radiological and Radiological Institute (Director MI Nemenov).

2. Physical-Technical Radiological Institute (later transformed into the Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology, LFTI). Director A.F. Ioffe

3. Radium Institute (Director VI Vernadsky).

In 1928, the Ukrainian Institute of Physics and Technology was also established (UPTI, Kharkiv). Director I.V. Obreimov

In 1932, at the initiative of Ioffe, a laboratory for nuclear physics was created at LFTI, in which the future scientific director of the Soviet atomic project Kurchatov and others worked under his leadership (data from the article "A brief essay on the development of the nuclear industry Rossim, V. Pichugin, director The central archive of the State Corporation Rosatom).

We can assume that since 1932, a period of intensive basic research has begun, which was the basis for the subsequent work on the atomic bomb.

However, these studies were criticized by both the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry and the Academy of Sciences.

The special session of the LFTI Academy of Sciences, held in 1936, was especially revealing, where young scientists were toughly “smashed” by the leading scientists for their studies, which, in the opinion of the aged academicians, were not only unpromising, but also harmful. On the basis of this meeting, very tough conclusions followed which the People's Commissariat accepted: according to his line academician Ioffe reprimanded the LFTI director for organizing such research. However, a similar situation took shape not only in this area: many principled and innovative ideas inevitably ran into an icebreaker of well-established concepts and norms that young scientists had yet to overcome. And they were eventually able to do this, having received strong support from almost all state institutions and institutions. But while there was a period of struggle in the yard, the sprouts were only looking for their own way and there was no consensus on the final choice of this atomic, no one in the world: scientists were only trying to find and understand the principle of a completely new, previously unknown nucleus.

If Ioffe got off with a reprimand, then the director of the UFTI, Lepunsky A.I. "In 1937, he was expelled from the party with the phrase" for the loss of vigilance "and removed from the post of director. 14 June 1938 was arrested and accused of helping "the enemies of the people, defending Landau LD, Shubnikov L.V., Weissberg A. and inviting foreign scientists F. Houtermans and F. Lange to work at LFTI." But already in August 1938, Leipunsky A.I. he was released from prison ”(quoted from the article“ A brief sketch of the development of the nuclear industry Rossim, V. Pichugin, director of the Central Archive of the State Corporation Rosatom).

Paradoxically, Leipunsky subsequently worked in the 9 NKVD administration, organized to work with German specialists invited to work in the atomic project. Soon, however, Leipunsky went to work at the laboratory “B” in Obninsk and became its supervisor.

In the pre-war period, in LFTI, Kurchatov and his research team conducted a large cycle of research on the interaction of neurons with the nuclei of various elements; many scientific articles were published in Soviet and foreign journals based on their results.

Nobel laureates "licked" the reports of Soviet nuclear scientists

“The experiments of G.N. Florova were of fundamental importance. and Rusinova L.I., employees of the Kurchatov laboratory, by measuring the number of secondary neutrons per fission of a uranium-235 nucleus. They found that this number was 3 + 1, which meant that a chain reaction of uranium-235 fission was possible. They made their measurements independently of Joliot, Halban and Kovarsky (France), Fermi and Andersen, Szilard and Zinn (USA), ”the book says AK Kruglova, “How the nuclear industry of the country was created” (Moscow, 1995).

Who ran faster than Kurchatov

During the experiments with short-lived radionuclides in LFTI, funny situations sometimes occurred. GN Flerov recalls Kurchatov's student, the author of letters to Stalin about the need to resume research on atomic energy: “The experimenter, after irradiating the foil, in order not to lose precious impulses, rushed to the counter: the lifetime of induced radioactivity was only about 20 seconds. Once, when meeting with Kurchatov, I happily said: “Do you know, Igor Vasilyevich, that I am running for a few seconds faster than you and had a better last experience!”

The race of atomic schools from different countries began in the literal and figurative sense and the one who was the leader won new defense priorities for his country.

“In 1934, Tamm I.E. developed the currently accepted notion of the nature of nuclear forces, indicating for the first time that they are the result of particle exchange. Frenkel Ya.I. introduced the drip kernel model (1936 year).

Kurchatov devoted a lot of time to building a cyclotron at LFTI, launching and setting up experiments at the first cyclotron in Europe at the Radium Institute, where a beam of accelerated protons was obtained in 1937. Studies in nuclear physics and radiochemistry were conducted at the Radium Institute under the supervision of Khlopin V.G.

Experimental work on the interaction of particles under the guidance of Leipunsky was widely developed at LFTI, in 1938 a large electrostatic generator was launched. In 1939-1940 Zeldovich Ya.B. and Khariton Yu.B. substantiated the possibility of a chain nuclear fission reaction in uranium, and Flerov G.N. and Petrzhak K.A. discovered the phenomenon of spontaneous fission of uranium nuclei, which is of fundamental importance for ensuring the safe start-up and operation of nuclear reactors ”(AK Kruglov,“ How the country's nuclear industry was created ”).

The list of publications on nuclear physics in the pre-war years contains more than 700 articles and reports at international conferences, among which the most representative are: Artsimovich LA, Kurchatov IV, Mysovsky LV. and others “Slow neutron absorption” (1935 year); Leipunsky A.I. "The absorption of slow neutrons at low temperatures" (1936 year); Landau LD “On the Statistical Theory of Nuclei” (1937 year); Frenkel Ya.I. “On the statistical theory of the decay of atomic nuclei” (1938 year); Pomeranchuk I.Ya. “Scattering of Slow Neutrons in a Crystalline Grid” (1938 year); Zeldovich Ya.B., Zysin Yu.A. “On the Theory of Nuclear Disorder” (1940 year); Zeldovich Ya.B., Khariton Yu.B. “On the chain decay of uranium under the action of slow neutrons. Kinetics of the chain decay of uranium "(1940 year); “Nuclear Fission Mechanism” (1941 year); Kurchatov I.V. “Heavy nucleus fission (1941 year); Landau L.D., Tamm I.E. “On the origin of nuclear forces” (1940 year), etc.

The results of theoretical and experimental research in nuclear physics were discussed at the neutron seminar at LFTI, as well as at all-Union meetings on nuclear physics that were held annually in the country.

“At various times, at the All-Union meetings, the following reports were heard:“ The chemical nature of fission products of heavy nuclei (Khlopin VG); “Nuclear fission (Leipunsky A.I.); “Experiments on the division of uranium (Rusinov L.I., Flerov G.N.); "On the question of the fission of uranium nuclei in the capture of slow neutrons" (Leipunsky AI, Maslov VA) and others.

At the end of February 1940, Kurchatov spoke at a meeting of the Physics and Mathematics Department of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR with an extensive report on the uranium problem. In his report, he, in particular, pointed to the need to expand the scope of research in nuclear physics, ”the USSR Nuclear Project: Documents and Materials (in 3 volumes, 1999 year) indicates.

The authority of Soviet science was so great that many leading foreign scientists came to the annual meetings on nuclear physics, who later became Nobel Prize winners: Niels Bor, Wolfgang Pauli, Joliot Curie, Werner Heisenberg and others. With many foreign scientists, Soviet colleagues established friendly business contacts.

All these discussions stimulated the conduct of new research in nuclear physics, increased their scientific level, and most importantly, helped lay the foundation for subsequent work on the creation of atomic weapons.

In search of uranium

In the pre-war period, Soviet geologists did not explore new uranium deposits, since “there was no demand for uranium,” at that time no one had imagined how much it would be needed in the near future. There was only a small mine with a pilot plant in Taboshary, near the city of Leninabad (in the mountains of Kyrgyzstan), which was subordinate to the People's Commissariat of the non-ferrous metallurgy and produced a small amount of radium. However, time set for the country the most difficult task of creating atomic weapons, and for its solution uranium was required.

Academicians Vernadsky V.I. and Khloponin V.G., not yet knowing the future needs for uranium, already in June 1940, a note was sent to the academician-secretary of the geological and geographical sciences department of the USSR Academy of Sciences, P.I. Stepanov, who said: “... urgent measures must be taken to speed up exploration and mining of uranium ores and the production of uranium from them. This is necessary so that by the time when the question of the technical use of intra-atomic energy is resolved, we have the necessary reserves of this precious source of energy. Meanwhile, in this respect, the situation in the USSR is currently extremely unfavorable. Uranium reserves, we absolutely do not have. This metal is currently extremely scarce. Its production is not adjusted. The explored powerful deposits of this metal on the territory of the Union are not yet known. The exploration of known deposits and the search for new ones are carried out at a rate that is completely insufficient and is not united by a common idea. Therefore, we ask the Department of Geological and Geographical Sciences to discuss the status of prospecting and exploration of uranium deposits, outline a plan for the deployment of these works and enter the Government with a draft of relevant measures. ”

In the autumn of 1940, it was decided to send to the main uranium deposits in Central Asia a brigade of the USSR Academy of Sciences under the leadership of Academician Fersman A.Ye. Eight people left for a long trip, among whom there was only one woman — Rozhanskaya EM, the brigade secretary. By the way, there were very few women in the Atomic Project. It is known that in 1944, the researcher of the State Research Institute Z.V. Ershova. Received the first ingot of uranium.

A natural question arose - how much uranium is needed to launch the first industrial nuclear reactor and how much will it be needed in the future. The director of LFTI, Academician Ioffe, spoke of the prospects for the development of uranium mining: “One can hardly expect any practical impact from the fission of uranium in the near future. Another thing is the study of this process ... Here it is necessary to expand the scope of work ... It’s too early to talk about the urgent creation of the uranium industry. ”

Another answer to this question was given by his student Kurchatov in a memorandum to Molotov V.M. on the work of Laboratory No. 2 for the first half of 1943 of the year: “In order to create a boiler of uranium metal and a mixture of uranium and graphite, it is necessary to accumulate 100 tons of uranium in the coming years. The explored reserves of this element in the USSR are estimated at 100-120 tons. Based on this, the GFCS has scheduled receipt of two tons of uranium in the 1943 year and 10 tons in the 1944 year and in subsequent years.

Even without being an expert in this matter, based on their figures, it can be concluded that the atomic bomb in the USSR could appear only after 10 years, unless the situation with exploration and development of new deposits changes.

A detailed description of the deposit in Tabosharas is provided in the certificate of V. Makhnev, Deputy Member of the State Treasury Department Beria L.P., on the status of work on the uranium problem from November 2 1944: “Exploration of uranium deposits. In the two years that have elapsed, due to the lack of attention and the poor material and technical equipment of the exploration parties, the exploration of uranium deposits almost did not budge. ”

According to the GARF (10208 Foundation), “Narkomtsvet had only a few enterprises in 1943 year. The mining of uranium ore was carried out: “the mining shop at the Taboshar deposit as part of 47 workers; the diligent artel in Maili-Su as part of 80-ti workers; a diligent artel in Uygurs as part of 23-ti workers. Ore was processed: Plant “B” (in Tabosharas) with a capacity of 4 tons of uranium salts per year; chemical workshop for ore processing in Leninabad; Experienced workshop at the Institute "Giredmet" for lumpy uranium.

In fact, in the 1944 year (for nine months), the Narkomtsvet mined 2370 tons of uranium ore, processed - 755 tons and produced uranium oxide - 1300 kilograms and metallic (lump) uranium - 280 kg. ”

Based on the note of Makhnev V.A., which was also prepared by the leaders of the NKVD, Zavenyagin A.P. and V. Chernyshev, the 8 Defense Committee of December 1944 of the year, adopted the expanded T-bill of the State Defense Committee No. 7102 “On measures to ensure the development of mining and processing of uranium ores”, containing 30 items of various assignments to the people's commissariats.

The resolution reflected almost all organizational issues related to the formation of uranium mining. First, the exploration and mining of uranium were transferred to the NKVD, mainly because it had specific capabilities, including the use of forced labor by prisoners.

Secondly, the deputy chief of the NKVD Zavenyagin AP he was appointed responsible in the NKVD for the organizational work on uranium.

"Thirdly, as part of the Central Camps Administration of Mining and Metallurgical Enterprises of the NKVD of the USSR, the Uranium Directorate of the Special NKVD of the USSR NKVD was established (data from the book" State Power of the USSR. Higher Authorities and Managers and Their Leaders ". 1923-1991. Historical -bibliographic directory).

Fourthly, a new uranium research institute, the “Institute of Special Metals of the NKVD” (Inspetsmet NKVD), was formed. Subsequently, this institute was named NII-9 and was subordinate to the First Main Directorate (PGU).

Inspetsmet and the plant for the production of uranium and uranium compounds, it was decided to place within the precincts of Moscow. The institute was indeed located at the VIEM, and the uranium plant was not built here.

Many government decrees were issued to expand the volume of geological exploration and the organization of mining enterprises, which was difficult in the conditions of military operations. The certificate of the Special Committee of the NKVD from 16 on April 1945, it was stated that "the total reserves of uranium oxide-oxide in all known deposits are 430 tons", of which 350 tons falls on the Taboshary deposit (combine No. 6).

Thus, by the beginning of the deployment of work on the Atomic Project, the situation with the provision of uranium to it was critical. Therefore, it is no coincidence that Makhnev V.A. 8 April 1945 sent Beria a note with a proposal to send to Germany to find out the characteristics of the Schmiedeberg uranium deposit (Upper Silesia) and to develop proposals for its use in order to obtain uranium ore.

The hard work of Soviet geologists also brought its long-awaited results.

Unique uranium deposits were discovered on the territory of the USSR. One of them is the sedimentary deposit of the Cretaceous (1954 year) with complex (uranium, phosphorus, rare earth elements and others) ores in Paleogene clays, enriched with bone detritus, on the Mangyshlak peninsula not far from the city of Shevchenko (now Aktau - Republic of Kazakhstan). On the basis of this field, the Pre-Caspian Mining and Metallurgical Combine and Mangyshlak Power Plant with a BN-350 fast neutron reactor and desalination plants for the power supply of a nearby city were created.

“Many millions of years ago the ocean was here, part of which was eventually separated by a land area and turned into an inland sea. It is known that uranium was contained in sea water, which was absorbed by marine fish and deposited in their bones. Then the whole sea gradually dried up, all the fish died, forming a multi-kilometer layer of bone fish remains containing uranium. When we went down to the bottom of the quarry, we saw a layer of black ore 1-1,2 meters thick. A walking excavator loaded the ore into powerful 40-ton dump trucks that brought it to the surface. The ore was transferred to railway train stations and delivered to the processing plant. We were shown large vertebrae and teeth of prehistoric sharks, given to hold them in their hands, although they did have some alpha activity. Then we climbed into the cab of the operator-operator and observed the process of the work of the walking rotary excavator. For me, who had in his hands uranium blocks of industrial reactors, clad in aluminum cladding, everything that was seen was of exceptional interest and left unforgettable impressions, ”recalls Dr. Kiselev GV, these days.

The first uranium mining enterprise in the USSR was the Combine No. XXUMX, which was later re-installed at the Leninabad Mining and Chemical Combine (the city of Chkalovsk, Tajik SSR). Then a mining and chemical mine administration was established in the city of Lermontov in the North Caucasus and the Eastern Mining and Processing Plant (the city of Zhovti Vody of the Dnieper Region of the Ukrainian SSR) on the basis of the Pervomaisky and Zheltorechensky iron-uranium deposits. On the basis of the newly discovered uranium deposits, subsequently, large mining and concentration and mining and chemical plants were built: the Kyrgyz mining plant on the basis of the Taravaksky coal and uranium deposit, the Tselinny plant in northern Kazakhstan (Stepnogorsk), Navoi in Western Uzbekistan, already mentioned Prikaspiysky, Priargunsky in Transbaikalia and others. Torium deposits in the Murmansk, Sverdlovsk, Chita regions and Krasnoyarsk Krai were explored and developed.

The atomic squire folds his armor. Part of 1


Two ways to create an atomic bomb

The time from 28 September 1942 of the year (this is the date of the first GKO ordinance on uranium) to August 1945 of the year when the GKO Decree organized the atomic bomb creation work, can be considered the second preparatory period, which can be called the period of conceptual research.

Indeed, during this period, Kurchatov and his "team" conducted many computational studies to determine the direction of further work on the creation of the atomic bomb. In addition to their own data, they also used information about foreign studies obtained by our intelligence.

Based on all the information, two main directions were chosen. The first is to obtain plutonium as the main fissile material for a bomb. The second is the production of highly enriched uranium for the bomb, as well as uranium-233 as a backup option.

At this time, Kurchatov gained access to confidential information about work abroad on atomic topics produced by our intelligence. He familiarized himself with these materials, made conclusions about utility, prepared questions for residents. Foreign information allowed Kurchatov to determine those scientific directions that needed to be developed, as well as those that needed further verification. It should be emphasized that literally all calculations and experiments were carried out by Soviet experts. Sometimes they did not know that there were any foreign data. However, it cannot be denied that foreign information contributed to the solution of the problem of the early creation of an atomic bomb.

Triumvirate created by Stalin in 1945

In August, 1945, the Soviet government was forced to take decisive organizational measures to accelerate the creation of its own nuclear weapons in connection with the US atomic bombings of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki (August 9).

The organizational forms of this activity were developed during the Great Patriotic War, when, along with state authorities, various committees were formed with special powers, special commissioners were appointed. For example, the State Defense Committee (GKO) chaired by the Supreme Commander Stalin. When the task arose of speeding up the creation of a national atomic bomb, Stalin did the same, deciding to organize a Special Committee at the State Defense Committee headed by Beria and the First Main Directorate (PGU) under the leadership of the former People's Commissar for Ammunition Vannikov B.L.



It should be noted that the candidacy of Mikhail Georgievich Pervukhin fit all characteristics more than Beria. As stated above, it was Stalin who appointed Pervukhina together with Kaftanov S.V. in 1942 year. senior officials in government for work on the use of nuclear fission energy for military purposes.

“Mikhail Pervukhin graduated from the G.V. Moscow Institute of National Economy in 1929 year. Plekhanov, worked as an engineer at Mosenergo, then as a senior engineer, shop manager, director of Kashirskaya GRES, and from 1938 onwards - Deputy People's Commissar of Heavy Industry, from January 1939 onwards - People's Commissar of Power Plants and Electrical Industry, from May 1940 onwards - Deputy Chairman of Council of People's Commissars. In 1942, he was appointed part-time Commissar of the Chemical Industry. Subsequently, he was appointed deputy head of the PGU "(data from the" State Power of the USSR. Supreme authorities and management and their leaders. "1923-1991. Historical and bibliographic reference).

“Boris Lvovich Vannikov, a participant in the civil war, a party member from 1919, a graduate of the Moscow Higher Technical School; From 1933 to 1936 he worked as director of the Tula Arms Plant, from December 1937 he was appointed Deputy Commissar of the Defense Industry, and from January 1939 he was Commissar of Arms of the USSR. In early June, 1941 was removed from office, arrested and was in the NKVD internal prison after a dispute with Zhdanov and Stalin about the production of artillery weapons. After the start of the war, Stalin returned him to the People's Commissariat for the post of Deputy People's Commissar of Weapons. Vannikov was handed a certificate in which it was stated that he was arrested for a misunderstanding and is considered to be fully rehabilitated. At the beginning of 1942, he was reappointed as Commissar of Ammunition "(data from" State Power of the USSR. Higher Authorities and Administrations and Their Leaders. "1923-1991. Historical Bibliography).

However, Stalin decided to appoint Beria as Chairman of the Special Committee and, therefore, made him responsible for solving the atomic problem in the country. It should be noted that Beria, who had headed the NKVD since 1939 and was a member of the State Defense Committee of the USSR since 1941, knew the work of the military-industrial complex well. Uh

Interesting memories left Vannikov in his book "At the origins of the Soviet atomic weapons." He spoke about a meeting with Stalin when discussing the structure of managing atomic affairs, when it was decided to appoint him deputy head of the Special Committee, head of the PGU and chairman of the technical council of the Special Committee: "It was a truly productive appointment for me - three posts at once" (and even !) At the same time, Vannikova was not dismissed from the post of the People's Commissar of Munitions, which was done later.

Zavenyagin was appointed First Deputy Head of the Perm State University, who also remained in the post of Deputy Commissar of the NKVD of the USSR; He was charged with overseeing the mining and processing of uranium ore and the construction of nuclear facilities. Stalin's choice of Vannikov, Zavenyagin and Pervukhin, who have extensive experience in organizing on a national scale during the war, and their appointment as PSU leaders proved very successful, their subsequent activities allowed to solve the task of creating nuclear weapons.

TK on the first aerial bomb

So, in May 1946 of the year, the technical task “On the body of the high-explosive aerial bomb” was prepared. The 1 item of this TZ was as follows: “The body of the bombs must be adapted for mounting inside its charge, enclosed in a solid metal shell. The weight of the charge with the shell is two tons, the diameter of the charge in the shell is 1,3 meters. The mount must be non-permanent, i.e. on bolts or locks, not on welding.

Item 2. The space inside the case on both sides of the charge should be saved as much as possible to fill the explosive.

Item 3. The bomb should be designed for lifting on a heavy bomber.
Independent suspension systems should be developed, both inside the hatches (if dimensions allow ensuring a stable flight) and outside.

Item 4. Preservation of the hull shape when entering the ground is not necessary.

Item 5. The bomb must be supplied in the head part with two independently operating fuses of instant action.

Item 6. In the side wall of the housing of the high-explosive aerial bomb against the center of charge, a circular opening with a diameter of 120 mm should open and close hermetically.

Item 7. The plane takes one bomb of the specified type.

Signature - Yu. Khariton.

To be continued ...
Author:
50 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 27 January 2016 06: 53
    +1
    "It is a blatant lie when it is said that American developments helped create the atomic bomb for the Soviet Union."
    An interesting statement.))) Why didn’t it help?)))
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 27 January 2016 07: 04
      +5
      Quote: Nagaibak
      "It is a blatant lie when it is said that American developments helped create the atomic bomb for the Soviet Union."

      In this article, your undoubtedly wise statement was not found.
      1. kig
        kig 27 January 2016 08: 09
        +2
        This phrase is present on the first page of the journal and disappears if you open the article. Kind of weird.
        1. jjj
          jjj 27 January 2016 15: 19
          +1
          Ours made two bombs: ours and according to American developments. They tested and realized that the Americans were following the wrong path. We have nuclear weapons at 100 percent of our development
      2. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 27 January 2016 17: 46
        0
        = V.ic "In this article your undoubtedly wise statement is not found."
        Read carefully.
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 27 January 2016 20: 14
          +3
          Quote: Nagaibak
          = V.ic "In this article your undoubtedly wise statement is not found." Read carefully.

          Copy and paste the text of this article into "Notepad", or in "Word" go to the "Find" function / Ctrl + F /, copy / Ctrl + C / a couple of words from the contested phrase and paste into the search box / Ctrl + V / and click the "find next" button. Then admire the result. I wish you success!
    2. LvKiller
      LvKiller 27 January 2016 08: 23
      -2
      The United States was the last to join the "nuclear race." In fact, in 1940 they had nothing at all. They helped, oga.
      1. Shadowcat
        Shadowcat 27 January 2016 08: 54
        10
        But, according to open and declassified, sources are not sickly pulled so. First, undertaking with the British to develop a project and politely turning them after, collecting a not-so-weak set of outstanding minds who fled and were taken out (and it seems to me not always voluntarily) from flaming Europe. Plus, we add here sabotage and simply taking root from the defeated Germany equipment and specialists working on the nuclear project of the Nazis.
        Yes, intelligence helped, but I don’t think that she played a decisive factor. Give the studiosus a drawing and not the fact that he will understand something.
    3. goose
      goose 27 January 2016 12: 24
      +1
      Quote: Nagaibak
      An interesting statement.))) Why didn’t it help?)))

      If you read the list of works in detail, you would know that you did not help.
      The main problem at the end of the war was obtaining enough uranium, and in this sense, the seizure of accumulated ore in the Czech Republic in 1945 advanced the USSR in the direction of creating a bomb much further than all American physicists combined. I want to remind you that after conducting experiments at the first reactor, which gave specific knowledge about the cross section of nuclear reactions, the only thing that delayed the creation of a nuclear bomb was a lack of clean isotope-enriched nuclear materials. The creation of the first reactor was also delayed by a shortage of uranium oxide and pure graphite for moderators. All these slowing factors were solved with sufficient funding; they did not require a special scientific school.
      1. aiw
        aiw 27 January 2016 13: 53
        +3
        In addition to producing fissile material, it was generally necessary to develop a bomb design, which required a world-class scientific school. Or do you think the bomb is a piece of enriched uranium to which you only need to bring a match?
        1. zenion
          zenion 27 January 2016 15: 28
          +4
          In your opinion, of course, everything was stolen from the United States, even Russia was slammed from them.
        2. Vadim237
          Vadim237 27 January 2016 22: 30
          -1
          The design of the first tested atomic, uranium bomb Baby was quite complicated.
  2. qwert
    qwert 27 January 2016 06: 58
    14
    About the fact that our bomb was created thanks to intelligence, J. Alferov spoke best of all. He recalled that several dozen English scientists were involved in the Manhattan project, many of whom were not just participants, but headed scientific departments and units involved in the creation of the American bomb. Those. had such access to information that intelligence could only dream of. Arriving in Britain after the war, they began to create an English bomb, and it took them more time to create a nuclear weapon than the USSR. So draw conclusions
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 27 January 2016 08: 27
      +1
      Quote: qwert
      About the fact that our bomb was created thanks to intelligence, J. Alferov spoke best of all. He recalled that several dozen English scientists were involved in the Manhattan project, many of whom were not just participants, but headed scientific departments and units involved in the creation of the American bomb. Those. had such access to information that intelligence could only dream of. Arriving in Britain after the war, they began to create an English bomb, and it took them more time to create a nuclear weapon than the USSR. So draw conclusions


      The creation of nuclear weapons in the USSR was a matter of survival. And it was built despite the sacrifice and expense. The British had nowhere in particular to rush, they were under the American "nuclear umbrella" and could afford to do without emergency measures. And it is difficult to imagine that the Soviet Union destroyed by the war would attack Britain in the 40-50s.
    2. Scraptor
      Scraptor 30 January 2016 02: 40
      -2
      The funny thing is that Soviet scientists participated in it too ...
      Because Nazi Germany in this type of WMD was also significantly ahead of everyone.
  3. V.ic
    V.ic 27 January 2016 06: 59
    +8
    Foreign information allowed Kurchatov to identify those scientific areas that needed to be developed, as well as those that needed additional verification. It should be emphasized that literally all calculations and experiments were carried out by Soviet specialists. Author Polina Efimova

    Like at school: I solved the problem, looked at the section with the answers, it came together ... ufff! Pre-war scientific groundwork = that's good! However, for the production of an atomic bomb it was necessary to create an industry, and a war ... Therefore, the "product" was blown up later. In addition, in the "Manhattan Project", the then ally employed about 130 thousand people and was spent under the then two billion dollars, so they were the first.
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 27 January 2016 08: 22
      +7
      Quote: V.ic
      Like at school: I solved the problem, looked at the section with the answers, it came together ... ufff! Pre-war scientific groundwork = that's good! However, for the production of an atomic bomb it was necessary to create an industry, and a war ... Therefore, the "product" was blown up later. In addition, in the "Manhattan Project", the then ally employed about 130 thousand people and was spent under the then two billion dollars, so they were the first.


      Material and technical resources are of course important, but do not forget that the Americans had at their disposal most of the accumulated reserves of uranium ore. In the 1940 year, shortly before the fall of France, uranium mined in the Belgian Congo on two transport vessels was transported to America.

      Without challenging the theoretical research and development of Soviet physicists, it should nevertheless be said that the information obtained by Soviet intelligence seriously accelerated the development of the atomic bomb in the USSR. Structurally, the first American and Soviet plutonium bombs were very close, which was reflected even in their appearance.

      In the Soviet bomb, the principle of the functioning of the actuator and automation was repeated, but for this, components and equipment of domestic design were used. Due to the fact that the results and methods of American tests were at the disposal of Soviet specialists, many mistakes were avoided in the USSR and more information was obtained.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 30 January 2016 02: 42
        -3
        And how do you know all this winked laughing
  4. kig
    kig 27 January 2016 08: 11
    0
    Intelligence, of course, helped, and primarily helped save time. About this, even Wikipedia writes =))
    1. LvKiller
      LvKiller 27 January 2016 08: 26
      +1
      True, intelligence helped. In fact, both bombs dropped on Japan were German. Groves clearly states in his memoirs that by 1943 there was not a single gram of fissile material in the USA. About 100 tons of uranium and an enormous number of specialists were exported from Germany, because Reich had (for a minute) six nuclear programs... And then "at the pike's will, at my will." Actually, dear, the US nuclear program is the same level of disgrace as the "lunar". And still waiting for her researcher.
      1. goose
        goose 27 January 2016 12: 38
        +4
        Do not underestimate the American program, it was launched at the beginning of the war, and the money spent was as much as the cost of 100 aircraft carriers. They went in two ways, uranium and thorium, and both brought to the technological end. A gigantic uranium mining and enrichment industry was created, as well as breeders for producing plutonium. Particular attention is paid to the diffusion method of enrichment of weapons-grade uranium, an extremely capricious and expensive method that has been widely used in the United States for many years.
      2. aiw
        aiw 27 January 2016 13: 48
        +4
        Actually, German experts were not exported to the United States but went there themselves, thanks to Hitler and Co. for the climate in the country and anti-Semitism. After the Nazis, German physics is still in the pen.

        The Reich’s nuclear programs are laughter and sin, and in none of its nuclear programs did the Reich come close to creating nuclear weapons — neither in producing active material, nor in design. Germany was physically unable to create nuclear weapons, there was not enough industrial potential and resources.

        The rest is too lazy to comment.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 30 January 2016 02: 15
          0
          German physics such as the V-2 flew
          Quote: aiw
          The Reich’s nuclear programs are laughter and sin, and in none of its nuclear programs did the Reich come close to creating nuclear weapons — neither in producing active material, nor in design. Germany was physically unable to create nuclear weapons, there was not enough industrial potential and resources.

          and how do you think it was not laziness? bully wassat

          German centrifuges entered the USSR, whose program before the occupation of East Germany simply stood still due to the lack of GDR-oranium raw materials
          1. aiw
            aiw 31 January 2016 21: 41
            0
            Do not confuse wet and salty. Vau-2 is nevertheless closer to engineering tasks, and the creation of nuclear weapons required first of all the solution of fundamental physical problems.

            What relation does uranium mining in 1945-1950 have to the Reich’s nuclear program alone?
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 1 February 2016 10: 09
              0
              What other on-duty phrases are taught in your security madhouse?

              What are the fundamental physical problems, for example, bringing the two hemispheres together as compared with the problems of getting a rocket over 300 km?

              Such that in the finished mine economy it was mined exactly the same until 1945, they weren’t made in a new way.
              And why is it that the German technology bypassed the centrifuge separation of isotopes in the USSR? laughing
              1. aiw
                aiw 1 February 2016 11: 36
                +1
                Mdya ... Would you at least get acquainted with the device of the first bombs before posting garbage here. From a simple reduction of the two hemispheres there will be a very weak explosion, the bulk of the fissile material simply will not have time to react. I'm not talking about such nonsense as estimating the size of the hemispheres. Do you even know a little bit of physics in high school?

                The accuracy of the V-2 was far from ice, London just was a very big city - it was hard to miss. Well, with the military. All these fau were absolutely senseless during WW2. What fundamentally new, unexplored physical phenomena were used in the work of FAU-2?

                > Such that in the finished mine facility it was mined in the same way until 1945, they were not made on a new one.

                Mdya ... i.e. after the attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, all the interested countries leading nuclear projects did not make new mines for uranium mining?

                > And why the fact that the technology for centrifugal isotope separation in the USSR is used by the German side?

                The technology for centrifugal separation in the USSR was made AFTER the war with the PARTICIPATION of "captured" German specialists at the INITIAL STAGE - during the war Germany did not have this technology.
                1. Scraptor
                  Scraptor 1 February 2016 17: 15
                  0
                  With an WMD device? From open sources? Continue to rave in series? laughing

                  Already and V-2 immediately became bad? bully She, too, does not go to London at subsonic speed, so that everything can react quickly there crying

                  They didn’t do it in Germany, everything is pitted with them there.

                  After the war, centrifugal technology in the USSR was repeated, therefore far from immediately because the Germans at their disposal sabotaged or did not know.
                  1. aiw
                    aiw 1 February 2016 17: 31
                    0
                    The design of the first bombs is covered in open print in sufficient detail, Google to help. You rave here.

                    No bomb has ever used the "convergence" of two subcritical hemispheres to initiate an explosion, this is pointless. In the fat man and RDS-1, the hemispheres have ALREADY been brought together (during installation), the only reason the nucleus was made of two hemispheres was to install a neutron initiator inside. According to legend, in RDS-1 the hemispheres were made with a small chamfer, this was revealed only during installation before testing, and a slight panic arose - it was not clear how the chamfer would affect the compression symmetry. Zeldovich saved the situation.

                    V-2 with military has never been good, evaluate the costs of its development and production and the damage caused to it.

                    Centrifuge technology could not be REPEATED after the war, because BEFORE work began in the USSR, it simply WASN’T IN THE WORLD, by the way, the Americans didn’t have it either before the tests began.

                    Do not smack nonsense, it hurts.
                    1. Scraptor
                      Scraptor 1 February 2016 18: 03
                      0
                      For you it is imperceptible ... and the ISIS 3-D printer will not drive?
                      Apparently one rescuer-Zeldovich was not aware of why a chamfer is needed on the ship. laughing

                      V-2 justified itself even with conventional warheads (and not for example chemical, nuclear, or radiological). With these weapons, even within the framework of such limited retaliation for the bombing, more than 1940 were killed (because they didn’t aim at civilians in 1940), and at the same time the losses of their planes and pilots were zero.

                      Could you somehow justify your "big letters" because you inspire mediocre ... bully The Americans could not repeat this German technology at all.
                      1. aiw
                        aiw 1 February 2016 18: 28
                        0
                        Chamfer on a ship? Is killing of civilians a military necessity?

                        Baby girl, go to school. Well, or to the doctor - where you usually hang out there. Bai.
                      2. Scraptor
                        Scraptor 1 February 2016 19: 02
                        0
                        Quote: aiw
                        Chamfer on a ship? Is killing of civilians a military necessity?

                        Baby girl, go to school. Well, or to the doctor - where you usually hang out there. Bai.


                        Well, or the ropes tongue

                        At school, you skipped history, or studied poorly in the post-Soviet or American in general.
                        What is dehousing google - this word is not German, English.

                        Hiroshima at the same time ...

                        You were first sent to the doctor, and it is in your interests. At the same time, he will teach you how to wear a hat laughing
                  2. aiw
                    aiw 1 February 2016 17: 58
                    -1
                    And you still didn’t answer what fundamental physical problems were solved during the creation of fau2. Reading about supersonic sounds pretty ridiculous - bullets and shells flew to the target in supersonic even from the 19th century. You chose a very unfortunate example to demonstrate the achievements of German physics in the times of WW2.

                    If only Lenard would be remembered, it would be clear who you are and what you are, and so make an impression of just a balabol who does not even know the basics of the topic under discussion.
                    1. Scraptor
                      Scraptor 1 February 2016 18: 30
                      0
                      You still don’t understand - what are the fundamental physical problems in nuclear? And engineering (but not technological) V-2 is much more complicated ... This is about the basics.
                      The Germans did not have any technological problems with isotope separation.
          2. The comment was deleted.
  5. Old26
    Old26 27 January 2016 08: 31
    +2
    The announcement of an article on the first page of "Home" is completely wild. Of course, American developments helped in the creation of our atomic bomb. They helped, first of all, by allowing them to save time, to focus their efforts on secondary, sometimes dead-end solutions, which in the absence of information would have to be worked out. And no one can question the pre-war merits of nuclear scientists, the discoveries they made. But the creation of a nuclear bomb is not only pure physics, it is also a whole complex of problems and solutions.
    1. sa-ag
      sa-ag 27 January 2016 10: 49
      0
      Quote: Old26
      The announcement of an article on the first page of "Home" is completely wild.

      Yeah, cheers patriotism is in full swing
      "... A word to his student and follower academician E. N. Avrorin:

      "As you know, during the first nuclear explosion in the USSR, a nuclear charge was used, copied from the American one based on materials received from Klaus Fuchs. But already in the second test in the atomic charge, the ideas of the junior researcher EI Zababakhin were used.



      For more details see: http://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/703/ (Science and Life, FROM THE SOKHI TO THE NUCLEAR BATTLE) "
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 30 January 2016 02: 44
        -1
        Do you both know this for sure? Were admitted to the relevant state secrets?
        1. aiw
          aiw 31 January 2016 21: 42
          0
          This is not the subject of state secrets.
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 1 February 2016 10: 03
            -1
            Were are you from it do you know bully
            1. aiw
              aiw 1 February 2016 11: 39
              +1
              From the open press and the memories of the participants. In addition, my education allows me to verify this information, and I work in a place that at one time was most relevant to the creation of nuclear weapons.

              And here you are forced to fence conspiracy theories.
              1. Scraptor
                Scraptor 1 February 2016 17: 15
                0
                That is from the newspapers? laughing And many "walls tell"? wassat
                About conspiracy theories usually bleed or bark those who participate in them. bully
                1. aiw
                  aiw 1 February 2016 17: 44
                  0
                  You bleat something here, zanchit you participate in this?

                  There are a bunch of memoirs of the direct participants in the events from all sides, there are quite official summaries of declassified documents, but of course you get acquainted with these materials.

                  Fu to be like that.
                  1. Scraptor
                    Scraptor 1 February 2016 18: 10
                    0
                    Actually, it’s seen by you ...

                    Which are not subscribed?

                    Go to the doctor, practical wassat
                    1. aiw
                      aiw 1 February 2016 18: 18
                      0
                      Which are declassified.

                      IAAndryushin, AKChernyshev, Yu.A. Yudin "Taming the nucleus - pages of the history of nuclear weapons and nuclear infrastructure of the USSR", Sarov, Saransk, Printing house "Red October" 2003

                      Yu.K. Zavalishin "Creation of the nuclear weapons industry" Sarov
                      Saransk Printing house "Red October" 2007

                      Groves "Now You Can Tell About It"

                      Jung "Brighter than a Thousand Suns"

                      "Mission Alsos" (forgot the author)

                      Laura Fermi "Atoms in Our Home"

                      and many others. Yes, at least check out Wiki.

                      But you believe yourself further, why strain and read something. You should also wear a foil hat.
                      1. Scraptor
                        Scraptor 1 February 2016 18: 31
                        0
                        Have you already translated into Arabic or Persian? laughing
    2. goose
      goose 27 January 2016 12: 39
      +3
      Exactly, no one threw the USSR 500 tons of purified uranium ore.
  6. Baloo
    Baloo 27 January 2016 10: 51
    +1
    Why do they write so little about Kapitsa Sr.? After all, the project manager for the hydrogen bomb was Kapitsa, and Sakharov was only a researcher who completed the task in a narrow section. All the same, Kapitza is not given enough attention and respect.
    For the liberal, Sakharov is a hero, but what is his feat? While this not quite adequate academician crowed against the USSR, others, which we will never know about, strengthened the defense and saved the country from the Macington macaques.
    1. Fat
      Fat 27 January 2016 12: 15
      +3
      Quote: Balu
      While this not quite adequate academician crowed against the USSR, others, which we will never know about, strengthened the defense and saved the country from the Macington macaques.

      No need to run "ahead of the locomotive". This article is the first part of a future series. hi Sakharov ... he was still a "wolf" put forward such ideas for the destruction of the USA that even now you are surprised, ahead of his time, so to speak.
    2. aiw
      aiw 27 January 2016 13: 42
      +4
      Google "Sakharov's puff" for example. Sakharov was one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century, and made a huge contribution to the development of nuclear weapons in the USSR.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 30 January 2016 02: 36
        0
        "puff" is so brilliant ... wassat
    3. Alex
      Alex 27 January 2016 18: 06
      +3
      Quote: Balu
      Why do they write so little about Kapitsa Sr.? After all, the project manager for the hydrogen bomb was Kapitsa,

      As far as I know, P.L. Kapitsa (senior) was involved in the nuclear project only in 1945, but his work plan was not accepted (he was good or bad - I don’t know, maybe he was more right than the others), and in 1946 he left the project. He was to oversee the project of low-temperature separation of uranium isotopes.

      P.L. Kapitsa was an unquestioned authority in the field of low and ultra-low temperature physics (liquid helium, superfluidity) and, not surprisingly, in the field of strong magnetic fields to hold high-temperature plasma (thermonuclear and other things near it). Indeed, an alloy of ice and flame.
  7. thinker
    thinker 27 January 2016 11: 17
    +1
    There was only a small mine with a pilot plant in Taboshary, not far from the city of Leninabad (in the mountains of Kyrgyzstan) ...

    Taboshar - translated from the Persian language as a blessed place.
    This is the north of Tajikistan, in the Tien Shan mountains.
  8. Fat
    Fat 27 January 2016 11: 41
    +3
    "In October 1940, employees of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, VA Maslov and VS Shpinel filed a secret application for an invention" On the use of uranium as an explosive and poisonous substance. "The problem of creating a supercritical mass of uranium at the required time it was proposed to solve the following way: to fill a vessel with uranium, "divided by partitions impermeable to neutrons so that in each separate isolated volume - a section - an amount of uranium less than the critical one could fit. After filling such a vessel, the walls are removed with the help of an explosion and, as a result, a mass of uranium is available that is much larger than the critical one. This will lead to the instant occurrence of a uranium explosion. "The scheme of the uranium charge proposed by the authors was in principle not workable, since it is impossible to create walls in acceptable dimensions that are" impermeable to neutrons. "However, the value of the authors' proposal was great, since this scheme can be considered the first in our country, a proposal discussed at the official level on the construction of a nuclear bomb itself. " - Journal "Dvigatel" 2009-2010 Alexander Nikolaevich Medved, Ph.D., "TO THE HISTORY OF THE CREATION OF THE FIRST DOMESTIC NUCLEAR BOMB" (http://engine.aviaport.ru/issues/63/page58.html)
    Great article except for the yellow introductory statement. Many thanks to the author. hi
    1. aiw
      aiw 27 January 2016 13: 57
      -2
      Thank you for what? One section "Nobel laureates" licked "the reports of Soviet nuclear scientists" which is worth ...

      If a respected author limited himself to presenting the facts, it would still be normal. But with such bright estimates - put a minus.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 30 January 2016 02: 30
        -1
        Full of such facts ... Not only among nuclear scientists.
  9. su navy
    su navy 27 January 2016 13: 38
    0
    He started crowing against the authorities already after conscientious work. Apparently, he began to trust his wife, whose origin, I hope, does not need to be reminded.
    1. aiw
      aiw 27 January 2016 13: 43
      +2
      The origin of Zeldovich is also known, but if it weren’t for Zeldovich you wouldn’t have written here now (well, you would have written in German or in English).
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 30 January 2016 02: 32
        -1
        so on Zeldovich or on Kraus Fuchs we sivolapym fapat you already decide ...
  10. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 27 January 2016 15: 54
    +3
    Take a look at Wiki wink :

    "The hunt for data from America's uranium project began at the initiative of the chief
    and the department of scientific and technical intelligence of the NKVD Leonid Kvasnikov back in 1942,
    but fully unfolded only after the arrival of the famous couple in Washington
    Soviet intelligence: Vasily Zarubin and his wife Elizabeth.
    It was with them that the resident of the NKVD in San Francisco, Grigory Kheifits, interacted,
    reporting that America’s most prominent physicist Robert Oppenheimer and many of his colleagues
    left California for an unknown place where they will be engaged in the creation of some kind of superweapon.
    .
    Thus, Soviet agents were introduced into scientific and design centers in America, where nuclear weapons were created ... "
    .
    According to the memoirs of P. Sudoplatov, 12 days after the completion of the assembly of the first atomic bomb in
    USA, a description of its device has already been received in Moscow .///

    And so on ...

    The foreign intelligence of the USSR worked brilliantly in this case, there is nothing to argue
  11. Old26
    Old26 27 January 2016 19: 31
    +3
    Quote: jjj
    Ours made two bombs: ours and according to American developments. They tested and realized that the Americans were following the wrong path. We have nuclear weapons at 100 percent of our development

    Where did you get such nonsense, dear?
    In your opinion, the USSR probably had a lot of resources in order to make two options at once: a worker and a non-worker.
    Were developed TWO Bombs.
    Option C-1 / Product 501 / (known to us as RDS-1) with plutonium charge and implosive circuit
    Option C-2 / Item 601 / (the first with the name RDS-2) with uranium charge and cannon scheme
    Both schemes followed the American schemes. The only difference is that the C-2 had a ballistic body different from the "Kid". At S-1, the corps was the same as the "Fat Man"
    1. jjj
      jjj 27 January 2016 21: 25
      0
      That's what our liberals love to savor about this. Nevertheless, our bombs are not copies of American
      1. aiw
        aiw 27 January 2016 21: 50
        0
        Our first bombs were copies of the US. Although even before the first test a more promising design was proposed, it was decided to start with copying to guarantee success.

        Then the paths parted.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 30 January 2016 02: 25
          0
          Do you know this for sure? The American bombs were copies of the German ones, the one that is generally captured according to the "C-2" scheme ...

          You can’t let everyone know that the Germans had a bomb at the very end of the war, it’s better to "copy it from the Americans." laughing And the Americans agree with this ...
          1. aiw
            aiw 31 January 2016 21: 44
            0
            I know for sure. You write such nonsense that even comment on laziness ...
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 1 February 2016 10: 20
              0
              Like what for example?
              Quote: aiw
              that even comment laziness ...

              you're repeating yourself...
          2. The comment was deleted.
  12. xtur
    xtur 28 January 2016 01: 29
    +2
    There are many surnames in the article, there is even the surname of Landau, but what is characteristic, in the article there is no surname of Alikhanov. He was probably not a Soviet nuclear physicist? Or did Landau not work under his leadership in a nuclear project? Or was Alikhanov not a substitute for Kurchatov, in case the bomb would not explode in 1949?

    Meanwhile, in 1943 he was elected Academician instead of Kurchatov, who had already been appointed to lead the nuclear project. Thus, Soviet physicists clearly expressed their opinion about the scientific balance of these scientists.
    From childhood I heard these stories among Armenian scientists, but I thought that these were just stories, but here are the links:
    http://www.rg.ru/prilog/nauka/02-12-17/7.shtm внимание, там кодировка cyrillic windows

    In connection with the atomic project, as its very distant echo arises, YerPhI in Yerevan is the only accelerator outside of Russia, albeit an electronic one, this can only be considered as compensation to Alikhanov for political reasons he was not allowed to manage the project, which he should was led by right.

    But not the point - the history of a nuclear project is an order of magnitude more complicated than propaganda has been and is giving. To begin with, we must recall that the nuclear project generally began with the collective initiative of leading physicists in the world - with the manifestation of their spiritual and civic position.
    The author clearly did not read / did not read Sudoplatov’s memoirs - which has a whole chapter on the nuclear project, that the position of physicists around the world participating in the nuclear project was that the materials of this project should be accessible to physicists around the world. Oppenheimer himself was not a member of the Communist Party of the United States only because he was hinted from the USSR that he would be more useful to the USSR if he remained outside the Communist Party - if he remembers me he was a former member of the Communist Party, his brother and his wife were active members of the Communist Party.

    That is, with such sentiments among physicists and such a project manager, all important materials of a nuclear project were guaranteed to get into the USSR, it was only a matter of technology. And even under these conditions, once nevertheless they sent a delegation to N. Bor in order that he would clarify one unclear question

    In a word - there was a collective position of the leading physicists of the world, not burning with any desire to become a tool in the hands of the American elite and simple executors of their will. This position becomes clear if we understand the level of education / intellect / spirituality of all these leading physicists of the world - they simply could not afford to give people, inferior to them in intelligence and morality, weapons of incredible destructive power.
    And this position led to the fact that information about the nuclear bomb fell into the hands of Soviet physicists in the required amount. This is a real spiritual achievement of physicists around the world for the benefit of all mankind, and there is no need to underestimate it, there are no circumstances that could justify it.

    And how the USSR disposed of the information in its hands, this is the second question, but it is obvious that it brought its unconditional benefit - Kurchatov initially knew deadlock options and cut them off, saving the country the already fantastic costs for this project. In addition, dropping dead-end directions, in addition to all this, saves time - and as a rule time is a strategic factor.

    I will not cite references to the fact that Alikhanov was an understudy of Kurchatov and Landau worked under the supervision of Alikhanov, although they are at hand - a person who undertook to write on such a topic must know such details and know where the originals of the materials are stored, including the network
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 30 January 2016 02: 35
      0
      Quote: xtur
      initially knew deadlock options and cut them off,

      and what were the dead end options? Kurchatov was not a scientific adviser at all, but an organizer and supplier.
  13. Idiot
    Idiot 1 February 2016 16: 38
    0
    The USA experienced a terrible shortage of weapons-grade uranium in May 1945 (read Leslie Groves, he doesn't just shout about it, he yells) and there were problems with the detonator. They received the detonator from the Germans, together with its creator Schlicke. Both bombs detonated in Japan were German, already tested and reliable. Therefore, no intelligence in the world will ever find the former bosses of the Third Reich. They bought their lives very dearly in 1945, having transferred to the United States all the technologies for the atomic project and all the reserves of enriched uranium that the Reich had. Soviet intelligence had information about both the American bomb and the German one, but by 1945 our scientists also had similar technologies. This information just saved time. The Germans were the first to make the bomb, which is not surprising, since Germany had an advanced scientific school for its time. We just very quickly reached Berlin, and Hitler was merged by his elite, like in his time Hussein, when they faced a choice: either to die with honor along with the Fuhrer, realizing that no atomic bombs can stop the Soviet army of 1945, or find new ones owners, especially since there was never a special difference between them and Hitler. And I.V. Kurchatov was an outstanding scientist and scientific leader, about whom Oppenheimer said that "Your cane is heavier than mine." The organizer and supplier of the USSR Atomic Project was the best manager of all times and peoples L.P. Beria. And I also don’t believe that the Americans landed on the moon ...
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 1 February 2016 16: 52
      0
      Quote: pft, fkb
      And I don’t believe that the Americans landed on the moon ...

      as if one of the other should not ...

      Kurchatov was on his line subordinate to Beria, and he was not the supervisor of studies.
    2. aiw
      aiw 1 February 2016 17: 40
      0
      With the deficit of WEAPON uranium, all the creators of nuclear weapons inevitably faced - producing uranium or plutonium is difficult, it is 50% of the work. The Germans did not make any bombs and never tested them. Well, or bring the place and date of testing, to hide this even at that time was impossible.

      The Americans enriched uranium on their own, using uranium ore (1250 tons) delivered from the Congo to America before 1942, read the same Groves "Now we can talk about it", edition 1963, p. 50.

      The Americans completely coped with the creation of detonators themselves; they have gained great experience in the field of complex electrical systems.

      In general, I would recommend that you wear a foil hat, you never know ... and do not forget to bake all your documents and cards in the microwave.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 1 February 2016 18: 19
        0
        But not germanium, because the technology of centrifugal separation of isotopes is the most productive, in contrast to thermoelectric "non-Aryan" fantasies and the same thermal diffusion expensive and slow washing of the dough. And which from Gabon did not need to carry anything - see SJSC "Vismut".
        Quote: aiw
        The Germans did not make any bombs and never tested them.

        Well, yes - unlike the V-2 and Me-262 in the bunker, it’s not applicable ... but if it was, for example, with a convoy in the Atlantic, then ... with it bully

        One doesn’t interfere ... Read how in May 1945 a German submarine surrendered in New York harbor.

        Correct your - you can see ...
        1. aiw
          aiw 1 February 2016 18: 29
          0
          I read about submarines. Especially delivered infrared detonators.

          In vain you skipped physics at school.
        2. Scraptor
          Scraptor 1 February 2016 18: 37
          0
          Oh, corrected and brought in the emergency. bully And probably before that, into the "half-closed door" before "going out" at the end.
        3. Scraptor
          Scraptor 1 February 2016 18: 48
          0
          And there is...
          Quote: aiw
          I read about submarines. Especially delivered infrared detonators.

          In vain you skipped physics at school.

          what other infrared detonators, why?

          faded in an emergency - do not stink from there ...
    3. The comment was deleted.